##### Redefining units in terms of distributed charge and quantum measurements.

The Aether Physics Model constructs units with quantum measurements instead of arbitrary or macro structure-based measurements such as meters, Earth revolutions, etc. Quantum measurements provide a whole number of units for a quantum process or structure. For example, the primary angular momentum of one electron moving at the speed of photons determines the unit of one quantum photon. Thus, there is a discrete relationship between the activity of electrons and the production of photons.

Constructing units from quantum measurements provides for easy comprehension of quantum processes. Consequently, quantum physics, nanoscience, and chemistry benefit from this new system of units.

## Quantum Units

Essentially, two stable forms of matter exist in our part of the Universe, the electron and the proton. The neutron is a composite subatomic particle produced when a proton binds with an electron. The photon becomes when an atom absorbs excess primary angular momentum radiated from other atoms. (see Photon Mechanics, page 223).

Since almost all controllable physical processes occur through interactions between the electron and photon, the quantum measurements of the electron usually define the quantum units. As noted in Quantum Measurements on page 22, the electron quantum measurements are:

• Quantum Length: $${\lambda _C} = 2.426 \times {10^{ - 12}}m$$
• Quantum Frequency: $${F_q} = 1.236 \times {10^{20}}Hz$$
• Quantum Mass: $${m_e} = 9.109 \times {10^{ - 31}}kg$$
• Quantum Magnetic Charge: $${e_{emax}}^2 = 1.400 \times {10^{ - 37}}cou{l^2}$$
• Quantum Electrostatic Charge: $${e^2} = 2.567 \times {10^{ - 38}}cou{l^2}$$

The quantum length is equal to the Compton wavelength, the quantum frequency is equal to the speed of photons divided by the Compton wavelength, the quantum mass is the mass of the electron as measured by NIST, the quantum magnetic charge is the calculated magnetic charge. The electrostatic charge is the elementary charge (as measured by NIST) squared.

### Converting Charge Dimensions

Two important differences exist between quantum measurement units and standard units concerning the charge dimensions. Charge dimensions always distribute (charge squared), and almost all charge dimensions express in terms of magnetic charge, as opposed to elementary charge.

Concerning distributed charge, the situation is somewhat complicated by the fact that five standard electrical units are already in the correct dimensions of distributed charge. These units are permeability, permittivity, inductance, capacitance, and conductance.

Inductance is equal to the permeability of the Aether divided by length, and similarly, capacitance is equal to the permittivity of the Aether divided by length. (In the cgs system of units, length units [cm] express inductance and capacitance).

So the units of inductance and capacitance already express in terms of distributed charge as follows:

$$capc = 2.148 \times {10^{-23}}\frac{{se{c^2}cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}$$

$$indc = 3.049 \times {10^{-18}}\frac{kg\cdot m^{2}}{coul^{2}}$$

All other electrically related units from Classical physics incorrectly express single-dimension charge. Further, the Standard Model usually describes the electrical units regarding the elementary charge. Since the Aether donates electrostatic charge to subatomic particles, the elementary charge has nothing to do with the action of subatomic particles in nearly all cases (magnetic moment is an exception). In almost all cases, the subatomic particle's magnetic charge is the unit's active charge.

The magnetic charge is dipolar and behaves, in fact, like a tiny magnet. The strong nuclear force, permanent magnetism, electromagnetism, the Casimir effect, and Van der Waals forces… each is the action of the magnetic charge in a different situation.

In the case of resistance, where the standard unit in Classical physics appears to have a distributed charge, there is a double distributed charge in the quantum measurements system of units because resistance is a measurement of the action of two opposing subatomic particles colliding. Therefore, the magnetic charge is that of both subatomic particles experiencing resistance.

The table below shows some units from Classical physics and the equivalent in the quantum measurement units.

 Aether Physics Model Classical Physics Resistance $$resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$R = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}$$ Potential $$potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$V = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot coul}}$$ Current $$curr = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$I = \frac{{coul}}{{sec}}$$ Magnetic Flux $$mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$\lambda = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot coul}}$$ Conductance $$cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$G = \frac{{sec \cdot coul}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}$$

The usual rule for converting to quantum units from MKS units is to replace each dimension with its quantum measurement counterpart. When it comes to the charge dimension, replace every single dimension of charge with $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$. With the inductance, capacitance, conductance, permeability, and permittivity units, the exponent of the charge dimensions remains unchanged. The other exception is with magnetic moment; the charge involves both $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$ and $${e^2}$$.

### Charge Conversion Factor

The single charge dimension units of the MKS and SI units convert to the distributed charge QMU units by the charge conversion factor. The NIST electrostatic charge-to-mass ratio and the Aether Physics Model mass-to-charge ratio calculate the charge conversion factor. When QMU is based on the mass of the electron, the charge conversion factor is $$ccf_{e}$$:

$$ccf_{e}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{e}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}}$$

$$ccf_{e}=8.736\times 10^{-19}coul$$

For units where the charge dimension is in the denominator, the unit is divided by ccf:

$$\frac{volt}{ccf_{e}}=1.957\times 10^{-6}potn$$

For units where the charge dimension is in the numerator, the unit is multiplied by ccf:

$$amp\cdot ccf_{e}=0.051curr$$

For example:

$$1.957\times 10^{6}potn\cdot 0.051curr=1.01watt$$

or:

$$1.957\times 10^{6}potn\cdot 0.051curr=9.981\times 10^{-8}powr$$

The charge conversion factor tells us that MKS and SI electrical units are based on the electrostatic charge. As will be seen, the electrical physics of the physical world operates primarily based on the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle and not the electrostatic charge. This alone nullifies much of what is taught in college courses concerning electric field theory. This knowledge has further ramifications concerning the Maxwell equations.

The charge conversion factor for the proton and neutron are, respectively:

$$ccf_{p}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{p}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}}$$

$$ccf_{p}=1.604\times 10^{-15}coul$$

$$ccf_{n}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{n}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}}$$

$$ccf_{n}=1.606\times 10^{-15}coul$$

## Changes Caused by Distributed Charge Units

### Capacitance and Potential

Some equations and laws need adjustment due to the new Aether Physics Model system of quantum measurement units based on distributed charge. For example, in the Standard Model, capacitance defines as charge divided by potential.

$$\label{chrg1}C = \frac{Q}{V}$$

However, in the Aether Physics Model, all charge distributes. Capacitance already has distributed units of charge in its dimensions, but charge and potential do not. The effect is that Q disappears when potential expresses in terms of distributed charge. Therefore, it would be a prediction of the Aether Physics Model that capacitance equals the reciprocal of potential.

The Aether Physics Model dictates that charge equals capacitance times energy for capacitance to be related to the charge.

$$\label{chrg2}chrg = capc\cdot enrg$$

The charge specified in equation (\ref{chrg1}) is an elementary charge according to the MKS and SI systems of units. The charge specified in equation (\ref{chrg2}) is not an elementary charge but a magnetic charge.

### B and H Fields

Another important change regards the fundamental electromagnetic theories. In modern electromagnetic theory, the $$B$$ field is magnetic flux density, and the $$H$$ field is magnetic field intensity. We learn from Clerk Maxwell that absolute permeability is equal to the ratio of $$B/H$$[1] as:

$$\label{MaxwellBH}{\mu _0} = \frac{B}{H}$$

But since the units of both magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity should have distributed charge instead of single dimension charge:

$$mfxd = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

$$mfdi = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$

The quantum measurement expression for $$\mu_{0}$$ in equation (\ref{MaxwellBH}) should yield:

$$4\pi \cdot {\mu _0} = \frac{{mfxd \cdot chrg}}{{mfdi}}$$

which suggests that the actual ratio of magnetic flux density to magnetic field intensity does not equal permeability.

In the Aether Physics Model

$$mfxd = \frac{A_{u}}{flow}$$

where flowing magnetic flux density is a description of the Aether, and:

$$mfdi = \frac{powr}{A_{u}}$$

where magnetic field intensity applied to the Aether results in power.

### Magnetic Fields in Terms of Energy

Further, electromagnetic theory sees magnetic fields in terms of energy.

The total energy in any finite region of a magnetic field where the permeability is constant is the integral of the energy density over the volume or: $$W = \frac{1}{2}\int\limits_V {\mu {H^2}} dv$$[2]

The fact that the basic relation underlying modern electromagnetic theory does not fit into the Aether Physics Model does not negate over 100 years of electromagnetic theory. However, if the Aether Physics Model is correct, all electrodynamic theory needs reworking.

Instead of seeing magnetic fields in terms of energy, the Aether Physics Model sees them in terms of rotating magnetic fields. The Aether unit is itself the magnetic field. Energy relates to the Aether units according to the charge radius involved:

$$enrg = \frac{A_{u}}{chgr}$$

## New Units

After clarifying the definitions of dimension, measurement, and unit, it becomes possible to develop a system of quantum measurements, which allows for further development of quantum measurement analysis.

Ideally, quantum measurement analysis would mirror the physical processes of the observed physical world. We could find a quantum measurement representation for every physical phenomenon if this were true. Conversely, we should be able to find a physical process that matches any combination of quantum measurements.

In this section, we identify various new units. The discovery of some units, like eddy current, occurred early in modern physics history and was either overlooked or discarded. Other units, such as the photon, have appeared unnoticed in modern physics equations.

Below we begin developing the new units utilized in the Aether Physics Model. In most cases, the units could apply immediately to our understanding of physics. We must review our measuring techniques in other cases, such as understanding resonance.

The Opposing Magnetic Units reveal a new concept in electrical dynamics. When two electrons oppose each other, the kinetic mass of the units applies across two opposing charges. Since the charge is distributed in QMU, the charge dimension appears in opposing magnetic units as $${e_{emax}}^{4}$$. The unit of resistance falls into the opposing magnetic charge unit group:

$$resn=\frac{m_{e}\cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{2}\cdot F_{q}}{{e_{emax}}^{2}}$$

## Units Grid

Sometimes the lack of something speaks volumes. In all of modern physics, nobody has systematized all the known units. This is understandable since modern physics has the wrong dimensions for a charge, which makes it difficult to find meaningful patterns in the unit structure.

The following tables show several groups of units in both their obverse and inverse expressions. All of the known units are included. Many of the units presented remain absent in modern physics. Even with the addition of many new units, it is apparent that we have not even come close to identifying all the different manifestations of non-material existence. The unit of eddy current does not fit into the table structure. Also, at least two electromagnetic tables are not yet included since they have no entries.

Some units have multiple expressions, but only one is given. We merely present the topic's beginning in this chapter and the tables below.

### Supportive Magnetic Field Units

#### Obverse Units

1. Rotating Magnetic Field
2. Aether Unit
3. Electron Flux
Magnetic Field Magnetic Volume
$${A_u} = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
(also rmfd)
$$mfld = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$mvlm = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
1.Electric Potential
2. Electromotive Force
Magnetic Flux Inductance
$$potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$indc = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
Electric Field Strength 1. Magnetic Rigidity
2. Magnetic Velocity
Permeability
$$elfs = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$magr = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$perm = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
1. Diverging Electric Field
2. Surface Tension Charge
3. Magnetic Resonance
Magnetic Flux Density 1. Magnetism
2. Mass to Charge Ratio
$$dvef = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
(also stnc or spcd)
$$mfxd = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$mchg = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

#### Inverse Units

IMFU1 IMFU2 Permittivity
$$IMFU1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$IMFU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$ptty = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$
IMFU4 Conductance Capacitance
$$IMFU4 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$
(also Cd)
$$capc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$
Curl Conductance Velocity IMFU9
$$curl = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$ $$cvlc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IMFU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$
Exposure Conductance Density IMFU12
$$expr = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$cden = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IMFU12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$

### Opposing Magnetic Units

#### Obverse Units

Friction Drag Vorticular Opposition
$$fric = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$drag = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$vopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$
Rub Resistance Angular Opposition
$$rub = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$aopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$
Plow Skid Linear Opposition
$$plow = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$skid = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$lopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$
Hold Stop Magnetic Opposition
$$hold = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$stop = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$mopp = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$

#### Inverse Units

IOMU1 IOMU2 IOMU3
$$IOMU1 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IOMU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IOMU3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$
IOMU4 Admittance Magnetic Reluctance
$$IOMU4 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$admt = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$mrlc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IOMU7 IOMU8 IOMU9
$$IOMU7 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IOMU8 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IOMU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$
IOMU10 IOMU11 IOMU12
$$IOMU10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IOMU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IOMU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e}}}$$

### Electric Units A

#### Obverse Units

OEUA1 OEUA2 OEUA3 OEUA4
$$OEUA1 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUA2 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUA3 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$OEUA4 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$
OEUA5 OEUA6 OEUA7 OEUA8
$$OEUA5 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUA6 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUA7 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$OEUA8 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$
OEUA9 OEUA10 OEUA11 OEUA12
$$OEUA9 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUA10 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUA11 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$OEUA12 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$
OEUA13 OEUA14 OEUA15 OEUA16
$$OEUA13 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUA14 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUA15 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$OEUA16 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

#### Inverse Units

IEUA1 IEUA2 IEUA3 Charge Volume
$$IEUA1 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$IEUA2 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$IEUA3 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$chvm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3$$
Ball Lightning Plasma  Magnetic Moment Surface Charge
$$ball = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$plsm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$magm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$sfch = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2$$
IEUA9 Charge Acceleration Charge Velocity  Charge Length
(Charge Displacement)
$$IEUA9 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$chac = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$chvl = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}$$  $$chgl = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}$$
IEUA13 Charge Resonance
(Electric Coupling)
Current Charge
$$IEUA13 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$chrs = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$
(also ecup)
$$curr = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$chrg = {e_{emax}}^2$$

### Electric Units B

#### Obverse Units

OEUB1 OEUB2 OEUB3 Specific Charge
$$OEUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUB2 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUB3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$spch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEUB5 OEUB6 OEUB7 Charge Distribution
$$OEUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUB6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$chds = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEUB9 OEUB10 OEUB11 Charge Radius
$$OEUB9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OEUB10 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OEUB11 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$chgr = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

#### Inverse Units

IEUB1 IEUB2 IEUB3 Charge Density
$$IEUB1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$IEUB2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$IEUB3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$chgd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$
IEUB5 IEUB6 Current Density Electric Flux Density
$$IEUB5 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$IEUB6 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$cdns = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$efxd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IEUB9 IEUB10 Magnetic Field Intensity IEUB12
$$IEUB9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$IEUB10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$mfdi = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$IEUB12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$

### Electric Field Units

#### Obverse Units

OEFU1 Varying Electric Field Electric Field Specific Charge
$$OEFU1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$vefd = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$efld = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$spch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEFU5 Charge Temperature Charge Sweep OEFU8
$$OEFU5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$chgt = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$chgs = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$OEFU8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEFU9 Charge Acceleration Charge Velocity Charge Radius
$$OEFU9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$chga = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$chgv = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$chgr = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEFU13 Charge Resonance 1. Magnetic Current
2. Charge Frequency
Charge
$$OEFU13 = \frac{{{F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$crsn = \frac{{{F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

$$mcur = \frac{{{F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

(also chgf)

$$chrg = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

#### Inverse Units

IEFU1 IEFU2 IEFU3 Charge Density
$$IEFU1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IEFU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$chgd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$
IEFU5 IEFU6 IEFU7 Electric Flux Density
$$IEFU5 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IEFU6 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU7 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$efxd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IEFU9 IEFU10 IEFU11 IEFU12
$$IEFU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IEFU10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IEFU12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$
IEFU13 IEFU14 IEFU15 Charge
$$IEFU13 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}^3}}$$ $$IEFU14 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU15 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}}}$$  $$chrg = {e_{emax}}^2$$

### Inertial Units A

#### Obverse Units

Light Photon Rotation Vortex
$$ligt = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$phtn = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$rota = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$vrtx = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3$$
Power Energy Angular Momentum Moment of Inertia
$$powr = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$enrg = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$angm = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$
(also h)
$$minr = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2$$
1. Shock Frequency
2. Light Intensity
Force Momentum Torque
$$lint = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$forc = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$momt = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}$$ $$torq = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}$$
Irradiance Surface Tension Intensity Mass
$$irrd = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3$$ $$sten = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$ints = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}$$ $$mass = {m_e}$$

#### Inverse Units

IIUA1 IIUA2 IIUA3 IIUA4
$$IIUA1 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA2 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA3 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUA4 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$
IIUA5 IIUA6 IIUA7 IIUA8
$$IIUA5 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA6 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA7 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUA8 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IIUA9 IIUA10 IIUA11 IIUA12
$$IIUA9 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA10 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA11 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUA12 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$
IIUA13 IIUA14 IIUA15 IIUA16
$$IIUA13 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA14 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA15 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IIUA16 = \frac{1}{{{m_e}}}$$

### Inertial Units B

#### Obverse Units

OIUB1 OIUB2 OIUB3 Mass Density
$$OIUB1 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$OIUB2 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$OIUB3 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$masd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$
OIUB5 Force Density Angular Momentum Density Surface Density
$$OIUB5 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$fdns = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$amdn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$sfcd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$
OIUB9 Pressure Viscosity 1. Rebound
2. Length Density
$$OIUB9 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$pres = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$visc = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$ldns = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$
(also rbnd)

#### Inverse Units

IIUB1 IIUB2 IIUB3 Specific Volume
$$IIUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUB2 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUB3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$spcv = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUB5 IIUB6 IIUB7 IIUB8
$$IIUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUB6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUB8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUB9 IIUB10 IIUB11 IIUB12
$$IIUB9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUB10 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUB11 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUB12 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e}}}$$

### Inertial Units C

#### Obverse Units

OIUC1 OIUC2 OIUC3
$$OIUC1 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OIUC2 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OIUC3 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$
OIUC4 OIUC5 OIUC6
$$OIUC4 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OIUC5 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OIUC6 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$
OIUC7 OIUC8 OIUC9
$$OIUC7 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OIUC8 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OIUC9 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$

#### Inverse Units

IIUC1 Gravity IIUC3
$$IIUC1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$grav = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUC4 IIUC5 IIUC6
$$IIUC4 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUC7 IIUC8 IIUC9
$$IIUC7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}$$

### Length/Frequency Units A

#### Obverse Units

1. Double Toroid
2. Volume-Resonance

Flow Volume
$$dtrd = {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$flow = {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$volm = {\lambda _C}^3$$
1. Radiation Dose
1. Temperature
1. Sweep
2. Angular Velocity
Area
$$temp = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$
(also rdtn)
$$swep = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$area = {\lambda _C}^2$$
Acceleration Velocity Length
$$accl = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$velc = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}$$ $$leng = {\lambda _C}$$
Resonance Frequency
$$rson = {F_q}^{2}$$ $$freq = {F_q}$$

#### Inverse Units

ILFUA1 ILFUA2 ILFUA3
$$ILFUA1 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{3} \cdot {F_q}^{2}}$$ $$ILFUA2 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{3} \cdot {F_q}}$$ $$ILFUA3 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}$$
ILFUA4 ILFUA5 ILFUA6
$$ILFUA4 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{2} \cdot {F_q}^{2}}$$ $$ILFUA5 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{2} \cdot {F_q}}$$ $$ILFUA6 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}$$
ILFUA7 ILFUA8 Wave Number
$$ILFUA7 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^{2}}$$ $$ILFUA8 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}$$ $$wavn = \frac{1}{\lambda _C}$$
Orbit Time
$$orbt = \frac{1}{{F_q}^{2}}$$ $$time = \frac{1}{F_q}$$

### Length/Frequency Units B

#### Obverse Units

OLFUB1 OLFUB2 Volume-Time
$$OLFUB1 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{3}}{{F_q}^{3}}$$ $$OLFUB1 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{3}}{{F_q}^{2}}$$ $$vlmt = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{3}}{F_q}$$
OLFUB4 OLFUB5 Active Area
$$OLFUB4 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{2}}{{F_q}^{3}}$$ $$OLFUB5 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{2}}{{F_q}^{2}}$$ $$acta = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{2}}{F_q}$$
OLFUB7 OLFUB8 Dynamic Length
$$OLFUB7 = \frac{{\lambda _C}}{{F_q}{^3}}$$ $$OLFUB8 = \frac{{\lambda _C}}{{F_q}^{2}}$$ $$dynl = \frac{{\lambda _C}}{F_q}$$

#### Inverse Units

ILFUB1 ILFUB2 ILFUB3
$$ILFUB1 = \frac{{F_q}^{3}}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}$$ $$ILFUB2 = \frac{{F_q}^{2}}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}$$ $$ILFUB3 = \frac{F_q}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}$$
ILFUB4 ILFUB5 ILFUB6
$$ILFUB4 = \frac{{F_q}^{3}}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}$$ $$ILFUB5 = \frac{{F_q}^{2}}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}$$ $$ILFUB6 = \frac{{F_q}}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}$$
ILFUB7 ILFUB8 Scalar Wave
$$ILFUB7 = \frac{{F_q}^{3}}{{\lambda _C}}$$ $$ILFUB8 = \frac{{F_q}^{2}}{{\lambda _C}}$$ $$sclw = \frac{F_q}{\lambda _C}$$

Many of the above units are experimental and are being further investigated. All of the units with unidentified acronyms are yet to be named. Any researcher can submit new units for inclusion, and if the unit is verified, a footnote will credit their contribution.

Ultimately, a book needs to be written detailing every unit, which can be a reference for students and researchers.

As of Jan 2022, a software developer is preparing to produce a math program to calculate natively in Quantum Measurements Units.

## Eddy Current

Eddy current is a specially constructed unit equal to magnetic flux squared [6]. Details for eddy current are available in Chapter 12.

## Supportive Magnetic Field Units

### Rotating Magnetic Field

The rotating magnetic field is discussed on the Aether page.

### Magnetic Field

A moving charge gives rise to a magnetic field, and if the motion is changing (accelerated), then the magnetic field varies and in turn produces an electric field. These interacting electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to one another and also to the direction of propagation of the energy.[7]

In the Aether Physics Model, a magnetic field is literally the flow of magnetism:

$$mfld = flow \cdot mchg$$

where $$mchg$$ is magnetism expressed as the universal mass-to-charge ratio.

Magnetic charge produces the magnetic field as it drags through the Aether. The unit of $$drag$$ is equal to resistance times length:

$$drag = resn \cdot leng$$

The magnetic field is then equal to charge times drag:

$$mfld = chrg \cdot drag$$

The Maxwellian "magnetic fields" (magnetic flux density, magnetic field intensity, magnetic flux, etc.) are not truly the magnetic field but are rather various aspects of the magnetic field. The magnetic field is the whole volumetric flow of magnetism in Aether, where the "flow" manifests in different modes (area times velocity, volume times frequency, length times angular momentum).

### Magnetic Volume

Magnetic volume equals volume times magnetism (mass-to-charge ratio).

$$mvlm = volm \cdot mchg$$

### Magnetic Potential

Physicists have, until the Aether Physics Model, not quantified electricity properly.The dimension of magnetic charge has gone unnoticed for three hundred years.The unit of "potential" is the result of the action of the magnetic charge of the electron and not of its electrostatic charge. In Ohm's law, what everyone had thought was potential caused by electrostatic charge is actually potential caused by magnetic charge. In the Aether Physics Model, it is so stated that its meaning is made clear.

Magnetic potential can be thought of as energy per magnetic charge:

$$potn=\frac{enrg}{chrg}$$

temperature times magnetism:

$$potn = temp \cdot mchg$$

current times resistance:

$$potn = curr \cdot resn$$

inductance times resonance:

$$potn = indc \cdot rson$$

magnetic flux times frequency:

$$potn = mflx \cdot freq$$

permeability times acceleration:

$$potn = perm \cdot accl$$

and in the Aether Physics Model, magnetic potential is reciprocal to capacitance:

$$potn = \frac{1}{capc}$$

To know the capacitance of something, measure its potential and take the reciprocal measurement. If you use a standard voltmeter designed around electrostatic charge (as all voltmeters today are), then multiply the volt reading by ccf before using the reciprocal reading as farads:

$$capc = \frac{1}{volt \cdot ccf}$$

### Magnetic Flux

Magnetic flux is equal to sweep times magnetism.

$$mflx = swe[ \cdot mchg$$

### Inductance

Inductance is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that are already expressed in dimensions of distributed charge. Measurements in inductance from the MKS and SI systems of units stay the same in the Quantum Measurements Units.

$$indc = 3.831\times 10^{-17}henry$$

Inductance is equal to area times magnetism:

$$indc = area \cdot mchg$$

To calculate the curl of a solenoid coil knowing the coil's inductance and winding length, we would use the equation:

$$\frac{leng}{indc} = \frac{curl}{2}$$

where the result is given in radians. The reciprocal of the curl gives the number of turns of the coil in units of permeability ($$perm$$):

$$\frac{indc}{leng} = 2 \cdot perm$$

or we could write:

$$indc = 2 perm \cdot leng$$

For example, for the coil where:

• Inductance equals $$15.80 mH$$, which equals $$4.124\times 10^{14}indc$$
• Length equals $$34.20 cm$$, which equals $$1.410\times 10^{11}leng$$

$$\frac{4.124\times 10^{14} indc}{1.410\times 10^{11} leng} = 1463 \cdot 2 perm$$

or 1463 turns. The wire length required for the coil computes as the length of the coil times the circumference of the coil form divided by the wire gauge:

$$\frac{length\cdot diameter\cdot \pi}{gauge}=wirelength$$

The inductance depends on the number of turns and the length of the coil windings. The choice of coil form diameter is arbitrary except that the larger the diameter and the smaller the wire gauge, the more wire length will be required; hence the more resistance there will be in the conductor.

The cause of the $$2 perm$$ and $$\frac{curl}{2}$$ terms is due to the effect of the Aether interacting with physical matter of which neutrons compose half. Neutrons are electrons folded over on top of protons, which pinch two Aether units into the space of one neutron. This principle underlies the diffraction of light around massive bodies and the precession of the perigee of orbits around massive bodies (General Relativity theory).

### Electric Field Strength

In the Aether Physics Model, the reciprocal of the electric field strength is equal to capacitance times length:

$$\frac{{capc \cdot leng}}{{4\pi }} = \frac{1}{{elfs}}$$

Thus, the electric field strength of a capacitor is reciprocal to the capacity of the plates and the thickness of the dielectric.

The electric field traditionally explains as force per charge:

$$elfs = \frac{{forc}}{{chrg}}$$

Electric field strength relates to the electric field when the electric field has momentum per volume of effectiveness.

$$elfs = \frac{{efld \cdot momt}}{{volm}}$$

In Maxwell’s electrodynamics, the electric field strength is more important than the electric field itself. The electric field strength works orthogonally to the magnetic field to produce transverse electromagnetic waves.

When the electric field strength is applied to other electric fields, we get an insulation unit, which is equal to resistance times temperature:

$$efld \cdot elfs = resn \cdot temp$$

Electric field strength is also known as electromotive force in the Standard Model.

### Magnetic Rigidity

Magnetic rigidity can also be thought of as magnetic velocity:

$$magr = velc \cdot mchg$$

### Permeability

See Permeability Constant

Permeability is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already express in dimensions of distributed charge.

### Diverging Electric Field

The diverging electric field has a unit of its own, and it is equal to the electric field strength per length:

$$dvef = \frac{{elfs}}{{leng}}$$

Diverging electric field is also equal to electromagnetism (mass to magnetic charge ratio) times resonance:

$$dvef = mchg \cdot rson$$

### Magnetic Flux Density

Magnetic flux density is the amount of magnetic flux through a unit area taken perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic flux.

Undefined unit.

Undefined unit.

### Permittivity

See Permittivity Constant

Permittivity is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already expresses the charge dimensions as distributed charge.

### Conductance

See Conductance Constant

Conductance is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already expresses the charge dimensions as distributed charge.

### Capacitance

Capacitance is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already expresses the charge dimensions as distributed charge.

### Curl

The curl unit is an important unit of physics that has always been present but was not seen for what it is. Some physics equations and formulas can produce seemingly dimensionless radians because radians are the curl unit.

$$curl =\frac{{{e_{emax}}^{2}}}{{m_{e}\cdot\lambda_{C}}}$$

$$curl =6.333\times 10^{4}\frac{coul^{2}}{kg\cdot m}$$

The unit of curl is prominent in the Aether Physics Model expression of the circular deflection angle equation of General Relativity theory:

$$\frac{G\cdot 2m_{sun}}{c^{2}\cdot r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2} \frac{{A_{u}}}{{c^{2}}}$$

Curl is a unit with reciprocal length, a cyclical length known as wave number. The reciprocal mass and charge of the curl unit means that curl is a unit of space (Aether) rather than a unit of matter.

The curved length of Aether curl is the arc length of a circle. The radian is, therefore, not a dimensionless number, although it is often presented as a dimensionless number. As can be seen in the General Relativity equation for the circular deflection angle of photons passing near the Sun, the radian result of the physical matter is the curl of the Aether.

The curl of the Aether is more important to physics than mainstream physicists have been aware of. Below is a table of some relationships involving Aether curl with other units:

 $$A_{u}\cdot curl=c^{2}$$ $$mfld\cdot curl=swep$$ $$mvlm\cdot curl=area$$ $$potn\cdot curl=accl$$ $$mflx\cdot curl=velc$$ $$indc\cdot curl=leng$$ $$elfs\cdot curl=rson$$ $$emgm\cdot curl=freq$$ $$perm\cdot curl=1$$ $$ints\cdot curl=mfdi$$ $$forc\cdot curl=chrs$$ $$momt\cdot curl=curr$$

From the above equations, we can understand and engineer physical phenomena that have occurred in the experiments of home experimenters over the centuries. For example, potential times curl causes acceleration. This effect was manifested by John Hutchison when he was experimenting with a Tesla coil and a microwave generator, and it caused a non-metallic bowling ball to levitate across the room.

The equation of forc times curl equals charge resonance suggests that when the curl of space is resonated at its natural frequency, a force will manifest. This could be the physics behind the anomalous force field that manifests when a large plastic sheet is rolled through a location during high humidity.

The "momentum times curl equals current" equation interests free energy researchers. This equation basically states that by imparting momentum to Aether curl an electric current can be generated. This equation would be part of quantifying Tom Bearden's experiments for tapping energy from the vacuum.

The equation that permeability times curl equals one tells us that curl is the reciprocal of permeability. By controlling the permeability of space, we would be controlling its curl, or by controlling the curl of space, we could control its permeability.

When calculating the inductance of a coil, the inductance is equal to the length of the wire times its curl:

$$\label{indc_wire}indc=\frac{leng}{curl}$$

where again, the numerical portion of the curl unit expresses in radians.

## Opposing Magnetic Field Units

### Friction

Friction is a unit, which is equal to resistance times velocity.

$$fric = resn \cdot velc$$

Friction times charge is equal to a rotating magnetic field.

$$fric \cdot chrg = rmfd$$

Understanding the friction unit helps in understanding the nature of resistance. Take two objects, such as your hands, and press them together as though you were going to rub them. Resistance occurs if the two objects have lateral pressure but do not move. When the objects actually move against each other, friction is in effect. Friction is resistance in motion.

In the discussion above concerning eddy current, eddy current is also equal to the friction applied to the ligamen circulatus of the subatomic particle.

### Drag

The unit of drag is equal to the resistance times length.

$$drag = resn \cdot leng$$

When visualizing the unit of drag we would think of friction, except that instead of focusing on the moving resistance, we focus on the contact surface itself. When charge drags against the Aether, it produces a magnetic field:

$$drag \cdot chrg = mfld$$

When angular momentum drags, it produces eddy current through a length:

$$h \cdot drag = eddy \cdot leng$$

### Vorticular Opposition

Vorticular opposition is not a unit discussed in Standard Model physics, but it is important in electrodynamics. Vorticular opposition describes a static condition of electrons in a conductor that transfers current to the magnetic field. The more current applied to a conductor, the greater the magnetic field it produces.

$$mfld=curr\cdot vopp$$

Eddy current is similarly related to vorticular opposition and produces a force:

$$eddy=forc\cdot vopp$$

### Resistance

Electric resistance is equal to potential per current, as described by Ohm's law:

$$resn=\frac{potn}{curr}$$.

However, magnetic resistance is also equal to magnetic current times inductance:

$$resn=mcur\cdot indc$$

The impedance of a circuit should be equal to the total electric resistance of the electric current plus the total magnetic resistance of the magnetic current:

$$Z=(\frac{potn}{curr})+(mcur\cdot indc)$$.

This theory of impedance is yet to be tested.

### Magnetic Reluctance

Magnetic reluctance is the opposition offered by the magnetic circuit to the magnetic flux. In the MKS and SI systems of units, reluctance is equal to:

$$S = \frac{amp\times turns}{weber}$$

The same relation is true in QMU:

$$mrlc = \frac{curr}{mflx}$$

## Electric Units A

### Ball Lightning

Ball lightning is a unit of physics and not just a physical phenomenon. It is equal to:

$$ball=ligt\cdot curl$$

To produce ball lightning with potential and resonance requires an understanding of the physics principle of the "stop" unit:

$$\frac{potn\cdot rson}{stop}=ball$$

### Plasma

Plasma is a unit equal to photon times curl:

$$plsm=phtn\cdot curl$$

### Magnetic Moment

A magnetic moment measures the influence of the Aether’s electrostatic charge against the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle.

The magnetic moment of the electron, as defined by NIST in 2004, is:

$${\mu _e} = - 928.476362 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}}$$

The NIST value for the magnetic moment of the electron in 2022 is:

$${\mu _e} = - 9.284764703(28) \times {10^{ - 24}}J{T^{ - 1}}$$

Despite the standard uncertainty, the 2022 version of the electron magnetic moment of the 2004 version is outside of the range of certainty. This demonstrates that there can be more leeway in the NIST values than what is claimed. The following analysis continues to use the 2004 values, as three significant places in the decimal point are sufficient for this purpose.

The NIST value of electron magnetic moment expresses in terms of quantum measurements as:

$${\mu _e} = {g_e}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}$$

where $${g_e}$$ the is the electron g-factor as measured in the Lamb Shift. In the electron unit of magnetic moment, the magnetic charge cancels out since the electrons are acting on electrons. Nevertheless, the magnetic charge terms are in the equation to show that electrons act against other subatomic particles in the following NIST-measured magnetic moment values.

The g-factor is an essential value related to the magnetic moment of the subatomic particle, as it corrects for the precession of the subatomic particle.

The NIST value for the proton magnetic moment in 2004 is:

$${\mu _e} = 1.410606633 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}}$$

The NIST value of proton magnetic moment expresses in terms of quantum measurements as:

$${\mu _p} = {g_p}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}}$$

where the proton g-factor is 5.58569, as listed on NIST. $${{e_{pmax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the proton, $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the electron, and $$e$$ is the elementary charge in single dimension charge.

The NIST value for the neutron magnetic moment in 2004 notates as follows:

$${\mu _n} = - 0.96623640 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}}$$

and can be expressed as:

$${\mu _n} = {g_{n - nist}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}}$$

where $${g_{n - nist}}$$, the g-factor of the neutron, is -3.82608545 as defined by NIST, $${{e_{pmax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the proton, $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the electron, and $$e$$ is the elementary charge. Notice that the equation balances by use of the magnetic charge of the proton instead of the neutron. This is highly unlikely.

I am confident that the data used by NIST to produce these magnetic moment constants must be correct, as the equations above can be expressed in terms of quantum units (and g-factors). However, it appears that the data for the neutron was misread, or the value for the neutron g-factor was miscalculated. That the neutron magnetic moment depends on the proton magnetic charge, and hence on the proton mass, seems impossible.

The above analysis also shows that all charges should be distributed, including the elementary charge. Based on the observation that all charges must distribute for the force laws to work, and for consistency with the Aether Physics Model, we transpose the magnetic moment electrostatic charge dimensions utilizing the charge conversion factors for each subatomic particle. The electron magnetic moment in the APM system is:

$$\mu_{e}\cdot ccf_{e} = {g_{e}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}\alpha\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}$$

The proton magnetic moment in the APM system is:

$$\mu_{p}\cdot ccf_{p} = {g_{p}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}p\cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}}$$

>And based on the NIST values for the neutron magnetic moment in the Standard Model, the neutron magnetic moment would be:

$$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = {g_{n-NIST}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}n\cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}}$$

However, it is highly unlikely that nature has given the neutron a magnetic moment due to the proton's magnetic charge. So assuming the accuracy of the magnetic moment, correcting the quantum measurements changes the g-factor for the neutron:

$$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = {g_{n}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}n\cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}$$

The g-factor for the neutron must be -3.831359 if the neutron magnetic moment measurement is accurate.

From the expressions of magnetic moment in the Aether Physics Model, it appears that magnetic moment physically manifests by the interaction of the electrostatic and magnetic charges within each subatomic particle. It is further apparent that the electron plays a key role in causing magnetic moment for each subatomic particle, or at least in measuring subatomic particle magnetic moment.

The above analysis has been updated from the Third Edition of this book. It was found that after correcting for distributed electrostatic charge and applying the charge conversion factor to the NIST magnetic moment, the magnetic moment of the electrostatic charge with the magnetic charge involves the geometries of both the measuring electron and also the measured subatomic particle as indicated by the $$64\pi^{2}$$ term just before the measured subatomic particle's fine structure constant.

#### Comparing Magnetic Moments

Simplifying the above magnetic moment conversion equations in terms of the magnetic moment unit ($$magm$$) of Quantum Measurement Units, we get:

$$\mu_{e}\cdot ccf_{e} = \frac{g_{e}\cdot magm}{8\pi}$$

$$\mu_{p}\cdot ccf_{p} = \frac{g_{p}\cdot magm}{8\pi}$$

$$\label{NeutronMM}\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = 1.001\times \frac{g_{n}\cdot magm}{8\pi}$$

Since the electron and proton magnetic moments can be calculated exactly by applying quantum measurements, and since the APM neutron magnetic moment is calculated using quantum measurements, it is likely that the above neutron magnetic moment error lies with the NIST value.

Again, we see in the neutron magnetic moment equation (\ref{NeutronMM}) that the neutron magnetic moment is based upon the mass of the proton and not the mass of the neutron as seen by using the proton charge conversion factor:

$$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{p} = \frac{g_{n}\cdot magm}{8\pi}$$

Based on the minor adjustments noted above, the actual value of neutron magnetic moment as calculated in the Standard model would be:

$${\mu _n} = - 3.831359{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}$$

$${\mu _n} = - 0.96623640 \times {10^{ - 26}}\frac{{{m^2} \cdot coul}}{{sec}}$$

But whether this value of the magnetic moment is useful or not would depend on how the equations used by NIST evolved. If other adjustments compel compensation for the errors in the NIST constant, then the NIST formula must also re-adjust.

Notice that each quantum measurement expression of the magnetic moment includes the weak interaction constant of $$8\pi$$. In addition, each magnetic moment unit resolves to a relationship between electrostatic and magnetic charges. This indicates that the unit of magnetic moment directly relates to the dynamics of the weak nuclear interaction.

## Electric Units B

### Electric Flux Density

Electric flux density and curl are the two key units of the Aether regarding General Relativity. Electric flux density is the distributed charge packed into a given area.

$$\label{efxd_def}efxd=\frac{chrg}{area}$$

Mainstream physicists work with single-dimension charge, thus imagining charge as lines of flux. In mainstream physics, it is imagined that more lines of flux are cutting through a given area in an increase in electric flux density.

As the length density of physical matter increases, so also the curl of space increases, which also increases the electric flux density:

$$\label{ldns_efxd}\frac{mass}{leng}=\frac{efxd}{curl}$$

The curl of space increases with an increase in length density, as seen in Albert Einstein's circular deflection angle equation for straight-path trajectories near massive objects. In the case of the Sun:

$$G\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}A_{u}$$

Plugging in the curl of space into equation (\ref{ldns_efxd}):

$$\frac{2m_{sun}\cdot 8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}}{r_{sun}}=6.469\times 10^{34}efxd$$

### Magnetic Field Intensity

The conductance of the Aether is responsible for creating a magnetic charge as angular momentum temporally spins in it. When exerted as a force, the Aether's conductance produces magnetic field intensity.

$$mfdi = forc \cdot cond$$

The magnetic field intensity acting on other magnetic fields does work:

$$mfld \cdot mfdi = enrg$$

## Electric Field Units

### Electric Field

Just as the magnetic field is the flow of magnetism, the electric field is the flow per strong charge:

$$efld = \frac{{flow}}{{chrg}}$$

The electric field, however, is not as important in modern electrodynamics as its strength.

### Magnetic Current or Charge Frequency

Magnetic current is the partner to electric current. Just as there are two different types of charges, there are two different currents. The electric current is due to the spherical electrostatic charge moving along in one direction, and the magnetic current is due to the toroidal magnetic charge moving in the opposite direction. The two currents manifest as electrical resonance:

$$mcur\cdot curr=rson$$.

## Inertial Units A

### Light

Quantum photons comprise light. In the Standard Model, the photon packet of green light has a different frequency than the photon packet of red light; assigning different frequencies to photons means that each photon packet has a different energy from every other photon packet. Further, if the mass/energy paradigm is used, the relativistic mass of each photon packet is different for each frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, the photon packet of the Standard Model is not truly quantum. The Standard Model presents an infinite number of various “sized” photon packets, one for each frequency. Unlike in the Standard Model, only one quantum photon exists in the Aether Physics Model.

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon is a true quantum. To get light, photons produce in rapid succession at the frequency of the light. Therefore, the unit of light is equal to the photon times frequency.

$$ligt = phtn \cdot freq$$

An introduction to the mechanics of photons and light is in chapter 10.

### Photon

In the Standard Model, the photon quantifies indirectly. Instead of the photon, physicists quantify an energy packet and treat it as though it were the photon itself. This poor accounting creates many problems for the Standard Model.

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon defines in terms of the electron that produced it. The electron is "primary angular momentum" and quantifies by Planck’s constant. The photon then defines as the primary angular momentum of the electron times the speed of photons.

$$phtn = h \cdot c$$

Thus, the photon expands outward at the speed of photons and has the angular momentum of an electron. As proposed by Cynthia Whitney[3], the photon remains connected to its source, even as it expands with cardioid geometry (see image page 158).

The APM has two types, or “sizes,” of photons. There is the electron/positron photon, and then there is a proton/antiproton photon. The proton/antiproton photon hypothesizes to occur in fusion reactions and to generate via the same mechanics as the Casimir effect. The quantification of the proton/antiproton photon is:

$$pht{n_p} = {h_p} \cdot c$$

where $${h_p}$$ is the APM value for proton angular momentum.

### Power

To find out how much power emits by light at a given distance from the emitter, divide light by the distance:

$$\frac{{ligt}}{{leng}} = powr = 1.012 \times {10^7}watt$$

The $$powr$$ unit is the quantum unit of power. At a distance of one Compton wavelength, the light of one atom outputting $$4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}ligt$$ radiates $$4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}powr$$, or $$4.094 \times {10^{ - 6}}watt$$.

### Angular Momentum

See Planck's Constant

### Irradiance

Irradiance is expressed as diverging electric field times current:

$$irrd = dvef \cdot curr$$

Traditionally, irradiance is equal to power per area:

$$irrd = \frac{{powr}}{{area}}$$

## Length Frequency Units A

### Temperature

In the Standard Model, temperature appears as a dimension of its own and is unrelated to the dimensions of length, time, mass, and charge. However, in the Aether Physics Model, temperature is equal to velocity squared. This makes sense since temperature defines as motion among colliding bodies.

$$temp = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$

Defining temperature as “molecules in motion” is not enough, however. Because there are different orders of reality, and molecules are just one order, distributed velocity must manifest differently for each order of existence. An electron exists in one-fourth of the total available spin positions in the Aether, yet Aether directly encapsulates it. The Aether exists in five-dimensional reality even though the electron only manifests four dimensions due to its half-spin nature. If we define a unit such as a temperature as “molecules in motion,” we are missing key aspects of reality relevant to quantum existence.

Molecules, although composed of subatomic particles, exist on a larger scale. There are new dimensions of existence added as complexity increases. For example, the perception of color does not exist at the quantum level but does exist at the level of animals, plants, and minerals. In this sense, temperature does not exist at the quantum level. Although electrons and protons experience distributed velocity, they do not change state among gas, liquid, and solid but produce plasma instead.

Radiation is a case of distributed velocity moving in only one direction, outward from its source. Standing waves are a case of distributed velocity moving in one direction and then reflecting in the opposite direction. The case of temperature specifically relates to the orders of atoms and molecules, which produce standing waves by bouncing off each other.

Mainstream physicists developed temperature scales of Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit specifically for measuring the distributed velocity within atoms and molecules bouncing off each other, which is why temperature seems to relate to and be in conflict with our concept of radiation. There is really no single term available having the same meaning as the phrase “distributed velocity,” which applies to all of its manifestations.

The relationship of temperature to energy is:

$$enrg = mass \cdot temp$$6.65}\]

Knowing that 273.15K times 1.2929 kg/m3 equals one atmosphere, we can calculate the conversion factor for Kelvin to temp units:

$$K = \frac{{\frac{{atm}}{{1.2929\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}}}}}}{{273.15}}$$

$$K = 286.91Sv$$

$$K = 3.19 \times {10^{ - 15}}temp$$

Nevertheless, the unit for measuring molecules in motion does not directly apply to the unit for unidirectional radiation. It is necessary to account for scaling factors.

### Resonance

Distributed frequency is equal to resonance. Viewing resonance in just one frequency dimension is like viewing area in just one dimension of length. The true meaning of resonance is lost when we change its dimensions. The unit of resonance indicates there are two distinct dimensions of frequency involved.

$$rson = fre{q^2}$$

Modern physics does not measure capacitance and inductance as square roots, yet the resonance equation usually expresses as:

$$\label{LCResonance}F = \frac{1}{{2\pi \sqrt {LC} }}$$

where $$F$$ is the “resonant frequency,” $$L$$ is the inductance and $$C$$ is the capacitance. (“Resonant frequency” is redundant and incorrect. It is like saying “surface length.”) Equation (\ref{LCResonance}) loses much of its meaning by making it appear the inductance and capacitance measurements are square roots and express the resonance in terms of frequency. It is as though modern physics has not yet discovered the unit of resonance.

To make the math of resonance compatible with the rest of physics, the correct expression would keep the natural inductance and capacitance measurements and notate the result as frequency squared. In the Aether Physics Model, the dimensions of resonance are equal to:

$$rson = \frac{1}{{indc \cdot capc}}$$

The quantum realm exists in a five-dimensional volume-resonance instead of a four-dimensional volume-time. If physicists wish to understand quantum existence properly, we must design measurement equipment to measure directly in the resonance domain. Presently, Fourier analysis attempts to account for this shortcoming by mathematically converting time-domain measurements into frequency-domain data.

The Aether Physics Model provides other ways to see resonance. Earlier, we demonstrated that $$potn$$ has the reciprocal dimensions of capacitance $$\left( {capc} \right)$$. Therefore, resonance is equal to potential per inductance:

$$\label{potnindc}rson = \frac{{potn}}{{indc}}$$

The above equation manifests when winding a flat spiral secondary coil and covering it with epoxy or another dielectric. If we seal the coil from electron leaks, the potential rises, and so does the resonance. When the coil is fully sealed, the added outside dielectric decreases the capacitance, and the resonance decreases, as in the equation below.

$$\label{currcapc}rson = \frac{{curr}}{{capc \cdot h}}$$

Capacitance times angular momentum is the product of the coil’s capacity to hold electrons times the number of electrons on one of the plates or charge intensity. Resonance is thus proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the charge intensity.

Resonance relates to spherical geometry in the Aether unit. The distributed frequency unit (resonance) applies at the quantum level to produce volume resonance. In the Aether unit graphic on this book's cover, the two frequency dimensions are a source of space curvature. Indeed, in acoustics, two longitudinal waves bounce through each other to produce a string of spheres.

The physics of resonance as distributed frequency extends to the macro realm of existence. We can analyze a cylindrical pot of water with a vibration applied to its bottom.

Let us choose a 12” diameter pot and fill it with water. The depth of the water is not important to this analysis, but we will choose six inches for the depth. Applying a variable mechanical vibration to the bottom of the pot, we empirically discover maximum standing waves forming at 14.7Hz. We then discover the distributed velocity of the water waves moving horizontally from the wall of the pot toward its center:

$${\left( {14.7Hz} \right)^2} \cdot 2\pi {\left( {6in} \right)^2} = 31.534{\left( {\frac{m}{{sec}}} \right)^2}$$

The resonance times the surface area is equal to the distributed velocity. The distributed velocity is the average velocity of the water from the pot wall toward the center. The distributed velocity is the product of the velocity in two orthogonal vectors and relates directly to the temperature of the water.

In quantum measurement units, however, the water temperature relates directly to the maximum temperature of quantum structures, as explained a little later. Since the temperature of water involves distributed velocity far below the distributed speed of light, the value of the temp unit is very low.

$$\label{distvel}31.534{\left( {\frac{m}{{sec}}} \right)^2} = 3.509 \times {10^{ - 16}}temp$$

The temperature scale at the macro level of our human existence depends upon the relative velocities of molecules, which are of a more complex order of existence than subatomic particles. The reason that seemingly unrelated temperature units developed within physics are due to this complexity disparity between macro and quantum existence. Further research must determine the scale factors between the various levels of complexity. For now, we will refer to the result of equation (\ref{distvel}) as “distributed velocity.”

The average distributed velocity of the water directly relates to the specific volume and average pressure of the water.

$$vel{c^2} = spcv \cdot pres$$

Empirically, we know the specific volume of water is equal to $$0.01602\frac{{f{t^3}}}{{lb}}$$, which in quantum measurement units equals $$63.781spcv$$. Since we now have the average distributed velocity and specific volume of the water, we can determine the average pressure:

$$\frac{{3.509 \times {{10}^{ - 16}}vel{c^2}}}{{63.781spcv}} = 5.589 \times {10^{ - 18}}pres = 3.204 \times {10^4}Pa$$

Distributed velocity also relates to resonance in acoustics. According to standard physics, the resonance of a vibrating string is equal to:

$$F = \frac{1}{{2L}}\sqrt {\frac{T}{\rho }}$$

where $$F$$ is the “resonant frequency”, $$L$$ is the length of the string, $$T$$ is the force applied to the string, and $$\rho$$ is the density of the string.[7] Once again, it is obvious that resonance is not dependent upon the square root of force and density. The quantum measurement units expression for the resonance of a string is:

$$.25\times rson = \frac{{forc}}{{4leng^{2} \cdot rbnd}}$$

where $${rbnd}$$ (rebound) is the unit equal to mass per length in the Aether Physics Model. Mass per length is also equal to line density. Rebound measures the strength for which an object with mass will reflect off an inelastic surface. The greater the mass per length, the more intense the rebound. The above equation is, therefore, the equation of quarter-wave resonance.

Since we are dealing with resonance, two orthogonal frequencies are involved: a wave of string traveling a velocity in one direction and a wave traveling in the opposite direction. In the fundamental quarter resonance, there is a one-half cycle between the ends of the string moving in one direction and a one-half cycle moving in the opposite direction, which is inversely proportional to one-quarter of the total distributed wavelength.

$$\frac{{rson}}{4} = \frac{{vel{c^2}}}{{4 \cdot len{g^2}}}$$

The distributed velocity of the string depends upon the physical properties of the string and its environment.

It is clear that where equations show resonance as equal to the square root of measurements, they should express instead as distributed frequency. Although such a change may meet initial resistance, it is essential to simplify physics by making it consistent throughout. We must get used to saying, “The resonance of an electrical circuit is equal to x [frequency unit] squared.”

## Length Frequency Units B

### Q Factor

A coil's so-called “Q factor” indicates the “sharpness” of a resonance curve. The Q factor is a dimensionless value derived from the following formula:

$$\label{Qfactor}Q = \frac{{\omega L}}{R}$$

where $$\omega$$ is the frequency, $$L$$ is the inductance, and $$R$$ is the resistance. In the APM, the unit represented by $$R$$ is actually magnetic flux. The magnetic flux measures the coil’s reactance, not its resistance. In the APM, equation (\ref{Qfactor}) expresses as:

$$Q=\frac{freq\cdot indc}{mflx}$$

Q is the value where magnetic flux is measured as reactance instead of resistance.

The Aether Physics Model shows there is a balance between matter and environment and that minimizing the eddy current in the coil results in sharper resonance. An identity arises from equations (\ref{potnindc}) and (\ref{currcapc}):

$$\frac{{potn}}{{indc}} = \frac{{curr}}{{capc \cdot h}}$$

We can transpose the identity such that:

$$\label{eddy}\frac{{potn \cdot h}}{{curr}} = \frac{{indc}}{{capc}}$$

The value of $$h$$ is Planck’s constant. The potential, current, and Planck’s constant are characteristics of the electron (matter), and inductance, and capacitance are characteristics of the Aether (environment). Each side of equation (\ref{eddy}) quantifies eddy current:

$$\begin{array}{l}\frac{{potn \cdot h}}{{curr}} = eddy \\ \frac{{indc}}{{capc}} = eddy \\ \end{array}$$

Minimizing the eddy current by changing the coil's material and environmental characteristics increases the resonance's sharpness.

## Natural Log

John Neiby observed an interesting curiosity while investigating the Aether Physics Model.  He noted that the square of the natural log could approximately express the magnetic charge, electrostatic charge, electron fine structure, and $$\pi$$.

$$\left( {1 + a} \right)\frac{{{e_{emax}}}}{e}\pi = {\left( {\log e} \right)^2}$$

[1] Warren B. Boast Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 173

[2] Warren B. Boast Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 179

[3] Whitney, Cynthia Kolb, Essay 1: This is Not Einstein’s Postulate (Galilean Electrodynamics, Space Time Analysis LTD, Winter 2005) pp 43-44

[6] A Course in Electrical Engineering Volume II - Alternating Currents, McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947 pg 259

[7] "Electromagnetic Radiation ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.