Space is thus, in Descartes' view, a plenum, being occupied by a medium which, though imperceptible to the senses, is capable of transmitting force, and exerting effects on material bodies immersed in it - the Aether, as it is called.

Descartes ... was the first to bring the Aether into science, by postulating that it had mechanical properties. In his view, it was to be regarded as the solitary tenant of the Universe, save for that infinitesimal fraction of space which is occupied by ordinary matter.[x]

#### Albert Einstein said:

…there is a weighty argument to be adduced in favour of the ether hypothesis. To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever. The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view. For the mechanical behavior of a corporeal system hovering freely in empty space depends not only on relative positions (distances) and relative velocities, but also on its state of rotation, which physically may be taken as a characteristic not appertaining to the system itself. In order to be able to look upon the rotation of the system, at least formally, as something real, Newton objectivises space. Since he classes his absolute space together with real things, for him rotation relative to absolute space is also something real.

…inertial resistance opposed to relative acceleration of distant masses presupposes action at a distance; and as the modern physicist does not believe that he may accept this action at a distance, he comes back once more, if he follows Mach, to the ether, which has to serve as a medium for the effects of inertia. But this conception of the ether to which we are led by Mach’s way of thinking differs essentially from the ether as conceived by Newton, by Fresnel, and by Lorentz. Mach’s ether not only conditions the behaviour of inert masses, but is also conditioned in its state by them.

Mach’s idea finds its full development in the ether of the general theory of relativity. According to this theory the metrical qualities of the continuum of space-time differ in the environment of different points of space-time, and are partly conditioned by the matter existing outside of the territory under consideration[1].

The Aether Physics Model produces an Aether hypothesis as seen by Descartes, Newton, Bernoulli, Fresnel, and Lorentz in that it agrees with certain aspects of their observations and hypotheses. Through the unified charge equation, the APM also agrees with Mach in that the Aether acts on matter, and matter in turn acts upon Aether. Moreover, the Aether Physics Model agrees with Einstein in that it also explains General Relativity Theory, though from the perspective of Aether electrostatic charge and the magnetic charge of matter. We will look into these ideas in detail later in this chapter.

#### Nikola Tesla[2]:

The technical editor of the New York Herald Tribune’s radio section responded thus to an article by Laurence M. Cockaday[3]:

“I have read the article, and I quite agree with the opinion expressed – that wireless power transmission is impractical with present apparatus. This conclusion will be naturally reached by any one who recognizes the nature of the agent by which the impulses are transmitted in present wireless practice.

“When Dr. Heinrich Hertz undertook his experiments from 1887 to 1889 his object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel. He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory. But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.

“I had maintained for many years before that such a medium as supposed could not exist, and that we must rather accept the view that all space is filled with a gaseous substance. On repeating the Hertz experiments, with much improved and very powerful apparatus, I satisfied myself that what he had observed was nothing else but effects of longitudinal waves in a gaseous medium, that is to say, waves, propagated by alternate compression and expansion. He had observed waves in the ether much of the nature of sound waves in the air.

“Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a medium. But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts. I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity. The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable. Subsequently those particles were called electrons.[4]

“One of the first striking observations made with my tubes was that a purplish glow for several feet around the end of the tube was formed, and I readily ascertained that it was due to the escape of the charges of the particles as soon as they passed out into the air; for it was only in a nearly perfect vacuum that these charges could be confined to them. The coronal discharge proved that there must be a medium besides air in the space, composed of particles immeasurably smaller than those of air, as otherwise such a discharge would not be possible. On further investigation I found that this gas was so light that a volume equal to that of the earth would weigh only about one-twentieth of a pound.

“The velocity of any sound wave depends on a certain ratio between elasticity and density, and for this ether or universal gas the ratio is 800,000,000,000 times greater than for air. This means that the velocity of the sound waves propagated through the ether is about 300,000 times greater than that of the sound waves in air, which travel at approximately 1,085 feet a second. Consequently the speed in ether is 900,000 x 1,085 feet, or 186,000 miles, and that is the speed of light.”

Nikola Tesla observed that electrons transmitted through a near perfect vacuum in his vacuum tubes appeared as corona several feet through the air surrounding the tube. His observation is quite simple. If there is nothing in the tube between the electrode and the glass, then it remains a question how the electrons convey through the vacuum and into the surrounding air. Tesla then deduced that there must be a gas much finer than air molecules through which electrons could travel.

Tesla does not explain how he arrived at the elasticity-density ratio of Aether to air. If he had provided evidence of direct measurement, it would have been a major milestone in support of the Aether theory. Yet even if Tesla back calculated the Aether to air ratio, he did theorize the Aether as “gaseous.”

Other researchers have attempted to quantify the existence of the Aether. Around 1644, René Descartes was the first to propose an all-pervading Aether with mechanical properties.

Descartes assumed that the Aether particles are continually in motion. As however there was no empty space for moving particles to move into, he inferred that they move by taking the places vacated by other Aether particles, which are themselves in motion. Thus, the movement of a single particle of the Aether involved the motion of an entire closed chain of particles; and the motions of these closed chains constituted vortices, which performed important functions in his picture of the cosmos[5].

As such, the Aether was considered to be incredibly solid (it fills all space), but also incredibly fluid. These are the ideal conditions to support waves.

The theory of Aether presented in this book will show a quantum Aether that is simultaneously solid-fluid-gaseous, which looks like tubes, called “spin positions.” These spin positions are cardioidal structures curved by spherical distributed frequency. The Aether unit acts like a vessel for containing subatomic particles, which are the basis of all matter.

Physical matter views like dust particles suspended in an aqueous solution. The Aether unit provides the volume-resonance environment for the subatomic particles. Thus when subatomic particles appear to move, it is actually Aether moving and carrying the subatomic particles with it. Matter never really travels at all. Matter always occupies the same quantum space, In actuality, space moves relative only to space.

As for whether electromagnetism transmits in transverse or longitudinal form, Tesla was correct in that Aether units could oscillate as longitudinal waves. However, this does not preclude Aether from also carrying the electromagnetic effect of the photon as it passes through the Aether units. The Aether could then have a mechanical effect (longitudinal wave) as well as an electromagnetic effect (Hertzian wave).

In the case of the longitudinal wave, the Aether unit itself moves back and forth like a gas molecule. In the case of Hertzian (transverse) waves, photons physically pass through the Aether units. Since longitudinal waves in the Aether are actual Aether displacements, longitudinal waves also have the potential to create unusual effects such as those manifested by John Hutchison in cold-melting aluminum, and by John Keely in molecular dissociation of water.

## The Shape of “Emptiness”

Aether is a dynamic fabric of volume-resonance composed of independent quantum units. Each quantum unit of Aether contains three dimensions of length and two dimensions of frequency (distributed frequency is the unit of resonance). In addition, Aether also contains one dimension of mass, and four dimensions of charges (two dimensions of electrostatic charge and two dimensions of magnetic charge). Each of the above named dimensions produce a quantum unit of rotating magnetic field. It is the whole of all the dimensions that should rightfully be named "space;" thus the phrase "space-time" is redundant as space already includes resonance, and therefore also includes time.

The Aether unit itself exists within a greater and yet more primary greater space. It is hard to say at this point whether this greater space has the same three length and two frequency dimensions as the Aether unit. Greater space is not necessarily limited to the space dimensions that we perceive in the physical world. Observations of neutrinos reveal evidence of the existence of a greater (or more primary) space since they exist outside of quantum Aether units.

Because each quantum unit of Aether is independent, the Aether unit manipulates just like gaseous matter. As subatomic particles bind and unbind, they manipulate physical volume-resonance to some degree. This manipulation occurs through Aether unit folding; the Aether units literally flip over to electrostatically and magnetically bind with each other as when an electron binds with a proton to produce a neutron. The effect of Aether folding is that Aether condenses where matter is present and produces the effects of circular deflection angles around massive bodies, and also causes the precession of perigee of objects in orbit around massive bodies. Augustin Fresnel observed such an effect:

There are other points concerning the action of matter upon the ether which are perhaps in a fair way to receive a clearer solution. The observed fact that light travels in water with a speed of about three-fourths of what it has in air, apparently means that the transmitting medium is either more dense or less rigid in water than in air. Fresnel’s hypothesis is that its rigidity is the same in the two media. His formula, as developed by Eisenlohr, for the relative motion of ether and matter which it permeates, when the matter is set into motion, assumes, clearly and baldly, that the ether is more dense inside of matter than in free space. The amount of ether occupying a volume of one cubic centimeter will condense to nine-sixteenths of a centimeter on passing into water. It is compressed until its density is nearly double.[6]

The more famous application of folded space manifests in Albert Einstein's General Relativity theory and Karl Schwarzschild's exact solution for General Relativity, where the circular deflection angle and precession of perigee are mathematically predicted.

All alternating currents also distort the Aether as the expansion and contraction of electrons occurs. Electrons can expand and contract by changing their toroidal radii. As the smaller electron radius shrinks, the larger radius grows, thus conserving the angular momentum. Nevertheless, the Aether radius (related to spherical resonance) changes with the large radius of the electron. Thus as the electron expands and contracts, so does the Aether, making it possible to modulate Aether units directly, just as Tesla proposed.

As demonstrated in the Aether unit graphic to the left, forward time and backward time have different directions within a past-future oscillation. The forward time direction flows over the surface of the Aether, and the backward time direction flows down its center. Just as length has two directions, time has two directions. If primary angular momentum could see both time directions, we would not perceive any progress in time, as physical matter would advance in time and then retreat in time, and never appear to change. However, as it is, subatomic particles appear to have only half-spin and thus primary angular momentum only sees the forward direction of time.

The four colored tubes in the Aether unit image to the right are in the shape of a loxodrome[7] and represent the four possible spin positions available to subatomic particles. The artist’s representation of an Aether unit is accurate to the extent that each of the four tube sections has the same surface area. However, in actuality the electron tube is considerably different in proportion from the proton tube. Further, the radius of the spheres can expand and contract considerably depending upon which physical processes are occurring. A simple hydrogen atom would be wide with thin tubes, but a deuterium atom would be tight with thick tubes (nearly spherical).

Neutrons would have nearly the same properties as protons, being wide with thin tubes in their free state, and tight with thick tubes (nearly spherical) in their bound state. Thus, the instability of the neutron would seem to occur when the neutron is in its free state, but not in its bound state. The instability is due mostly to the neutron’s bound electron magnetic moment spreading over a greater major radius.

This would suggest further that the protons and neutrons are constantly shifting positions within the atomic nucleus. In certain isotopes there would be a free neutron passing among atomic shells, thus creating the possibility for neutron decay. The more time a neutron spends as a free neutron within the nucleus, the less the half-life of the atom will be. When the neutron structure is such that all neutrons remain fixed in place with minimal movement within the isotope, the neutron, and thus the atom, has a longer half-life.

The blue spin position is where the electron would exist within the Aether unit, the red spin position is where the proton would exist, the green spin position is for the anti-proton, and the yellow spin position is for the positron. When the electron or proton exists in forward-time volume-resonance, the subatomic particles appear to be spinning in one direction (left spin torque). When the antiproton or positron exists through forward-time volume-resonance, they appear to be spinning in the other direction (right spin torque).

It appears that the most stable forms of subatomic particles (electron and proton) depend on a specific spin direction of volume-resonance. “Space parity[8]” in the Standard Model is a preferred spin direction. However, this stability is due more to the preponderance of a given spin direction than to its inherent quality. It is quite possible that the Universe possesses both matter and antimatter galaxies. Since the photon is its own anti-particle, it could easily traverse either type of galaxy without annihilation. If a galaxy constructs from anti-matter, we may be able to observe it as though it were normal matter.

The Aether is also the source of elementary charge. As the angular momentum of an electron exists within the Aether, it picks up the negative charge of the Aether electrostatic dipole. As the angular momentum of a proton exists within the Aether, it picks up the positive charge of the Aether electrostatic dipole. Similarly, the anti-proton and the positron pick up the charges of the portion of Aether in which they reside.

A key to understanding the Aether geometry is the realization that the spheres do not pertain to dimensions of length, even though, in order to represent time, the spheres appear as surfaces on paper. Time and frequency do not have length dimensions, but their effect on space gives them the appearance of having curved length dimensions. Likewise, physical space is toroidal (cardioidal, really), but because physical space orthogonally connects to frequency, the effect is that of a cube when plotted in spherical coordinates. A further explanation of this conversion of toroidal angular momentum to Cartesian geometry is on page 270.

## What the Aether is not

The Aether is not a physical particle as Heinrich Hertz and others have thought. When looking at the geometry of the Aether, one is looking at the spin positions available to matter. The spin positions are like holes, but with reality. We may normally think of holes as the absence of matter, but in the Aether, holes are units of rotating magnetic field that act as containers for angular momentum. In fact, the Aether sets the dimensional boundaries for physical existence.

The Aether is not a wave. However, the Aether units can produce waves, even without photons traveling through them. In addition, these waves can carry real signals if the Aether is magnetically pulsed. The Aether waves are longitudinal waves of gaseous-like Aether movement, much as Nikola Tesla envisioned. Tesla also suggested that longitudinal waves in the Aether might travel faster than the speed of light. Sir Edmund Whittaker made similar observations:

Stokes’s explanation harmonises in a curious way with Fresnel’s hypothesis that the velocity of longitudinal waves in the Aether is indefinitely great compared with that of the transverse waves; for it is found by experiment with actual substances that the ratio of the velocity of propagation of longitudinal waves to that of transverse waves increases rapidly as the medium becomes softer and more plastic[9].

The Aether is not a literal fluid, although it behaves like one; just as sand is not a fluid, but can behave like a fluid when agitated. When the Aether is agitated, molecules and atoms rearrange without a direct effect on the binding forces of the atoms and molecules. In his experiments, John Hutchison rearranges molecules and atoms of aluminum by generating a high frequency rotating magnetic field with electrons[10].

An Aether unit is neither motionless, nor is it always in motion. Massive objects require more Aether units than low-density space due to the production of neutrons. If the object is in motion, a certain amount of Aether will follow it[11].

#### Aether Carries Along With Matter

“In 1904, Morley and Miller were the first to do a hilltop experiment: 'Some have thought that [the Michelson-Morley] experiment only proves that the ether in a certain basement room is carried along with it. We desire therefore to place the apparatus on a hill to see if an effect can there be detected'. “E. W. Morley and D. C. Miller, Phil. Matg, 9, 680 (1905).”[12]

With regard to the Morley and Miller experiment, even the atmosphere constructs from subatomic particles encapsulated in Aether. The unexpected result of measuring Aether movement with an interferometer was that while Aether units are independent of each other and are extremely willing to move, they are also individually extremely dense and behave like a solid. Therefore, since even the windiest atmosphere has relatively low intermolecular speeds, the Aether behaves as a solid clump within it. As far as the light beam traveling through it is concerned, there is practically no Aether movement. However, as matter becomes less dense, so does the density of the Aether increase, thus less dense matter will have a greater proportion of background Aether drifting through it than will dense matter.

Since Aether units can move independently of each other, the Aether fabric across the Universe is not absolute. However, because of the independent and fluid nature of Aether units, clumps of Aether can form isolated regions of more or less absolute spaces. This must be true since space bends around massive bodies and allows for the observed circular deflection of light. Moreover, with this understanding, the Michelson–Morley, and Morley–Miller Aether experiments were a success, because they provided evidence that Aether units move with physical matter (the basement and air molecules). Their experiments were also a success in that they did show an Aether drift, even though the Aether drift was of a lower magnitude than initially anticipated by Albert Michelson.

Albert Einstein's mathematically correct Special Relativity theory, based on the Lorentz transformations, therefore bases on the successful Michelson Morley experiments by extension. Hendrik Lorentz correctly deduced from the measured data of the Michelson Morley experiments that Aether was dragging along with the Earth. Lorentz then applied the Woldemar Voigt mathematical transformations to the Michelson Morley data, and the result was then identified as the Lorentz transformations. Albert Einstein's only contribution to the Lorentz transformations were his two postulates.

Summarized, the two postulates state that the Aether does not exist, and that photons travel at speed c in all reference frames. Neither of these postulates are proveable, which is why they are called postulates. Essentially, Albert Einstein dictated a new foundation for physics based on his personal perceptions, and not based on physical observatoins.

## Edge of the Physical Universe

From our macro perspective of human being, we seek to find the edge of the physical Universe in the form of some kind of boundary, such as a wall or bubble, which might enclose the physical Universe. The actual edge of the physical Universe resides inside each quantum Aether unit.

The maximum amount of mass a quantum of Aether may contain is equal to the mass of the Aether (\(m_{a}\)). Similarly, the maximum amount of magnetic charge a quantum Aether unit may contain is equal to the magnetic charge of the Aether (\({e_{a}}^{2}\)). The mass of the Aether is simply \(m_{a}\), yet the magnetism of the Aether expresses as \(\frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}\).

The Aether unit has tubular double loxodrome structure, producing four spin positions. Each spin position has a surface area equal to the Compton wavelength squared. The quantum length of the Aether is the Compton wavelength (\(\lambda_{C}\)), and based upon the known speed of photons, we can calculate a quantum frequency (\(F_{q}\)).

The quantum length and the quantum frequency of the Aether represents both the physical length and the physical frequency maintained within an Aether unit. The physical length can be shared among two length dimensions as long as the total product of the lengths always conserves to the Compton wavelength squared. The same limits apply to the quantum frequency, where one frequency dimension is the frequency of oscillation between forward time and backward time, and the other frequency dimension is the oscillation between right spin torque and left spin torque. The product of these two quantum frequencies produce resonance, and it is yet undetermined whether these frequencies are individually absolute, or allow frequency shifts within the conserved resonance of frequency squared.

Thus the Aether unit sets the boundaries for the physical Universe within each Aether unit.

## Aether Unit

In the Aether Physics Model, the Aether has a quantum unit dimensionally equal to a 2-spin rotating magnetic field (\(\textit{rmfd}\)). The rotating magnetic field appears to be manifested by the Gforce and appears to be the “container” in which subatomic particles exist in volume-resonance.

The value and dimensions of \(\textit{rmfd}\) are:

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}} \end{equation}

which in quantum measurements units equals:

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{m_{a} \cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{3}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{{e_{a}}^{2}} \end{equation}

It is due to the nature of Aether, which allows only one subatomic particle per spin position, that one subatomic particle cannot pass through another, fashioning the appearance of “solid matter.” Moreover, it is due to the multiple Aether units that they eventually produce cubic and other forms, which translate as solid matter.

In the Aether unit, there are only two possible spin positions for normal, stable matter. There are two other spin positions for anti-matter, but the matter and anti-matter cannot exist near each other, because opposite spins with the same mass collide with each other. There are two dimensions of length on the cardioid spin positions, and there is one dimension of length between the Aether units. These three dimensions of length all intersect at right angles from each other, just like the three dimensions of length in the Cartesian coordinate system.

The \(\textit{rmfd}\) constant fulfills the same function for magnetic charge that Coulomb’s constant fills for electrostatic charge and Newton’s constant fulfills for mass. The \(\textit{rmfd}\) unit would name the “constant of proportionality” for the magnetic force law, if we were to use the same method of ignoring non-material physical structure as the Standard Model.

Since the mass to magnetic charge ratio is the same for all subatomic particles and for the Aether, the \(\textit{rmfd}\) unit is the same when expressed in terms of the proton and neutron and Aether, as well as the electron.

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}}\:{\rm{Aether}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{{m_p} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Proton}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{{m_n} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Neutron}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Electron}} \end{equation}

The value of \(\textit{rmfd}\) is “magical” in many ways. It is equal to Coulomb’s constant times \(16{\pi ^2}\).

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \end{equation}

The dimensions of \(\textit{rmfd}\) are equal to magnetic field times frequency, thus providing evidence that the unit of \(rmfd\) is indeed a rotating magnetic field.

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = mfld \cdot freq \end{equation}

Like energy, \(\textit{rmfd}\) is a common unit from which many other units convert.

\(\textit{Rmfd}\) equal photon per magnetic charge. This is the manifestation of rotating magnetic field occurring in the Hutchison effect. High-energy photons (microwaves) bombard electrons (magnetic charge) and produce a rotating magnetic field.

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{phtn}}{{chrg}} \end{equation}

\(\textit{Rmfd}\) equal magnetic flux times velocity. This is the manifestation of rotating magnetic field found in electric motors. The static magnetic flux associated with a fixed magnet or electromagnet spins mechanically at a velocity.

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = mflx \cdot velc \end{equation}

\(\textit{Rmfd}\) equal potential times length. This manifestation of rotating magnetic field appears in the streamers of high potential discharges, such as in Tesla coils. The rotating magnetic field causes helices in the streamer.

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = potn \cdot leng \end{equation}

\(\textit{Rmfd}\) equal surface tension per charge density. This manifestation of rotating magnetic field appears in Chukanov’s spheres[13].

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{sten}}{{chgd}} \end{equation}

Some of the greatest advances in technology are yet to materialize, and will utilize the rotating magnetic field in one form or another. Nikola Tesla already gave us one form of this rotating magnetic field technology with his polyphase AC motor. We can easily see just how significant the polyphase AC motor has been in transforming civilization.

John Hutchison stumbled upon the manifestation of the rotating magnetic field, which bears his name, the Hutchison effect. The Hutchison effect can cause heavy objects of any material to accelerate away from the Earth, can cause metals to “melt” without getting hot, and cause dissimilar materials such as aluminum and wood to fuse without chemically changing.

There are likely many medical advances waiting for discovery with the rotating magnetic field of Aether as well.

## Spin Structure

Subatomic particles get their spin from the oscillating nature of time. It is common to think of time as the “normal” dimension, and frequency as the reciprocal of time, but in physical sciences it should be the other way around. Temporal behavior is really a frequency that oscillates one quantum moment toward the future and one quantum moment toward the past.

However, physical matter only moves forward in time, with the effect that physical matter acts like a time diode and presents a version of time similar to rectified AC current. We "see" half-spin subatomic particles from the brain's perspective of memories, and thus construct the illusion of forward, linear time. In reality, quantum frequency pulses as bursts of forward time and causes physical existence to take on the nature of temporal frames, like frames of a movie.

The temporal spin structure has spin that flows outside the Aether unit and then down its center, but it also has spin like a corkscrew. As a stable subatomic particle traces its spin position in the Aether unit, it moves forward in time and appears to twist either left or right. After the subatomic particle advances through forward time, it reverses toward negative time down through the center of the Aether unit. Negative time is a completely different time direction which subatomic particles cannot see. As far as the existence of physical matter goes, the two time directions are mutually exclusive of each other. However, as far as the Aether and Gforce go, there is no net forward or backward direction of time, there is only the present moment. Apparent linear, forward time is strictly a phenomenon experienced by physical matter.

An exact understanding of Aether spin is not mathematically complete. In the images of Aether units presented in this book, the endpoints of the loxodromes go through the poles of the spheres. However, the electron and proton g-factors suggest that the endpoints may offset from the poles when moving through Aether units. The possibility that the time dimension may be egg shaped due to the charged spheres attracting each other also needs investigation.

## Aether Dipoles

Studies in recent years of the dielectric properties of gases and electrolytes show that electrical forces and inductions in such media depend upon the polarized ions or "dipoles" of the medium. Why not extend the same concepts to electrical forces and inductions across a vacuum, that is, through the ether? We must then conceive of the ether as a medium with a structure, that is, with "ether dipoles.” By such a concept, we would obtain an explanation of "electric forces acting at a distance," something that has been very vague, or lacking, since the discard of the Maxwell ether displacement theory of electric charges and electric forces. The discovery of the electron disproved the ether displacement theory of electric charges, but it did not remove (for many physicists) the need of the ether concept in explaining electric waves, whether luminous or non-luminous. The actual structure of the ether will be a speculative problem until experiments have given us more facts in ether physics; but in view of the above, we can think of the ether as having an indefinitely large number of infinitesimal "ether dipoles."[14] – Albert P. Carman

As shown in the image above, the quantum Aether unit models as a dipole structure. Not only does the Aether unit have an electrostatic dipole, but the Aether encapsulated subatomic particles also has a magnetic dipole as well. Just as Albert Carman envisioned, the Aether fabric can visualize as an indefinitely large number of quantum Aether dipoles.

## Space Density Gradient

The Aether Physics Model quantifies the quantum structure of individual Aether units, as described above. In addition, the Aether Physics Model describes the space density gradient within the Aether fabric.

The space density gradient of the Aether is described in General Relativity theory by means of the Riemann curvature mathematics. Karl Schwarzschild simplified Albert Einstein's complex approximation of the circular deflection angle and the orbital precession of planetary perigee for planets in orbit around the Sun. The Aether Physics Model shows in both of these cases that the shift in angles are due to the curl of the Aether, which in turn is due to the formation of neutrons in atomic matter.

The Schwarzschild solution for the circular deflection angle of the Sun presents as:

\begin{equation}R_{S}=\frac{G\cdot 2m_{sun}}{c^{2}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{circular_deflection_angle}\frac{2R_{S}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6} \end{equation}

where the solution is expressed in radians. We could express the result in arc minutes if we choose to do so:

\begin{equation}\frac{2R_{S}}{r_{sun}}=1.752\frac{deg}{3600} \end{equation}

The Schwarzschild equation, however, is oversimplified and misses the Aether physics, which aids our understanding of the physical processes involved. The complete "tensor" equation should express as:

\begin{equation}\label{red_herring}\frac{G}{c^{2}}\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}\frac{A_{u}}{c^{2}} \end{equation}

The \(c^{2}\) term in the equation (\ref{red_herring}) is redundant, and does not contribute to the equation. The circular deflection angle equations (\ref{circular_deflection_angle}) and (\ref{red_herring}) thus simplify to:

\begin{equation}G\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}A_{u} \end{equation}

The completed and simplified "tensor" equation reveals how both the Newton gravitational constant and the Aether magnetic charge constant behave as "tensors," as Albert Einstein described it. Neutrons compose half the mass of normal physical matter, and so it is necessary to multiply the mass by two to account for the total mass of the massive object.

The mass per radius on the left side of the equation must balance the curl of the Aether fabric on the right side of the equation. The unit of curl given in Quantum Measurements Units expresses as:

\begin{equation}curl = \frac{chrg}{mass\cdot leng} \end{equation}

or we could express curl in MKS units as:

\begin{equation}curl = 6.333\times 10^{4}\frac{coul^{2}}{kg\cdot m} \end{equation}

The curl must be halved as the mass must be doubled. The Aether Physics Model thus exposes that the unit of radian is not a dimensionless number, after all.

This exercise also reveals the definitive reason how it is possible to work physics mathematically without invoking the Aether. It turns out that \(curl\frac{A_{u}}{c^{2}}\) is equal to 1. This makes sense since the Aether is reacting to physical matter; the Aether fabric does not exert an effect on physical matter. The Aether tends to abide quietly in the present moment; physical matter exerts a strain on the Aether.

Although it is possible in this case to generate a correct result and ignore the curl of the Aether, and to convert the radians into arc minutes, what we learn here is that radians are not dimensionless. The concept of curl is used extensively in Maxwell's theories, and it would be better to keep the curl in its full dimensions throughout calculations. The practice of keeping curl as a dimensional unit in curl related equations could also make the study of electrodynamics much easier to comprehend.

[1] Albert Einstein, Sidelights of Relativity (Courier Dover Publications, 1983) 16-18

[2] Tesla, Nikola 1856-1943, American electrician and inventor, b. Croatia (then in Austria-Hungary). He emigrated to the United States in 1884, worked for a short period for Edison, and became a naturalized American citizen (1891). A pioneer in the field of high-voltage electricity, he made many discoveries and inventions of great value to the development of radio transmission and to the field of electricity. These include a system of arc lighting, the Tesla induction motor and system of alternating-current transmission, the Tesla coil, generators of high-frequency currents, a transformer to increase oscillating currents to high potentials, a system of wireless communication, and a system of transmitting electric power without wires. He produced the first power system at Niagara Falls, N.Y. There is a museum dedicated to his work in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. "Tesla, Nikola," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[3] Lawrence M. Cockaday, New York Herald Tribune, Sept. 22, 1929, pp. 1, 29.

[4] “In 1874 the Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney ( 1826-1911) had also suggested the idea of a particle or atom of electricity, and in 1891 he suggested that the unit of negative electricity should be called the electron , which is what it has been called since.” Keith J. Laidler, To Light Such a Candle: Chapters in the History of Science and Technology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 149.

[5][x] Sir Edmund Whittaker: A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 6

[6] The Ether, Science, Vol. 18, No. 447. (Aug. 28, 1891), pp. 119-122.

[7] Rhumb Line - The path of a ship that maintains a fixed compass direction, shown on a map as a line crossing all meridians at the same angle. Also called loxodrome. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[8] Parity or space parity, in physics, quantity that refers to the relationship between an object or process and the image that it can produce in a mirror. For example, any right-handed object will produce a mirror-image counterpart that is identical to it in every way except that the mirror image is left-handed. A moving particle that spins in a clockwise manner, as would a right-handed screw advancing through space, will possess a mirror-image particle that is identical to it in every way except that it spins counterclockwise, as would a left-handed screw advancing through space. The law of conservation of parity implies that every real object or process has a mirror image that can also exist and that obeys the same physical laws. Although this concept has little significance in classical physics, it is of great importance in atomic and nuclear physics. From this law scientists inferred that all elementary particles and their interactions possessed mirror image counterparts that also exist. However, in 1956 T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang published a paper in which they argued that parity was not conserved in weak interactions. "Parity ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[9] Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 128

[10] Photo from The Hutchison Effect, http://www.hutchisoneffect.org/

[11] “Fresnel further assumed that, when a body is in motion, part of the Aether within it is carried along-namely, that part which constitutes the excess of its density over the density of Aether in vacuo; while the rest of the Aether within the space occupied by the body is stationary.” Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 110

[12] Quoted from Abraham Pais, Subtle Is the Lord?: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982) 113.

[13] Chukanov Energy http://www.chukanovenergy.com/index.htm

[14] Albert P. Carman, Science, New Series, Vol. 71, No. 1834 (Feb. 21, 1930), 214-215.