Space is thus, in Descartes' view, a plenum, being occupied by a medium which, though imperceptible to the senses, is capable of transmitting force, and exerting effects on material bodies immersed in it - the Aether, as it is called.

Descartes ... was the first to bring the Aether into science, by postulating that it had mechanical properties. In his view, it was to be regarded as the solitary tenant of the Universe, save for that infinitesimal fraction of space which is occupied by ordinary matter.[x]

#### Albert Einstein said:

…there is a weighty argument to be adduced in favour of the ether hypothesis. To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever. The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view. For the mechanical behavior of a corporeal system hovering freely in empty space depends not only on relative positions (distances) and relative velocities, but also on its state of rotation, which physically may be taken as a characteristic not appertaining to the system itself. In order to be able to look upon the rotation of the system, at least formally, as something real, Newton objectivises space. Since he classes his absolute space together with real things, for him rotation relative to absolute space is also something real.

…inertial resistance opposed to relative acceleration of distant masses presupposes action at a distance; and as the modern physicist does not believe that he may accept this action at a distance, he comes back once more, if he follows Mach, to the ether, which has to serve as a medium for the effects of inertia. But this conception of the ether to which we are led by Mach’s way of thinking differs essentially from the ether as conceived by Newton, by Fresnel, and by Lorentz. Mach’s ether not only conditions the behaviour of inert masses, but is also conditioned in its state by them.

Mach’s idea finds its full development in the ether of the general theory of relativity. According to this theory the metrical qualities of the continuum of space-time differ in the environment of different points of space-time, and are partly conditioned by the matter existing outside of the territory under consideration[1].

The Aether Physics Model produces an Aether hypothesis, as seen by Descartes, Newton, Bernoulli, Fresnel, and Lorentz, in that it agrees with certain aspects of their observations and hypotheses. Through the unified charge equation, the APM also agrees with Mach in that the Aether acts on matter, and matter, in turn, acts upon Aether. Moreover, the Aether Physics Model agrees with Einstein in that it also explains General Relativity Theory, though from the perspective of Aether's electrostatic charge and the magnetic charge of matter. We will look into these ideas in detail later in this chapter.

#### Nikola Tesla[2]:

The technical editor of the New York Herald Tribune’s radio section responded thus to an article by Laurence M. Cockaday[3]:

“I have read the article, and I quite agree with the opinion expressed – that wireless power transmission is impractical with present apparatus. This conclusion will be naturally reached by any one who recognizes the nature of the agent by which the impulses are transmitted in present wireless practice.

“When Dr. Heinrich Hertz undertook his experiments from 1887 to 1889 his object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel. He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory. But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.

“I had maintained for many years before that such a medium as supposed could not exist, and that we must rather accept the view that all space is filled with a gaseous substance. On repeating the Hertz experiments, with much improved and very powerful apparatus, I satisfied myself that what he had observed was nothing else but effects of longitudinal waves in a gaseous medium, that is to say, waves, propagated by alternate compression and expansion. He had observed waves in the ether much of the nature of sound waves in the air.

“Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a medium. But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts. I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity. The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable. Subsequently those particles were called electrons.[4]

“One of the first striking observations made with my tubes was that a purplish glow for several feet around the end of the tube was formed, and I readily ascertained that it was due to the escape of the charges of the particles as soon as they passed out into the air; for it was only in a nearly perfect vacuum that these charges could be confined to them. The coronal discharge proved that there must be a medium besides air in the space, composed of particles immeasurably smaller than those of air, as otherwise such a discharge would not be possible. On further investigation I found that this gas was so light that a volume equal to that of the earth would weigh only about one-twentieth of a pound.

“The velocity of any sound wave depends on a certain ratio between elasticity and density, and for this ether or universal gas the ratio is 800,000,000,000 times greater than for air. This means that the velocity of the sound waves propagated through the ether is about 300,000 times greater than that of the sound waves in air, which travel at approximately 1,085 feet a second. Consequently the speed in ether is 900,000 x 1,085 feet, or 186,000 miles, and that is the speed of light.”

Nikola Tesla observed that electrons transmitted through a near-perfect vacuum in his vacuum tubes appeared as corona several feet through the air surrounding the tube. His observation is quite simple. If there is nothing in the tube between the electrode and the glass, then it remains a question of how the electrons convey through the vacuum and into the surrounding air. Tesla then deduced that the "gas" must be much finer than air molecules through which electrons could travel.

Tesla does not explain how he arrived at the elasticity-density ratio of Aether to air. If he had provided evidence of direct measurement, it would have been a major milestone in support of the Aether theory. Yet even if Tesla back-calculated the Aether to air ratio, he did theorize the Aether as “gaseous.”

Other researchers have attempted to quantify the existence of the Aether. Around 1644, René Descartes was the first to propose an all-pervading Aether with mechanical properties.

Descartes assumed that the Aether particles are continually in motion. As however there was no empty space for moving particles to move into, he inferred that they move by taking the places vacated by other Aether particles, which are themselves in motion. Thus, the movement of a single particle of the Aether involved the motion of an entire closed chain of particles; and the motions of these closed chains constituted vortices, which performed important functions in his picture of the cosmos[5].

As such, the Aether was considered incredibly solid (filling all space) and incredibly fluid. These are the ideal conditions to support waves.

The theory of Aether presented in this book will show a quantum Aether that is simultaneously solid-fluid-gaseous, which looks like tubes, called “spin positions.” These spin positions are cardioid structures curved by spherically distributed frequency. The Aether unit acts like a vessel containing subatomic particles, the basis of all matter.

Physical matter views like dust particles suspended in an aqueous solution. The Aether unit provides the volume-resonance environment for the subatomic particles. Thus when subatomic particles appear to move, it is actually Aether moving and carrying the subatomic particles with it. Matter never really travels at all. Matter always occupies the same quantum space; space moves relative only to space.

As for whether electromagnetism transmits in transverse or longitudinal form, Tesla was correct in that Aether units could oscillate as longitudinal waves. However, this does not preclude Aether from also carrying the electromagnetic effect of the photon as it passes through the Aether units. The Aether could have a mechanical effect (longitudinal wave) and an electromagnetic effect (Hertzian wave).

In the case of the longitudinal wave, the Aether unit itself moves back and forth like a gas molecule. In the case of Hertzian (transverse) waves, photons physically pass through the Aether units. Since longitudinal waves in the Aether are actual Aether displacements, longitudinal waves also have the potential to create unusual effects, such as those manifested by John Hutchison in cold-melting aluminum and by John Keely in molecular dissociation of water.

## The Shape of “Emptiness”

Aether is a dynamic fabric of volume-resonance composed of independent quantum units. Each quantum unit of Aether contains three dimensions of the length and two dimensions of frequency (distributed frequency is the unit of resonance). In addition, Aether also contains one dimension of mass and four dimensions of charge (two dimensions of electrostatic charge and two dimensions of magnetic charge). Each of the above-named dimensions produces a quantum unit of a rotating magnetic field. The whole of all the dimensions should be named "space;" thus, the phrase "space-time" is redundant as space already includes resonance and, therefore, also includes time.

The Aether unit exists within a greater and more primary space. At this point, it is hard to say whether this greater space has the same three lengths and two frequency dimensions as the Aether unit. Greater space is not necessarily limited to the spatial dimensions we perceive in the physical world. Observations of neutrinos reveal evidence of the existence of a greater (or more primary) space since they exist outside of quantum Aether units.

Because each quantum unit of Aether is independent, the Aether unit manipulates just like gaseous matter. As subatomic particles bind and unbind, they somewhat manipulate physical volume-resonance. This manipulation occurs through Aether unit folding; the Aether units literally flip over to electrostatically and magnetically bind with each other when an electron binds with a proton to produce a neutron. The effect of Aether folding is that Aether condenses where matter is present and produces the effects of circular deflection angles around massive bodies, and also causes the precession of perigee of objects in orbit around massive bodies. Augustin Fresnel observed such an effect:

There are other points concerning the action of matter upon the ether which are perhaps in a fair way to receive a clearer solution. The observed fact that light travels in water with a speed of about three-fourths of what it has in air, apparently means that the transmitting medium is either more dense or less rigid in water than in air. Fresnel’s hypothesis is that its rigidity is the same in the two media. His formula, as developed by Eisenlohr, for the relative motion of ether and matter which it permeates, when the matter is set into motion, assumes, clearly and baldly, that the ether is more dense inside of matter than in free space. The amount of ether occupying a volume of one cubic centimeter will condense to nine-sixteenths of a centimeter on passing into water. It is compressed until its density is nearly double.[6]

The more famous application of folded space manifests in Albert Einstein's General Relativity theory and Karl Schwarzschild's exact solution for General Relativity, where the circular deflection angle and precession of perigee are mathematically predicted.

All alternating currents also distort the Aether as the expansion and contraction of electrons occur. Electrons can expand and contract by changing their toroidal radii. As the smaller electron radius shrinks, the larger radius grows, thus conserving the angular momentum. Nevertheless, the Aether radius (related to spherical resonance) changes with the large radius of the electron. Thus as the electron expands and contracts, so does the Aether, making it possible to modulate Aether units directly, just as Tesla proposed.

As demonstrated in the Aether unit graphic to the left, forward and backward times have different directions within a past-future oscillation. The forward time direction flows over the surface of the Aether, and the backward time direction flows down its center. Just as length has two directions, time has two directions. If primary angular momentum could see both temporal directions, we would not perceive any progress in time, as the physical matter would advance, retreat in time, and never appear to change. However, as it is, subatomic particles appear to have only half-spin, and thus primary angular momentum only sees the forward direction of time.

The four colored tubes in the Aether unit image to the right are shaped like a loxodrome[7] and represent the four possible spin positions available to subatomic particles. The artist’s representation of an Aether unit is accurate because each of the four tube sections has the same surface area. However, the tubular electron differs considerably in proportion from the proton tube. Further, the radius of the spheres can expand and contract considerably depending upon which physical processes are occurring. A simple hydrogen atom would be wide with thin tubes, but a deuterium atom would be tight with thick tubes (nearly spherical).

Neutrons would have nearly the same properties as protons, being wide with thin tubes in their free state and tight with thick tubes (nearly spherical) in their bound state. Thus, the instability of the neutron would seem to occur when the neutron is in its free state but not in its bound state. The instability is due mostly to the neutron’s bound electron magnetic moment spreading over a greater major radius.

This would further suggest that the protons and neutrons constantly shift positions within the atomic nucleus. In certain isotopes, there would be a free neutron passing among atomic shells, thus creating the possibility for neutron decay. The more time a neutron spends as a free neutron within the nucleus, the less the atom's half-life will be. When the neutron structure is such that all neutrons remain fixed with minimal movement within the isotope, the neutron, and thus the atom, has a longer half-life.

The blue spin position is where the electron would exist within the Aether unit, the red spin position is where the proton would exist, the green spin position is for the anti-proton, and the yellow spin position is for the positron. When the electron or proton exists in forward-time volume-resonance, the subatomic particles appear to spin in one direction (left spin torque). When the antiproton or positron exists through forward-time volume-resonance, they appear to spin in the other direction (right spin torque).

The most stable forms of subatomic particles (electron and proton) appear to depend on a specific spin direction of volume-resonance. “Space parity[8]” in the Standard Model is a preferred spin direction. However, this stability is due more to the preponderance of a given spin direction than to its inherent quality. The Universe may possess both matter and antimatter galaxies. Since the photon is its own anti-particle, it could easily traverse either type of galaxy without annihilation. If a galaxy constructs from anti-matter, we may be able to observe it as though it were normal matter.

The Aether is also the source of the elementary charge. As the angular momentum of an electron exists within the Aether, it picks up the negative charge of the Aether electrostatic dipole. As the angular momentum of a proton exists within the Aether, it picks up the positive charge of the Aether electrostatic dipole. Similarly, the anti-proton and the positron pick up the charges of the portion of Aether in which they reside.

A key to understanding the Aether geometry is the realization that the spheres do not pertain to length dimensions, even though, to represent time, the spheres appear as surfaces on paper. Time and frequency do not have length dimensions, but their effect on space gives them the appearance of having curved length dimensions. Likewise, physical space is toroidal (cardioid), but because physical space orthogonally connects to frequency, the effect is that of a cube when plotted in spherical coordinates. A further explanation of this conversion of toroidal angular momentum to Cartesian geometry is on page 270.

## What the Aether is not

The Aether is not a material particle, as Heinrich Hertz, Nikola Tesla, and others have thought. When looking at the geometry of the Aether, one is looking at the spin positions available to matter. The spin positions are like holes but with reality. We may normally think of holes as the absence of matter, but in the Aether, holes are units of rotating magnetic fields that act as containers for angular momentum. In fact, the Aether sets the dimensional boundaries for physical existence.

The Aether is not a wave. However, the Aether units can produce longitudinal waves without photons traveling through them. In addition, these waves can carry real signals if the Aether is magnetically pulsed. The Aether waves are longitudinal waves of gaseous-like Aether movement, much as Nikola Tesla envisioned. Tesla also suggested that longitudinal waves in the Aether might travel faster than the speed of light. Sir Edmund Whittaker made similar observations:

Stokes’s explanation harmonises in a curious way with Fresnel’s hypothesis that the velocity of longitudinal waves in the Aether is indefinitely great compared with that of the transverse waves; for it is found by experiment with actual substances that the ratio of the velocity of propagation of longitudinal waves to that of transverse waves increases rapidly as the medium becomes softer and more plastic[9].

The Aether is not a literal fluid, although it behaves like one; sand is not a fluid but can behave like a fluid when agitated. When the Aether is agitated, molecules and atoms rearrange without directly affecting the binding forces of the atoms and molecules. In his experiments, John Hutchison rearranges molecules and atoms of aluminum by generating a high-frequency rotating magnetic field with electrons[10].

An Aether unit is neither motionless nor is it always in motion. Massive objects require more Aether units than low-density space due to the production of neutrons. If the object is in motion, a certain amount of Aether will follow it[11].

#### Aether Carries Along With Matter

“In 1904, Morley and Miller were the first to do a hilltop experiment: 'Some have thought that [the Michelson-Morley] experiment only proves that the ether in a certain basement room is carried along with it. We desire therefore to place the apparatus on a hill to see if an effect can there be detected'. “E. W. Morley and D. C. Miller, Phil. Matg, 9, 680 (1905).”[12]

Regarding the Morley and Miller experiment, it was found that the atmosphere is made up of subatomic particles enclosed in Aether. When measuring the movement of Aether with an interferometer, it was discovered that Aether units are independent of each other and are highly mobile, but they are also individually very dense and behave like a solid. Therefore, the Aether behaves as a solid clump since even the windiest atmosphere has relatively low intermolecular speeds. As far as the light beam traveling through it is concerned, there is practically no Aether movement. However, as matter becomes less dense, the density of the Aether increases. This means that less dense matter will have a greater proportion of background Aether drifting through it than dense matter.

Aether units have the ability to move independently of each other, which means that the Aether fabric across the Universe is not absolute. However, due to the fluid nature of Aether units, clumps of Aether can form isolated regions of more or less absolute spaces. This is evident from the fact that space bends around massive bodies and allows for the observed circular deflection of light. The Michelson-Morley and Morley-Miller Aether experiments were successful in providing evidence that Aether units move with physical matter such as the basement and air molecules. These experiments also showed an Aether drift, although the drift's magnitude was lower than Albert Michelson initially anticipated.

Albert Einstein's Special Relativity theory is based on the successful Michelson-Morley experiments. The theory is mathematically correct and relies on the Lorentz transformations. Hendrik Lorentz deduced from the measured data of the Michelson-Morley experiments that Aether was dragging along with the Earth. He then applied the Woldemar Voigt mathematical transformations to the Michelson Morley data, which resulted in the Lorentz transformations. Albert Einstein's contribution to the Lorentz transformations was his two postulates.

The two postulates state that the Aether does not exist and that photons always travel at speed c in all local space. The postulate denying the existence of Aether is not provable. To hide the obvious weakness of this postulate, it was deceptively reworded to state that all the laws of physics are the same (or have the same form) in all the inertial frames of reference, moving with uniform velocities concerning each other. The second postulate was common sense but had its meaning changed later on. Originally, Einstein stated that the speed of photons is the same in the local space regardless of where the local space exists. This was deceptively reworded to say that the speed of photons is the same for all observers in all reference frames. The speed of photons has nothing to do with the speed of the observers. Saying that the speed of photons is the same for all observers is a red herring in that the photon speed in the local space (Aether) is independent of observers. The only time observers enter the equation is for Doppler-type effects, which is the physics of perception based upon relative motion. Doppler effects do not physically change the environment, but Albert Einstein insisted they did through time dilation. Essentially, Albert Einstein dictated a new foundation for physics based on his deceptive logic and not based on physical observations.

## Edge of the Physical Universe

From our macro perspective of human beings, we seek to find the edge of the physical Universe in the form of a boundary, such as a wall or a bubble, which might enclose the physical Universe. The actual edge of the physical Universe resides inside each quantum Aether unit.

The maximum amount of mass a quantum of Aether may contain is equal to the mass of the Aether (\(m_{a}\)). Similarly, the maximum amount of magnetic charge a quantum Aether unit may contain is equal to the magnetic charge of the Aether (\({e_{a}}^{2}\)). The mass of the Aether expresses simply as \(m_{a}\), yet the magnetism of the Aether expresses as \(\frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}\).

The Aether unit has a tubular double loxodrome structure, producing four spin positions. Each spin position has a surface area equal to the Compton wavelength squared. The quantum length of the Aether is the Compton wavelength (\(\lambda_{C}\)), and based upon the known speed of photons, we can calculate a quantum frequency (\(F_{q}\)).

The Aether's quantum length and the quantum frequency represent both the physical length and the physical frequency maintained within an Aether unit. The physical length can be shared among two length dimensions as long as the total product of the lengths always conserves the Compton wavelength squared. The same limits apply to the quantum frequency, where one frequency dimension is the frequency of oscillation between forward time and backward time, and the other frequency dimension is the oscillation between right spin torque and left spin torque. The product of these two quantum frequencies produces resonance, and logic dictates these frequencies are absolute, not allowing frequency shifts within the conserved resonance of frequency squared. The quantum temporal frequency of forward-backward time necessarily shares the same oscillation as the quantum left-right spin torque.

Thus the Aether unit establishes the limits (boundaries) for the physical Universe within each Aether unit.

## Aether Unit

In the Aether Physics Model, the Aether has a quantum unit dimensionally equal to a 2-spin rotating magnetic field (notated as \(\textit{rmfd}\) or \(A_u\)). The rotating magnetic field manifests by the Gforce and appears to be the “container” in which subatomic particles exist in volume-resonance.

The value and dimensions of \(A_u\) are:

\begin{equation}A_u = 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}} \end{equation}

Which in quantum measurements units equals:

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{m_{a} \cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{3}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{{e_{a}}^{2}} \end{equation}

It is due to the nature of Aether, which allows only one subatomic particle per spin position, that one subatomic particle cannot pass through another, fashioning the appearance of “solid matter.” Moreover, it is due to the multiple Aether units that they eventually produce cubic and other forms, which translate as solid matter.

The Aether unit has only two possible spin positions for normal, stable matter. There are two other spin positions for anti-matter, but the matter and anti-matter cannot exist near each other because opposite spins with the same mass collide. Two length dimensions exist on the cardioid spin positions (major and minor radii), and one length dimension between the Aether units. These three dimensions of length all intersect at right angles from each other, just like the three dimensions of length in the Cartesian coordinate system.

The \(A_u\) constant fulfills the same function for the magnetic charge that Coulomb’s constant fills for electrostatic charge and Newton’s constant fulfills for mass. The \(A_u\) unit would name the “constant of proportionality” for the magnetic force law if we used the same method of ignoring non-material physical structure as the Standard Model.

Since the mass to magnetic charge ratio is the same for all subatomic particles, and for the Aether, the \(A-u\) unit is the same when expressed in terms of the proton and neutron and Aether, as well as the electron.

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}}\:{\rm{Aether}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{{{m_p} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Proton}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{{{m_n} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Neutron}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Electron}} \end{equation}

The value of \(A_u\) is “magical” in many ways. It equals Coulomb’s constant times \(16{\pi ^2}\).

\begin{equation}A_u = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \end{equation}

The dimensions of \(A_u\) are equal to magnetic field times frequency, thus proving that the unit of \(A_u\) is indeed a rotating magnetic field.

\begin{equation}A_u = mfld \cdot freq \end{equation}

Like energy, \(A_u\) is a common unit from which many other units convert.

\(A_u\) equal photon per magnetic charge. This is the manifestation of a rotating magnetic field occurring in the Hutchison effect. High-energy photons (microwaves) bombard electrons (magnetic charge) and produce a rotating magnetic field.

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{{phtn}}{{chrg}} \end{equation}

\(A_u\) equal magnetic flux times velocity. This is the manifestation of the rotating magnetic field found in electric motors. The static magnetic flux associated with a fixed magnet or electromagnet spins mechanically at a velocity.

\begin{equation}A_u = mflx \cdot velc \end{equation}

\(A_u\) equal potential times length. This manifestation of a rotating magnetic field appears in the streamers of high-potential discharges, such as in Tesla coils. The rotating magnetic field causes helices in the streamer.

\begin{equation}A_u = potn \cdot leng \end{equation}

\(A_u\) equal surface tension per charge density. This manifestation of a rotating magnetic field appears in Chukanov’s spheres[13].

\begin{equation}A_u = \frac{{sten}}{{chgd}} \end{equation}

Some of the greatest technological advances are yet to materialize and will utilize the rotating magnetic field in one form or another. Nikola Tesla already gave us one form of this rotating magnetic field technology with his polyphase AC motor. We can easily see how significantly the polyphase AC motor has transformed civilization.

John Hutchison stumbled upon the manifestation of the rotating magnetic field, which bears his name, the Hutchison effect. The Hutchison effect can cause heavy objects of any material to accelerate away from the Earth, cause metals to “melt” without getting hot, and cause dissimilar materials such as aluminum and wood to fuse without chemically changing.

There are likely many medical advances waiting for discovery with the rotating magnetic field of Aether as well.

## Spin Structure

Subatomic particles get their spin from the oscillating nature of time. It is expected to think of time as the “normal” dimension and frequency as the reciprocal of time, but in physical sciences, it should be the other way around. Temporal behavior is a frequency that oscillates one quantum moment toward the future and one quantum moment toward the past.

However, physical matter only moves forward in time, with the effect that physical matter acts like a "time diode" and presents a version of time similar to rectified AC. We "see" half-spin subatomic particles from the brain's perspective of memories and thus construct the illusion of forward, linear time. In reality, quantum frequency pulses as bursts of forward time and cause physical existence to take on the nature of temporal frames, like movie frames.

The temporal spin structure has spin that flows outside the Aether unit and then down its center, but it also has spin like a corkscrew. As a stable subatomic particle traces its spin position in the Aether unit, it moves forward in time and appears to twist either left or right. After the subatomic particle advances through forward time, it reverses toward negative time down through the center of the Aether unit. Negative time is a completely different time direction that subatomic particles cannot see. As far as the existence of physical matter goes, the two time directions are mutually exclusive of each other. However, as far as the Aether and Gforce go, there is no net forward or backward direction of time; there is only the present moment. Apparent linear, forward time is strictly a phenomenon experienced by physical matter.

An exact understanding of Aether spin is not mathematically complete. In the images of Aether units presented in this book, the endpoints of the loxodromes go through the poles of the spheres. However, the electron and proton g-factors suggest that the endpoints may be offset from the poles when moving through Aether units. The possibility that the time dimension may be egg-shaped due to the charged spheres attracting each other also needs investigation.

## Earlier Ideas about Quantized Space

The idea that the Aether possesses a quantum space structure is not widely accepted or commonly attributed to any individual in academic circles. However, several theoretical physicists have suggested variations on this theme over time, each building upon previous insights and developing novel perspectives. Here is a brief historical summary of notable figures who contributed related concepts to our current understanding of space and matter interactions:

- Anselm Keifer (17th century): This Jesuit philosopher published works analyzing metaphysical aspects of space, including its quantization or divisibility into discrete units. His investigations served as precursors to later considerations of granular spacetime, albeit from a philosophical rather than mathematical angle.
- Georg Friedrich Riemann (19th century): Known primarily for his landmark contribution to differential geometry, Riemann also delved into topics related to the foundations of mathematics and physical reality. He speculated about infinitely many spaces interconnected by a common substrate, anticipating notions of multiple realities or branches within a multiverse scenario. Although he did not specifically address the Aether or quantum space attributes, his musings inspired later cosmological models.
- Kaluza-Klein Theory ( early 20th century): Boris Kutepov proposed the existence of four compactified spatial dimensions beyond the familiar three to explain electromagnetism unification with gravity in five-dimensional spacetime; theorems named after him were developed independently by Oskar Klein. While their efforts initially applied to general relativity instead of quantum mechanics, these ideas marked initial steps toward linking higher-dimensional architectures with observable effects in lower-dimensional universes, where some quantum calculations occur.
- David Bohm, Louis De Broglie, and Niels Bohr (mid-to-late 20th century): are well known for contributing significantly to advancing the foundation of quantum theory. In particular, they contributed importantly to how quantum measurements influence particle motion and the role of probabilities in quantum mechanics.
- John Wheeler (1955) and Richard Feynman (1962 - 63): These renowned theoreticians made explicit references to "quantum foam" or fluctuations in vacuous space, influencing ensuing explorations of Planck-scale discontinuities and potential implications for black hole evaporation, cosmic rays, and other phenomena. They emphasized the dynamic character of vacuum, setting the stage for further research into stochastic processes affecting microphysical constituents within an increasingly fuzzy, structured Aether framework..
- Garth Illingworth (1988): An astrophysicist at the University of Sussex, Illingworth argued that small-scale irregularities in the distribution of galaxies throughout cosmos, which appear statistically insignificant but persistently exhibit nontrivial correlations, might arise due to quantized length scales imprinted during inflation. If correct, this would imply universal correlations between long-wavelength density modulations and minuscule Aether structures or particles generated through pre-Big Bang conditions before conventional cosmic evolution.
- Roger Penrose (1990s), Lee Smolin (1990s), Garrett Lisi (2000s), and others: Over the past few decades, several physicists have advanced notions of structured spacetime based on underlying Platonic groups ( Lie symmetries ) or emergent complexity from simpler principles. Various scenarios involving self-organizing entities embedded within a quantized Aether matrix provide rich material for synthesizing seemingly disparate constructs under one umbrella. Their exploratory paths highlight ongoing quests for unifying quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Many innovative thinkers have explored various aspects of quantized space and its potential connections to the behavior of elementary matter. This exploration has led to the current frontier areas of theoretical physics. Each contributor has added unique pieces to an expanding puzzle, providing a fertile ground for future generations to build upon and potentially discover new connections among different domains.

## Aether Dipoles

Studies in recent years of the dielectric properties of gases and electrolytes show that electrical forces and inductions in such media depend upon the polarized ions or "dipoles" of the medium. Why not extend the same concepts to electrical forces and inductions across a vacuum, that is, through the ether? We must then conceive of the ether as a medium with a structure, that is, with "ether dipoles.” By such a concept, we would obtain an explanation of "electric forces acting at a distance," something that has been very vague, or lacking, since the discard of the Maxwell ether displacement theory of electric charges and electric forces. The discovery of the electron disproved the ether displacement theory of electric charges, but it did not remove (for many physicists) the need of the ether concept in explaining electric waves, whether luminous or non-luminous. The actual structure of the ether will be a speculative problem until experiments have given us more facts in ether physics; but in view of the above, we can think of the ether as having an indefinitely large number of infinitesimal "ether dipoles."[14] – Albert P. Carman

The images on the left and right demonstrate that the quantum Aether unit represents a dipole structure. The Aether unit possesses an electrostatic dipole, and the subatomic particles encapsulated by Aether also have a magnetic dipole. As envisioned by Albert Carman, the Aether fabric can be visualized as an infinite number of quantum Aether dipoles.

## Space Density Gradient

The Aether Physics Model quantifies the quantum structure of individual Aether units, as described above. In addition, the Aether Physics Model describes the space density gradient within the Aether fabric.

The space density gradient of the Aether is quantified as an approximation in Einstein's General Relativity theory utilizing the Riemann curvature mathematics. Karl Schwarzschild derived exact and simplified equations from Albert Einstein's complex approximation of the circular deflection angle and the orbital precession of planetary perigee for planets in orbit around the Sun. The Aether Physics Model reveals that the shift in angles for both of Einstein's equations is due to the Aether's curl, and the Aether's curl is due to the formation of neutrons in atomic matter.

The Schwarzschild exact solution provides a calculation for the circular deflection angle of the Sun:

\begin{equation}R_{S}=\frac{G\cdot 2m_{sun}}{c^{2}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{circular_deflection_angle}\frac{2R_{S}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6} \end{equation}

Where the solution is expressed in radians. We could express the result in arc minutes if we choose to do so:

\begin{equation}\frac{2R_{S}}{r_{sun}}=1.752\frac{deg}{3600} \end{equation}

The Schwarzschild equation is oversimplified and does not account for the role of Aether in physics. The Aether helps us understand the physical processes involved. The complete "tensor" equation should express this.

\begin{equation}\label{red_herring}\frac{G}{c^{2}}\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}\frac{A_{u}}{c^{2}} \end{equation}

The \(c^{2}\) term in the equation (\ref{red_herring}) is redundant and does not contribute to the equation. The circular deflection angle equations (\ref{circular_deflection_angle}) and (\ref{red_herring}) thus simplify to:

\begin{equation}G\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}A_{u} \end{equation}

The equation for "tensor" shows how the Newton gravitational constant and the Aether magnetic force constant behave as "tensors," as described by Albert Einstein. Since neutrons make up half of the mass of normal physical matter, it is necessary to multiply the mass per radius of physical objects by two to account for the object's total mass.

The mass per radius on the equation's left side must balance the Aether fabric's curl on the right side. The unit of curl given in Quantum Measurements Units is expressed as:

\begin{equation}curl = \frac{chrg}{mass\cdot leng} \end{equation}

or we could express curl in MKS units as:

\begin{equation}curl = 6.333\times 10^{4}\frac{coul^{2}}{kg\cdot m} \end{equation}

The mass per radius must be doubled, so the curl must be halved. Therefore, the Aether Physics Model reveals that the unit of a radian is not dimensionless.

This exercise provides an explanation for how physics works mathematically without the need for the Aether. It has been discovered that \(curl\frac{A_{u}}{c^{2}}\) equals 1. This makes sense because physical matter affects the Aether. The Aether usually remains still in the present moment, but physical matter causes it to become strained.

In this case, it is possible to calculate a correct numerical result and label it as "radians" while ignoring the Aether's curl. However, it is important to note that radians are not truly dimensionless. The concept of curl is extensively used in Maxwell's theories, and it is better to retain the curl in its full dimensions throughout calculations. By keeping the curl as a dimensional unit in curl-related equations, it becomes easier to understand and study electrodynamics.

[1] Albert Einstein, Sidelights of Relativity (Courier Dover Publications, 1983) 16-18

[2] Tesla, Nikola 1856-1943, American electrician and inventor, b. Croatia (then in Austria-Hungary). He emigrated to the United States in 1884, worked for a short period for Edison, and became a naturalized American citizen (1891). A pioneer in the field of high-voltage electricity, he made many discoveries and inventions of great value to the development of radio transmission and to the field of electricity. These include a system of arc lighting, the Tesla induction motor and system of alternating-current transmission, the Tesla coil, generators of high-frequency currents, a transformer to increase oscillating currents to high potentials, a system of wireless communication, and a system of transmitting electric power without wires. He produced the first power system at Niagara Falls, N.Y. There is a museum dedicated to his work in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. "Tesla, Nikola," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[3] Lawrence M. Cockaday, New York Herald Tribune, Sept. 22, 1929, pp. 1, 29.

[4] “In 1874 the Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney ( 1826-1911) had also suggested the idea of a particle or atom of electricity, and in 1891 he suggested that the unit of negative electricity should be called the electron , which is what it has been called since.” Keith J. Laidler, To Light Such a Candle: Chapters in the History of Science and Technology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 149.

[5][x] Sir Edmund Whittaker: A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 6

[6] The Ether, Science, Vol. 18, No. 447. (Aug. 28, 1891), pp. 119-122.

[7] Rhumb Line - The path of a ship that maintains a fixed compass direction, shown on a map as a line crossing all meridians at the same angle. Also called loxodrome. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[8] Parity or space parity, in physics, quantity that refers to the relationship between an object or process and the image that it can produce in a mirror. For example, any right-handed object will produce a mirror-image counterpart that is identical to it in every way except that the mirror image is left-handed. A moving particle that spins in a clockwise manner, as would a right-handed screw advancing through space, will possess a mirror-image particle that is identical to it in every way except that it spins counterclockwise, as would a left-handed screw advancing through space. The law of conservation of parity implies that every real object or process has a mirror image that can also exist and that obeys the same physical laws. Although this concept has little significance in classical physics, it is of great importance in atomic and nuclear physics. From this law scientists inferred that all elementary particles and their interactions possessed mirror image counterparts that also exist. However, in 1956 T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang published a paper in which they argued that parity was not conserved in weak interactions. "Parity ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[9] Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 128

[10] Photo from The Hutchison Effect, http://www.hutchisoneffect.org/

[11] “Fresnel further assumed that, when a body is in motion, part of the Aether within it is carried along-namely, that part which constitutes the excess of its density over the density of Aether in vacuo; while the rest of the Aether within the space occupied by the body is stationary.” Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 110

[12] Quoted from Abraham Pais, Subtle Is the Lord?: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982) 113.

[13] Chukanov Energy http://www.chukanovenergy.com/index.htm

[14] Albert P. Carman, Science, New Series, Vol. 71, No. 1834 (Feb. 21, 1930), 214-215.