Aether Unit2 250Albert Einstein said:

…there is a weighty argument to be adduced in favour of the ether hypothesis.  To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever.  The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view.  For the mechanical behavior of a corporeal system hovering freely in empty space depends not only on relative positions (distances) and relative velocities, but also on its state of rotation, which physically may be taken as a characteristic not appertaining to the system itself.  In order to be able to look upon the rotation of the system, at least formally, as something real, Newton objectivises space.  Since he classes his absolute space together with real things, for him rotation relative to absolute space is also something real. 

…inertial resistance opposed to relative acceleration of distant masses presupposes action at a distance; and as the modern physicist does not believe that he may accept this action at a distance, he comes back once more, if he follows Mach, to the ether, which has to serve as a medium for the effects of inertia.  But this conception of the ether to which we are led by Mach’s way of thinking differs essentially from the ether as conceived by Newton, by Fresnel, and by Lorentz.  Mach’s ether not only conditions the behaviour of inert masses, but is also conditioned in its state by them.

Mach’s idea finds its full development in the ether of the general theory of relativity.  According to this theory the metrical qualities of the continuum of space-time differ in the environment of different points of space-time, and are partly conditioned by the matter existing outside of the territory under consideration[1].

The Aether Physics Model produces an Aether hypothesis as seen by Descartes, Newton, Bernoulli, Fresnel, and Lorentz in that it agrees with certain aspects of their observations and hypotheses.  Through the unified charge equation, the APM also agrees with Mach in that the Aether acts on matter, and matter in turn acts upon Aether.  Moreover, the Aether Physics Model agrees with Einstein in that it also explains General Relativity Theory, though from the perspective of Aether electrostatic charge and the strong charge of matter.  We will look into these ideas in detail later in this chapter.

Nikola Tesla[2]:

The technical editor of the New York Herald Tribune’s radio section responded thus to an article by Laurence M. Cockaday[3]:

“I have read the article, and I quite agree with the opinion expressed – that wireless power transmission is impractical with present apparatus. This conclusion will be naturally reached by any one who recognizes the nature of the agent by which the impulses are transmitted in present wireless practice.

“When Dr. Heinrich Hertz undertook his experiments from 1887 to 1889 his object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel.  He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory.  But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.

“I had maintained for many years before that such a medium as supposed could not exist, and that we must rather accept the view that all space is filled with a gaseous substance.  On repeating the Hertz experiments, with much improved and very powerful apparatus, I satisfied myself that what he had observed was nothing else but effects of longitudinal waves in a gaseous medium, that is to say, waves, propagated by alternate compression and expansion.  He had observed waves in the ether much of the nature of sound waves in the air.

“Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a

medium.  But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts.  I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity.  The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable.  Subsequently those particles were called electrons.[4]

“One of the first striking observations made with my tubes was that a purplish glow for several feet around the end of the tube was formed, and I readily ascertained that it was due to the escape of the charges of the particles as soon as they passed out into the air; for it was only in a nearly perfect vacuum that these charges could be confined to them.  The coronal discharge proved that there must be a medium besides air in the space, composed of particles immeasurably smaller than those of air, as otherwise such a discharge would not be possible.  On further investigation I found that this gas was so light that a volume equal to that of the earth would weigh only about one-twentieth of a pound.

“The velocity of any sound wave depends on a certain ratio between elasticity and density, and for this ether or universal gas the ratio is 800,000,000,000 times greater than for air.  This means that the velocity of the sound waves propagated through the ether is about 300,000 times greater than that of the sound waves in air, which travel at approximately 1,085 feet a second.  Consequently the speed in ether is 900,000 x 1,085 feet, or 186,000 miles, and that is the speed of light.”

Nikola Tesla observed that electrons transmitted through a near perfect vacuum in his vacuum tubes appeared as corona several feet through the air surrounding the tube.  His observation is quite simple.  If there is nothing in the tube between the electrode and the glass, then it remains a question how the electrons convey through the vacuum and into the surrounding air.  Tesla then deduced that there must be a gas much finer than air molecules through which electrons could travel.

Tesla does not explain how he arrived at the elasticity-density ratio of Aether to air.  If he had provided evidence of direct measurement, it would have been a major milestone in support of the Aether theory.  Yet even if Tesla back calculated the Aether to air ratio, he did theorize the Aether as “gaseous.” 

Other researchers have attempted to quantify the existence of the Aether.  Around 1644, René Descartes was the first to propose an all-pervading Aether with mechanical properties.

Descartes assumed that the Aether particles are continually in motion.  As however there was no empty space for moving particles to move into, he inferred that they move by taking the places vacated by other Aether particles, which are themselves in motion.  Thus, the movement of a single particle of the Aether involved the motion of an entire closed chain of particles; and the motions of these closed chains constituted vortices, which performed important functions in his picture of the cosmos[5].

As such, the Aether was considered to be incredibly solid (it fills all space), but also incredibly fluid.  These are the ideal conditions to support waves.

The theory of Aether presented in this book will show a quantum Aether that is simultaneously solid-fluid-gaseous, which looks like tubes, called “spin positions.”  These spin positions are cardioidal structures curved by spherical distributed frequency.  The Aether unit acts like a vessel for containing onta, which are the basis of all matter.   

Physical matter views like dust particles suspended in an aqueous solution.  The Aether unit provides the space-resonance environment for the onta.  Thus when onta appear to move, it is actually Aether moving and carrying the onta with it.  Matter never really travels at all.  Matter always occupies the same space and time.  In actuality, space-time moves relative only to space-time.

Aether fabric FINALAs for whether electromagnetism transmits in transverse or longitudinal form, Tesla was correct in that Aether units could oscillate as longitudinal waves.  However, this does not preclude Aether from also carrying the electromagnetic effect of the photon as it passes through the Aether units.  The Aether could then have a mechanical effect (longitudinal wave) as well as an electromagnetic effect (Hertzian wave).

In the case of the longitudinal wave, the Aether unit itself moves back and forth like a gas molecule.  In the case of Hertzian (transverse) waves, photons physically pass through the Aether units.  Since longitudinal waves in the Aether are actual Aether displacements, longitudinal waves also have the potential to create unusual effects such as those manifested by John Hutchison in cold-melting aluminum, and by John Keely in molecular dissociation of water.

The Shape of “Emptiness”

Aether is a dynamic fabric of space-resonance composed of independent quantum units.  Each quantum unit of Aether contains three dimensions of length and two dimensions of frequency (distributed frequency is the unit of resonance).  In addition, Aether also contains one dimension of mass, four dimensions of charges (two dimensions of electrostatic charge and two dimensions of electromagnetic charge), and spin.  Each of the above named dimensions produce a quantum unit of rotating magnetic field.

The Aether unit itself exists within a greater and yet more primary “space-time” continuum.  It is hard to say at this point whether this greater space-time has the same three length and two frequency dimensions as the Aether unit.  Greater space-time is not necessarily limited to the space-time dimensions that we perceive in the physical world.  Observations of neutrinos reveal evidence of the existence of a greater (or more primary) space-time, since they exist outside of quantum Aether units.

Because each quantum unit of Aether is independent, the Aether unit manipulates just like gaseous matter.  As onta bind and unbind, they manipulate physical space-resonance to some degree.  This manipulation occurs through Aether unit folding; the Aether units literally flip over to electrostatically and electromagnetically bind with each other.  The effect of Aether folding is that Aether condenses where matter is present.  Augustin Fresnel observed such an effect:

There are other points concerning the action of matter upon the ether which are perhaps in a fair way to receive a clearer solution.  The observed fact that light travels in water with a speed of about three-fourths of what it has in air, apparently means that the transmitting medium is either more dense or less rigid in water than in air.  Fresnel’s hypothesis is that its rigidity is the same in the two media.  His formula, as developed by Eisenlohr, for the relative motion of ether and matter which it permeates, when the matter is set into motion, assumes, clearly and baldly, that the ether is more dense inside of matter than in free space.  The amount of ether occupying a volume of one cubic centimeter will condense to nine-sixteenths of a centimeter on passing into water.  It is compressed until its density is nearly double.[6]

All alternating currents also distort the Aether as the expansion and contraction of electrons occurs.  Electrons can expand and contract by changing their toroidal radii.  As the smaller electron radius shrinks, the larger radius grows, thus conserving the angular momentum.  Nevertheless, the Aether radius (related to spherical resonance) changes with the large radius of the electron.  Thus as the electron expands and contracts, so does the Aether, making it possible to modulate Aether units directly, just as Tesla proposed.

As demonstrated in the spacetime graphic below, forward time and backward time have different directions within a past-future oscillation.  Just as length has two directions, time has two directions.  If primary angular momentum could see both time directions, we would not perceive any progress in time, as we would always remain in the present.  However, as it is, onta appear to have only half-spin and thus primary angular momentum only sees the forward direction of time.

Aether Unit2 250The four colored tubes in the spacetime image are in the shape of a loxodrome[7] and represent the four possible spin positions available to onta.  The artist’s representation of an Aether unit is accurate to the extent that each of the four tube sections has the same surface area.  However, in actuality the electron tube is considerably different in proportion from the proton tube.  Further, the radius of the spheres can expand and contract considerably depending upon which physical processes are occurring.  A simple hydrogen atom would be wide with thin tubes, but a deuterium atom would be tight with thick tubes (nearly spherical).

Neutrons would have nearly the same properties as protons, being wide with thin tubes in their free state, and tight with thick tubes (nearly spherical) in their bound state.  Thus, the instability of the neutron would seem to occur when the neutron is in its free state, but not in its bound state.  The instability is due mostly to the neutron’s bound electron magnetic moment spreading over a greater radius.

This would suggest further that the protons and neutrons are constantly shifting positions within the atomic nucleus.  In certain isotopes there would be a free neutron passing among atomic shells, thus creating the possibility for neutron decay.  The more time a neutron spends as a free neutron within the nucleus, the less the half-life of the atom will be.  When the neutron structure is such that all neutrons remain fixed in place with minimal movement within the isotope, it has a longer half-life.

The blue spin position is where the electron would exist within the Aether unit, the red spin position is where the proton would exist, the green spin position is for the anti-proton, and the yellow spin position is for the positron.  When the electron or proton exists in forward-time space-resonance, the onta appear to be spinning in one direction.  When the antiproton or positron exists through forward-time space-resonance, they appear to be spinning in the other direction.

It appears that the most stable forms of onta (electron and proton) depend on a specific spin direction of space-resonance.  “Space parity[8]” in the Standard Model is a preferred spin direction.  However, this stability is due more to the preponderance of a given spin direction than to its inherent quality.  It is quite possible that the Universe possesses both matter and antimatter galaxies.  Since the photon is its own anti-particle, it could easily traverse either type of galaxy without annihilation.  If a galaxy constructs from anti-matter, we may be able to observe it as though it were normal matter.

The Aether is also the source of elementary charge.  As the angular momentum of an electron exists within the Aether, it picks up the negative charge of the Aether electrostatic dipole.  As the angular momentum of a proton exists within the Aether, it picks up the positive charge of the Aether electrostatic dipole.  Similarly, the anti-proton and the positron pick up the charges of the portion of Aether in which they reside. 

A key to understanding the Aether geometry is the realization that the spheres do not pertain to dimensions of length, even though, in order to represent time, the spheres appear as lines on paper.  Time and frequency do not have length dimensions, but their effect on space gives them the appearance of having length dimensions.  Likewise, physical space is toroidal (cardioidal, really), but because physical space orthogonally connects to time and frequency, the effect is that of a cube when plotted in spherical coordinates.  A further explanation of this conversion of toroidal angular momentum to Cartesian geometry is on page 270.

What the Aether is not

The Aether is not a physical particle as Heinrich Hertz and others have thought.  When looking at the geometry of the Aether, one is looking at the spin positions available to matter.  The spin positions are like holes, but with reality.  We may normally think of holes as the absence of matter, but in the Aether, holes are units of rotating magnetic field that act as containers for angular momentum.  Further, these angular momenta must be exactly the same magnitude as the Aether spin positions, or they will wander between Aether units, unable to interact with the physical world (as in the case of neutrinos).  

The Aether is not a wave.  However, the Aether units can produce waves, even without photons traveling through them.  In addition, these waves can carry real signals if the Aether is magnetically pulsed.  The Aether waves are longitudinal waves of gaseous Aether movement, much as Nikola Tesla envisioned.  Tesla also suggested that longitudinal waves in the Aether might travel faster than the speed of light.  Sir Edmund Whittaker made similar observations:

Stokes’s explanation harmonises in a curious way with Fresnel’s hypothesis that the velocity of longitudinal waves in the Aether is indefinitely great compared with that of the transverse waves; for it is found by experiment with actual substances that the ratio of the velocity of propagation of longitudinal waves to that of transverse waves increases rapidly as the medium becomes softer and more plastic[9].

The Aether is not a fluid, although it behaves like one; just as sand is not a fluid, but can behave hutchison cold melt 4like a fluid when agitated.  When the Aether is agitated, molecules and atoms rearrange without a direct effect on the binding forces of the atoms and molecules. In his experiments, John Hutchison rearranges molecules and atoms of aluminum by generating a high frequency rotating magnetic field with electrons[10].

An Aether unit is neither motionless, nor is it always in motion.  Massive objects require more Aether units than low-density space.  If the object is in motion, a certain amount of Aether will follow it[11].  This is possible due to the independent nature of Aether units.

Aether Carries Along With Matter

“In 1904, Morley and Miller were the first to do a hilltop experiment: 'Some have thought that [the Michelson-Morley] experiment only proves that the ether in a certain basement room is carried along with it.  We desire therefore to place the apparatus on a hill to see if an effect can there be detected'. “E. W. Morley and D. C. Miller, Phil. Matg, 9, 680 (1905).”[12]

With regard to the Morley and Miller experiment, even the atmosphere constructs from onta encapsulated in Aether.  The unexpected result of measuring Aether movement with an interferometer was that while Aether units are independent of each other and are extremely willing to move, they are also individually extremely dense and behave like a solid.  Therefore, since even the windiest atmosphere has relatively low intermolecular speeds, the Aether behaves as a solid clump within it.  As far as the light beam traveling through it is concerned, there is practically no Aether movement.  However, as matter becomes less dense, so does the density of the Aether, thus less dense matter will have a greater proportion of background Aether drifting through it than will dense matter.

Since Aether units can move independently of each other, the Aether fabric across the Universe is not absolute.  However, because of the independent and fluid nature of Aether units, clumps of Aether can form isolated regions of more or less absolute space-time.  This must be true since space-time bends around massive bodies and allows for the observed lensing of light.  Moreover, with this understanding, the Michelson–Morley, and Morley–Miller Aether experiments were a success, because they provided evidence that Aether units move with physical matter (the basement and air molecules).  The experiments were also a success in that they did show an Aether drift, even though it was of a lower magnitude than anticipated.

Aether Unit

In the Aether Physics Model, the Aether has a quantum unit dimensionally equal to a 2-spin rotating magnetic field (\(rmfd\)). The rotating magnetic field appears to be manifested by the Gforce and appears to be the “container” in which onta exist in space-resonance.

The value and dimensions of \(rmfd\) are:

\[rmfd = 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}} \tag{4.1}\]

It is due to the nature of Aether, which allows only one onn per spin position, that one onn cannot pass through another, fashioning the appearance of “solid matter.”  Moreover, it is due to the multiple Aether units that they eventually produce cubic and other forms, which translate as solid matter (this is further discussed on page 269).

In the Aether unit, there are only two possible spin positions for normal, stable matter.  There are two other spin positions for anti-matter, but the matter and anti-matter cannot exist near each other, because opposite spins with the same mass tend to collide with each other.  There are two dimensions of length on the cardioid spin positions, and there is one dimension of length between the Aether units.  These three dimensions of length all intersect at right angles from each other, just like the three dimensions of length in a Cartesian coordinate.

The double cardioid geometry represents the shapes produced by the non-material Aether unit.  The only time there are literally two cardioid objects adjacent to each other is when two onta are bound to each other, or when a photon forms.

The \(rmfd\) constant fulfills the same function for strong charge that Coulomb’s constant fills for electrostatic charge and Newton’s constant fulfills for mass.  The \(rmfd\) unit would name the “constant of proportionality” for the strong force law, if we were to use the same method of ignoring non-material physical structure as the Standard Model.

Since the mass to strong charge ratio is the same for all onta and for the Aether, the \(rmfd\) unit is the same when expressed in terms of the proton and neutron and Aether, as well as the electron.

\[rmfd = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}}\:{\rm{Aether}} \tag{4.2}\]

\[rmfd = \frac{{{m_p} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Proton}} \tag{4.3}\]

\[rmfd = \frac{{{m_n} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}\:{\rm{Neutron}} \tag{4.4}\]

The value of \(rmfd\) is “magickal” in many ways.  It is equal to Coulomb’s constant times \(16{\pi ^2}\). 

\[rmfd = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \tag{4.5}\]

The dimensions of \(rmfd\) are equal to magnetic field times frequency, thus providing evidence that the unit of \(rmfd\) is indeed a rotating magnetic field.

\[rmfd = mfld \cdot freq \tag{4.6}\]

Like energy, \(rmfd\) is a common unit from which many other units convert. 

\(Rmfd\) equal photon per strong charge.  This is the manifestation of rotating magnetic field occurring in the Hutchison effect.  High-energy photons (microwaves) bombard electrons (strong charge) and produce a rotating magnetic field. 

\[rmfd = \frac{{phtn}}{{chrg}} \tag{4.7}\]

\(Rmfd\) equal magnetic flux times velocity.  This is the manifestation of rotating magnetic field found in electric motors.  The static magnetic flux associated with a fixed magnet or electromagnet spins mechanically at a velocity.

\[rmfd = mflx \cdot velc \tag{4.8}\]

\(Rmfd\) equal potential times length.  This manifestation of rotating magnetic field appears in the streamers of high potential discharges, such as in Tesla coils.  The rotating magnetic field causes helices in the streamer.

\[rmfd = potn \cdot leng \tag{4.9}\]

\(Rmfd\) equal surface tension per charge density.  This manifestation of rotating magnetic field appears in Chukanov’s spheres[13]

\[rmfd = \frac{{sten}}{{chgd}} \tag{4.10}\]

Some of the greatest advances in technology are yet to materialize, and will utilize the rotating magnetic field in one form or another.  Nikola Tesla already gave us one form of this rotating magnetic field technology with his polyphase AC motor.  We can easily see just how significant the polyphase AC motor has been in transforming civilization. 

John Hutchison stumbled upon the manifestation of the rotating magnetic field, which bears his name, the Hutchison effect.  The Hutchison effect can cause heavy objects of any material to accelerate away from the Earth, can cause metals to “melt” without getting hot, and cause dissimilar materials such as aluminum and wood to fuse without chemically changing.

There are likely many medical advances waiting for discovery with the rotating magnetic field of Aether as well. 

Spin Structure

 Onta get their spin from the oscillating nature of time.  It is common to think of time as the “normal” dimension, and frequency as the reciprocal of time, but it is the other way around.  Time is really a frequency that oscillates one quantum moment toward the future and one quantum moment toward the past. 

However, physical matter only moves forward in time, with the effect that physical matter acts like a time diode and presents a version of time similar to rectified AC current.  We see half-spin onta from the perspective of half-spin onta, and thus the illusion of forward, linear time.  In reality, time pulses and causes physical existence to take on the nature of frames, like frames of a movie.

The spin structure has spin like a top, but in time it also has spin like a corkscrew.  As a stable onn traces its spin position in the Aether unit, it moves forward in time and appears to rotate.  After the onn advances through forward time, it reverses toward negative time.  Negative time is a completely different time direction which onta cannot see.  As far as the existence of physical matter goes, the two time directions are mutually exclusive of each other.  However, as far as the Aether and Gforce go, there is no net forward or backward direction of time, there is only the present.  Linear time is strictly a phenomenon experienced by matter.

An exact understanding of Aether spin is not yet complete.  In the images of Aether units presented in this book, the endpoints of the loxodromes go through the poles of the spheres.  However, the electron and proton g-factors suggest that the endpoints may offset from the poles when moving through Aether units.  The possibility that the time dimension may be egg shaped due to the charged spheres attracting each other also needs investigation. 

Fortunately, good documentation of the half-spin nature of onta exists in the scientific literature even though the precise geometry of the Aether does not.  This allows us to further our understanding of the spin of the Aether.

Aether Dipoles

STUDIES in recent years of the dielectric properties of gases and electrolytes show that electrical forces and inductions in such media depend upon the polarized ions or "dipoles" of the medium.  Why not extend the same concepts to electrical forces and inductions across a vacuum, that is, through the ether?  We must then conceive of the ether as a medium with a structure, that is, with "ether dipoles.”  By such a concept, we would obtain an explanation of "electric forces acting at a distance," something that has been very vague, or lacking, since the discard of the Maxwell ether displacement theory of electric charges and electric forces.  The discovery of the electron disproved the ether displacement theory of electric charges, but it did not remove (for many physicists) the need of the ether concept in explaining electric waves, whether luminous or non-luminous.  The actual structure of the ether will be a speculative problem until experiments have given us more facts in ether physics; but in view of the above, we can think of the ether as having an indefinitely large number of infinitesimal "ether dipoles."[14]  – Albert P. Carman

As shown in the image on the next page, the quantum Aether unit models as a dipole structure.  Not only does the Aether unit have an electrostatic dipole, but the Aether encapsulated onta also has an electromagnetic dipole as well.  Just as Albert Carman envisioned, the Aether fabric can visualize as an indefinitely large number of quantum Aether dipoles.

Aether Structures

As we look into atomic structure, it becomes apparent that Linus Pauling's Spheron Model[15] accurately describes the fill pattern of atomic nuclei.  The fill pattern rests on a peculiar system of half-spin numbers.  As it turns out, this system of half-spin numbers is the actual “numbering system” used by the Aether.

Aether Unit2 250How can there be a half-spin numbering system in the Aether?  Because human senses perceive that one onn occupies one unit of space-time.  However, onta cannot fill an entire Aether unit, which leaves three spin positions unaccounted for.  The Aether unit divides into four portions of spin positions in forward time.  Of these four spin positions, only two occur in left hand spin, meaning there are only two possibilities for stable matter, the electron, and proton.  Each spin position has exactly half-spin. 

It is the half-spin onn per Aether unit, which distorts physical structures relative to Aether structures.  This distortion is apparent wherever Aether interacts directly with onta.  The logarithmic scale is a direct result of the interaction between half-spin onn and Aether (although one-spin photons also cause a distortion with regard to Aether).

The left hand spin characteristic of stable onta supports Tsung Dao Lee and Chen Ning Yang’s violation of parity theory[8].  The left-hand-only spin characteristic of onta appears when free electrons eject during beta decay or when streaming as free electrons in a current.  In electrostatic binding or strong charge binding, the onta are moving toward each other and spinning in opposite directions and so exhibit both left hand and right hand spins.

The Aether further evidences a preferred spin direction as observed in the asymmetry of matter/anti-matter existence.  Nature does prefer matter to anti-matter[16], at least in our part of the Universe.  The Aether Physics Model attributes this apparent preference to the gravity repulsion effect of matter to anti-matter.  Matter and anti-matter collide and produce photons when they encounter each other, but they gravitationally repel each other at a distance.  The gravitational repelling effect is the antithesis of gravitational attraction.  Since matter in our part of the Universe happens to be left-hand spin, and since for practical reasons there is no anti-matter within atoms or molecules, for purposes of quantifying material structure the Aether essentially is a two-spin-position unit.

The proton spin position is equal to half the Aether unit, plus ½ spin for the proton spin position itself.  The electron spin position is equal to half the Aether unit, minus ½ spin.

\[\frac{y}{2} + \frac{1}{2} = proton\:spin\:position \tag{4.11}\]

\[\frac{x}{2} - \frac{1}{2} = electron\:spin\:position \tag{4.12}\]

And since the Aether units are polar aligned (negative is attracted to positive), the electron spin position could just as easily be thought of as half the Aether unit, plus 3/2-spin:

\[\frac{x}{2} + \frac{3}{2} = electron\:spin\:position \tag{4.13}\]

spin images

In the above image, the electron spin position represents by the blue loxodrome and the proton spin position is the red loxodrome.  In either case, the electron and proton spin positions provide the only possibilities for real matter to manifest in our part of the Universe. 

Since the electron and proton spin positions are part of the spheres of Aether, and since the Aether constant is equal to \(16{\pi ^2}\) \(\left( {4\pi  \cdot 4\pi } \right)\), which implies the two spin positions are orthogonal to each other, we can assume that the proton and electron spin positions are also orthogonal to each other.  The array determines the full range of spin positions available to a given number of Aether units.

\[G\left( {x,y} \right) = \frac{{x + 1}}{2} \cdot \frac{{y - 1}}{2} \tag{4.14}\]

In the above equation, x and y are integers representing the total number of proton and electron spin positions available for a given structure as viewed from the macro world. 

Using the CreateMesh function of MathCAD, the Aether numbers can be surface plotted.  When first investigating Aether numbers, we arbitrarily assumed a fixed mesh of 80 x 80.  We also assumed that a complete cycle of data \(\left( t \right)\) would be half the odd whole number \(h\) times \(\pi \).

Aether Number Intro

We have since found the above assumptions were incomplete.  In nature, the mesh is infinite, being a perfectly curved surface.  Also, at the quantum level there are five dimensions of space-resonance, rather than our four dimensional macro perspective of space-time.  With the discovery of the electron binding energy equation for ground state electrons, the number of Aether units in five dimensions empirically induces as \(\frac{{\sqrt {{x^2} + 1} }}{2}\) reinforcing the notion that Aether structures have a spiral nature to them.  It remains to mathematically prove this hypothesis.

Notice in the above image the shallow image (red) is 180º out of sync with the deeper half of the image (blue).  The shallow half of the image appears to represent the forward time portion of the Aether structure and the deeper half the backward time portion. 

Let us change the function of G to reflect Aether structures indicated by the variable 1s orbital electron radii in the electron binding energy equation:

\[G\left( {x,y} \right) = \frac{{\frac{{\sqrt {{y^2} + 1}  - 1}}{2}}}{{\frac{{\sqrt {{x^2} + 1}  + 1}}{2}}} \tag{4.15}\]

We will also change the mesh to be proportional to \(h\) by a factor of ten.  This eliminates the distracting artifacts of different shapes caused by different proportions of \(h\) to the mesh.  (Although different meshes may not apply to the quantum level, they may still have relevance to macro structures.)  Consequently, we now see a nearly curved structure, which we imagine as perfectly curved.  Because the mesh is now proportional to \(h\), all generated images will show the same proportion of “nearly curved” structure.

createmesh ebe

In the preceding two views of the Aether structures, we are looking down the time axis (z axis) of the Aether units.  In the former view on the preceding page, the forward time portion is discordant with the backward time portion.  In the latter view above, which modifies according to the electron binding energy equation, the two views are coordinated, which is why the blue image is not visible.

We can now view graphical representations of the ground state electron in each atom.  We will also change our perception from four dimensions to five dimensions so we can see more detail of how quantum structures operate.  Keep in mind that the pictures shown here are only static, two-dimensional representations of a dynamic, five-dimensional structure. 

EBE Geometry

As the ground state electron structure grows in complexity, its proportion of minor radius to major radius spirals inward.

Whereas the mesh for quantum structures is infinitely smooth, that is not the case for macro structures.  As atoms bind to produce molecules, and molecules bind to produce structures of greater complexity, the mesh becomes grainier.  The patterns formed for a particular granulation will differ from others.  The coarseness of the granulation is likely variable according to size, mass density, temperature, pressure, and other considerations.

Granular Aether Structures

Our original investigation conducts as a general exploration of Aether structures for a mesh of 80 x 80.  We provide this earlier view to show the general direction a more detailed analysis of macro Aether structure might follow. 

Starting from a very simple data set, assume there is a space-resonance cluster containing \(\pi \) number of Aether units.  We produce a contour graph of the spin positions in the Cartesian coordinate system.  To see what the contour actually looks like we can examine this graphic, which represents the function of \(G\left( {x,y} \right)\) from three different angles within five-dimensional existence.  This characteristic of the Aether demonstrates its orthogonality.


Image A is a view of the contour plot directly down the Z-axis (linear time axis) and looking at the X and Y-axis in a Cartesian coordinate system.  Image B is from a different perspective in the same coordinate system and shows that the contour plot is a 3D image over time.  Image C shows the same data set appearing as a curve from a position orthogonal to the time axis. 

This representative view of the data demonstrates the orthogonality of the Aether.  In other instances, the Aether appears to be electromagnetic from one view and mechanical from a different view.  The Aether appears angular from one view and curved from another view.  This is what we mean when we say the Aether has orthogonality.

Applying a range of \(-\pi \) to \(\pi \) to equation (4.14), the following contour data generates in the Cartesian coordinate system (it is the same as the image above).

Aether number01

Using the same equation, but applying it to a cylindrical coordinate system, the data appears as a spiral cone.

Aether number02

Now we will present the above image with a color map scheme so it will be easier to visualize the data.  The bluer colors are deep and the redder colors are shallow.  The deep blue represents an earlier time than the shallow red.

Aether number03

In the image below, the range is increased from \(\pi \) to \(\frac{{19}}{2}\pi \).  In the cylindrical coordinate system, each full cycle of revolution is equal to \(2\pi \).  By choosing the negative and positive values for a given range, we are essentially using twice the range.  Thus by keeping units in multiples of \(\pi \) we always have a full cycle \(\left( {2\pi } \right)\) of data.  Similarly, since we are viewing the Aether structures in the form of \(\frac{{x \pm 1}}{2}\) it is necessary for the numerator to be an odd integer if we are to get a whole cycle of data. 

The angle of the image above does not change from the previous images and neither has the view angle of the few succeeding images (all images view looking down the Z-axis).  The image below represents a range from \( - \frac{{19}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{19}}{2}\pi \). 

Aether number04

The appearance of the flower pattern is interesting, but is not the object of this investigation.  Changing the range from \( - \frac{{31}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{31}}{2}\pi \), the geometry completely changes while maintaining a similar order.

Aether number05

Now we begin to see the importance of our investigation of Aether structures.  Although these images are number generated, they base on the proportion of Aether to half-spin onta.  For the next image, the range is set for \( - \frac{{53}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{53}}{2}\pi \). 

Aether number06

Six polygonal shapes are generated as Aether structures, ranging from 3-sided to 8-sided polygons.  There are also a number of star shapes varying from 5 points to 13 points and more.  The range of the following image was set for \( - \frac{{73}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{73}}{2}\pi \).

Aether number07

In all of the cylindrical coordinate images presented here, the red-orange colors represent a geometry facing the forward time direction, while there is also a similar but slightly different shape facing the backward time direction.  The blue colors are the backside of the red shape.  This 13-point star is just one of many stars generated in this sequence of Aether structures, including near perfect 5 and 7 point stars.

The shapes do not morph ceaselessly, however.  Just as musical tones continually repeat as harmonics in logarithmically increasing octaves, the Aether shapes also repeat themselves, albeit in a mirrored type of manner.  For the range of \( - \frac{{157}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{157}}{2}\pi \) this image appears:

Aether number08

However, the next image in the sequence for the range \( - \frac{{159}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{159}}{2}\pi \) mirrors the above image.

From here, the images repeat themselves.  For example, the image determined by the range for \(\frac{{53}}{2}\pi \) is replicated in the range of \( - \frac{{105}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{105}}{2}\pi \).

Aether number17

The range for the next replication of the triangle is twice the previous triangle range base plus the current range base:

\[2 \cdot 53 + 105 = 211 \tag{4.16}\]

So the next range that will produce the triangle would be \(\frac{{211}}{2}\pi \).

Going back to the two consecutive images that mirror each other, \(\frac{{157}}{2}\pi \) and \(\frac{{159}}{2}\pi \), the image in between must represent the “maximum” of the overall image cycle.  This is the point where the progression of the images reverses itself.  The image for the exact range of \( - \frac{{158}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{158}}{2}\pi \) takes on a completely different form than the slightest departure from \( \frac{{158}}{2}\pi \).

Aether number10

The above image is a very precise crossing point, providing evidence for the reality of the Aether structures.  In other words, the Aether structures presented here are not a fantasy of numerology and pictures; this presentation represents a very real geometrical cycle of half-spin onn and Aether units.

As it turns out, the value 158 is very close to the Aether geometrical constant of \(16{\pi ^2}\) (157.914).  The surface plot for the range using \(16{\pi ^2}\) instead of 158, \( - \frac{{16{\pi ^2}}}{2}\pi \) to \( + \frac{{16{\pi ^2}}}{2}\pi \), is shown below:

Aether number11

The above image views from the same angle as the previous image.  Another view made by rotating the \(16{\pi ^2}\) data presents the image in the shape of an eye.

Aether number12

The eye is a fitting symbol for the \(16{\pi ^2}\) Aether geometrical constant, which is already associated with the dynamic and living Aether unit.  As a side note, the ancient Egyptians and modern Freemasons use the “all-seeing eye” as a symbol for God.  In fact, the all-seeing eye appears on every American dollar bill, over a pyramid. 

Just for fancy, the Aether numbers applied to the spherical coordinate system can produce reflecting pyramids, too.  The image below is produced in the spherical coordinate system with the range base of \( \frac{{41 \cdot 105}}{2}\pi \):

Aether number18

When \(16{\pi ^2}\) is applied to the surface plot, it gives a slightly different value than when 158 is applied.  The ratio of the Aether half-spin value to the Aether constant value is the offset.

\[\frac{{\frac{{158}}{2}\pi }}{{\frac{{16{\pi ^2}}}{2}\pi }} = 1.00055 \tag{4.17}\]

We see an offset wherever the Aether interfaces with half-spin onta.  For example, the offset of the onta with regard to the Aether is the onn g-factor.  The offset of the Aether-based Pythagorean scale of music and the physical tempered scale of music is the tempered semitone[17].  Undoubtedly, there are other examples.

Whether or not there is a direct relationship, it is interesting to note that the Aether structure offset is approximately equal to the square root of half the electron g-factor:

\[\sqrt {\frac{1}{{\sin \left( {Phi} \right)}}}  = 1.00056 \tag{4.18}\]

where Phi is the Golden Ratio and the g-factor equation is that of the Aether Physics Model (page 170).

Just as octaves increase logarithmically in the tempered music scale, the Aether structures also increase logarithmically, further establishing the reality of the structures.  In the Aether structure series, \(\frac{{158}}{2}\pi \) is an exact “octave.”  Each successive “octave” calculates by the formula \(\frac{{{2^x} \cdot 158}}{2}\pi \) where x is the number of octaves ascending from the base octave of zero.  (The word “octave” does not truly apply to Aether structures since there are more than 8 “whole tones” in each octave; here it indicates a complete set of steps within a cycle).  To illustrate that each octave of  produces the same image, see the random octaves below:

 \(\frac{{{2^2} \cdot 158}}{2}\pi \)  \(\frac{{{2^5} \cdot 158}}{2}\pi \) \(\frac{{{2^9} \cdot 158}}{2}\pi \) \(\frac{{{2^11} \cdot 158}}{2}\pi \)
Aether number13 Aether number14 Aether number15 Aether number16

The world comprising human experience has many variations in form.  But within these forms we see patterns.  Flowers tend to have petal or spike patterns, as seen in the above graphics.  Flowers even seem to reflect the Fibonacci sequence, which is also a manifestation of Aether numbers.  Seashells and other exoskeletal creatures tend to have the shapes found in Aether structures when applied to the spherical coordinate system.  The bell pepper, seeds, and numerous other shapes model after Aether structures in the spherical coordinate system.  So the world of seemingly infinite form is really a symphony of shape, repeating at various octaves, sometimes harmoniously, and sometimes not.

These forms originate in the independent nature of Aether units.  After examining Aether units with respect to half-spin onta, it is very easy to see how the physical Universe can have so much variety in all its forms.  Yet it is quite remarkable that all the variations of forms that we see arise from just two discrete onta, the electron and proton, and their relationship to the Aether.

Below is a table showing the progression of the square root of Aether numbers.  Notice the product of the proton and electron spin position numbers equal an even interval of ¼.  The curvature of Aether implies that the “quarter phases” refer to a cycle.  The implication is that a full cycle consists of 5 Aether units.  It is likely that there is a trigonometric connection to the Aether numbers.  Notice that zero has a real place in this progression.

Aether Table02cycle

The electron and proton spin positions, which determine the structure of the physical world, have both a \(Phi\) and a \(phi\) component.  We could think of these components as square roots, but they are square roots within the Aether structure.  Both \(Phi\) and \(phi\) are series numbers and generate by the formulas:

\[\frac{{\sqrt x  + 1}}{2} = Phi \tag{4.19}\]

\[\frac{{\sqrt x  - 1}}{2} = phi \tag{4.20}\]

Golden Ratio

In equations (4.19) and (4.20), the variable x denotes as the sequence number of Aether units.  It is here that we learn from the Aether something very telling.  When five Aether units make up a cycle, \(Phi\) is the Golden Ratio and \(phi\) its inverse.

\[\frac{{\sqrt 5  + 1}}{2} = 1.61803398874989 \tag{4.21}\]

\[\frac{{\sqrt 5  - 1}}{2} = 0.61803398874989 \tag{4.22}\]

Whereas the product of \({Phi}\) and \({pPhi}\) give the phase of the cycle, the sum of \({Phi}\) and \({phi}\) give the square root of the sequence.  This explains why \({Phi}\) and \({phi}\) show up continually in the physical world, wherever growth occurs and living forms appear.  Growth occurs in cycles, and therefore we would expect the cycles to reflect the Fibonacci sequence.

There are many good sources of information about the Fibonacci sequence and its appearance in living and growing systems.  If the reader is not familiar with the Fibonacci sequence, Internet web sites can give an introduction.  A good place to start is

The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, The World’s Most Astonishing Number by Mario Livio is also a good read.

Pythagorean Concepts

The Aether numbers also determine harmony in music.  Pythagoras gets credit for developing a scale of tones still known as the Pythagorean scale[18].  However, other sources indicate the Pythagorean scale may have originated much earlier. Little information about Pythagoras exists, but there are accounts that he either learned directly from the Egyptians or else from the students of Thales.  Thales himself learned geometry from the Egyptians. 

Beginning with the discovery that the relationship between musical notes could be expressed in numerical ratios, the Pythagoreans elaborated a theory of numbers, the exact meaning of which is still disputed by scholars.  Briefly, they taught that all things were numbers, meaning that the essence of things was number, and that all relationships — even abstract ethical concepts like justice — could be expressed numerically.  They held that numbers set a limit to the unlimited — thus foreshadowing the distinction between form and matter that plays a key role in all later philosophy[19].

There are many today who believe that mathematics is only a language, and that mathematics of itself does not reflect reality.  With regard to calculus, they are probably correct.  Electrons and protons are primary angular momentum and the basis of all physical matter, but the spin positions taken by this primary angular momentum are purely numerical.  Thus, it is possible for a physical entity to have a numerical representation via its spin position.

Using the onta spin positions of the Aether, a relationship of harmonic notes emerges.  From this relationship, it is possible to calculate the next note up or down the musical scale relative to a reference frequency.

The basis of the formula is the musical fifth, as taught by Pythagoras.  If we take a guitar string and place a bridge at the middle, the string on both sides of the bridge produces the same note.  This is unison and its ratio is \(1:1\).  When we place the bridge so that the ratio is \(\frac{1}{2}\), the two resulting notes are one octave apart.  The next division of the string is the ratio \(\frac{3}{2}\).  In this case the notes produced, one on either side of the bridge, are a fifth apart from each other.  The fifth, having a ratio of \(\frac{3}{2}\) becomes a constant, which produces each succeeding fifth.

Let us assume we wish to find the fifth to a note, which we will specify as C at the frequency of \(523.25Hz\).  C can be expressed in terms of fifths as \(\frac{{{3^0}}}{{{2^0}}} \times 523.25Hz\), which equals \(1 \times 523.25Hz\) or \(523.25Hz\).  To calculate the fifth to C, which is G, we multiply \(\frac{{{3^0}}}{{{2^0}}} \times \frac{{{3^1}}}{{{2^1}}} \times 523.25Hz\).  When multiplying exponentials we add the exponents, and so the formula becomes \(\frac{{{3^{0 + 1}}}}{{{2^{0 + 1}}}} \times 523.25Hz\) or \(784.88Hz\).

To calculate the value of the second fifth above C we follow the same procedure, except that we multiply by \(\frac{1}{2}\) in order to acquire the value of the D that is in the same octave as the initial C. Hence \(\frac{{{3^0}}}{{{2^0}}} \times \frac{{{3^1}}}{{{2^1}}} \times \frac{{{3^1}}}{{{2^1}}} \times \frac{1}{{{2^1}}} \times 523.25Hz\) which is the same as \(\frac{{{3^2}}}{{{2^3}}} \times 523.25Hz\) or \(588.66Hz\). Using the above method, computation of ratios for each note relative to C result:                        

\( \textrm{C}\) \( \textrm{C#}\) \( \textrm{D}\) \( \textrm{D#}\) \( \textrm{E}\) \( \textrm{F}\) \( \textrm{F#}\) \( \textrm{G}\) \( \textrm{G#}\) \( \textrm{A}\) \( \textrm{A#}\) \( \textrm{B}\)
\(\frac{{{3^0}}}{{{2^0}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^7}}}{{{2^{11}}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^2}}}{{{2^3}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^9}}}{{{2^{14}}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^4}}}{{{2^6}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^{11}}}}{{{2^{17}}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^6}}}{{{2^9}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^1}}}{{{2^1}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^8}}}{{{2^{12}}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^3}}}{{{2^4}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^{10}}}}{{{2^{15}}}}\) \(\frac{{{3^5}}}{{{2^7}}}\)

When we give our starting point a variable instead of the note \(C\), a simple equation results for calculating the frequency \((F)\) of any note relative to another frequency \((K)\), where \(n\) is equal to any integer representing the number of notes to increase or decrease from the reference frequency:

\[F = K\frac{{{3^n}}}{{{2^{\left( {n*\frac{3}{2}} \right)}}}} \tag{4.23}\]

It is easy to see that octaves increase logarithmically, just as do the Aether numbers of form.  Figuring for the frequency of \(440Hz\), the succeeding octaves are equal to \(n = 12\), \(n = 24\), \(n = 36\), etc.. The resulting frequencies are \(880Hz\), \(1759.67Hz\), and \(3518.02Hz\). The calculations are not exact due to the rounding of exponentials.

Pythagorean Triples

A Pythagorean triple is a triple of positive integers \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) such that a right triangle exists with legs \(a\), \(b\), and hypotenuse \(c\).  By the Pythagorean Theorem, this is equivalent to finding positive integers \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) satisfying \({a^2} + {b^2} = {c^2}\).[20]

When I was a student in high school, my math teacher, Mrs. Connie Kimball, gave a lecture on calculating Pythagorean triples.  The method she described on the blackboard was long and tortuous.  Almost immediately, I recognized a pattern in the table of Pythagorean triples that she had written, and I started working on a different equation than the one she was showing. 

Recognizing that I was busy in my own world while she was lecturing, she curtly called me, as teachers do when they think someone is not paying attention.  She asked if I could explain what she had just said.  I told her I could not, but that I had found a new equation for generating Pythagorean triples that was far simpler than what she was teaching. 

Seizing on the moment to teach me a lesson, she called me to the front of the class to give a demonstration of my equation.  When I finished my brief presentation, she was quite impressed.  She asked me to stay after school and help her see if such an equation could be found in the professional literature.  After a couple of days, we found that Joe Roberts from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had published the same equation in a mathematics journal just 9 months earlier.  It was at this time that I realized there was much left to be discovered in the worlds of math and science.

Here is the equation I had discovered for Pythagorean triples during class that day.  For any integer \(a\), the other two values \(b\) and \(c\) are:

\[\begin{array}{l} b = \frac{{{a^2}}}{2} - \frac{1}{2} \\  c = \frac{{{a^2}}}{2} + \frac{1}{2} \\  \end{array} \tag{4.24}\]

A table of Pythagorean triples then generates:

\(a = \) \(\frac{{{a^2}}}{2} - \frac{1}{2} = \) \(\frac{{{a^2}}}{2} + \frac{1}{2} = \)
\(2\) \(1.5\) \(2.5\) 
\(3\) \(4\) \(5\) 
\(4\) \(7.5\) \(8.5\) 
\(5\) \(12\) \(13\)
\(6\) \(17.5\) \(18.5\)
\(7\) \(24\) \(25\)
\(8\)  \(31.5\) \(32.5\)

Pythagorean triples cannot have fractions, so for all values of “\(a\)” that are even, two multiplies the full set.  The resulting table then appears as:
































The relevance of Pythagorean triples to the Aether numbers is the form of the equation.  The equations for \(b\) and \(c\) express as in the table below.

In (4.25), the value \(a\) is the integer value of the Aether numbers, and the values \(b\) and \(c\) are the half-spin onn values based on the square of \(a\).  Therefore, in addition to the Golden Ratio and growth cycles, it appears we also find the origin of the Pythagorean triples in the Aether.

Certainly, the forms of living and growing things represent numerically whether or not “ethical concepts like justice” do. The Aether Physics Model is consistent with the work of Pythagoras, which itself merits a re-evaluation in this light.


\[\begin{array}{l} b = \frac{{{a^2}}}{2} - \frac{1}{2} \\  c = \frac{{{a^2}}}{2} + \frac{1}{2} \\  \end{array} \tag{4.25}\]

Structure of Atomic Nuclei

The Aether determines the structures of atoms.  That is, the structure of the Aether becomes the structure of the onta, and therefore of the atoms.

There is a pattern to the development of the nucleus, just as there is a pattern to the development of the electron orbital structure.  Wolfgang Pauli discovered that no two onta, in either the nucleus or the electron orbital structure, share the same placements in atomic structure[21]. The Aether Physics Model is in full agreement with the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

Similar to the electron orbital structure, the nucleus follows a pattern in shell structure. The structure of the nucleus appears to be due to the structure of the Aether. Linus Pauling deduced that in addition to the orbital shells having the magic numbers of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126, the nucleus builds up in three different layers .  

Pauling called these three layers the “mantle,” “core or outer core,” and “inner core.” However, Pauling saw the nucleus constructing as clusters of spherons. A spheron would be a helium nucleus, a proton with two neutrons, or a pair of neutrons. 

The Aether Physics Model mathematically shows each layer has the same pattern for filling spin positions with protons and neutrons. Both protons and neutrons follow the magic number sequence. Both proton and neutron structures follow the same pattern independently from each other. Since the APM nuclear binding energy equation is not yet complete, it could be that Pauling’s spheron concept is correct for particulate structure, and yet the spin structure would still follow an orderly pattern. 

This means, for example, that in the first layer and its first shell there can be up to 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  Atoms produce the largest “binding energies” after filling both the proton and neutron portions of the layer.  When a new layer starts, it always begins at the center of the nucleus.

Following Pauling’s pattern of nucleus development, the next magic number in the sequence is 184.  Just before the element 184 creates, a fourth layer occurs in the center of the atomic nucleus beginning with elements 167 or 168.  Therefore, the complete sequence of magic numbers is 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, and 184.

Below is a table of Pauling's layer configurations for the magic numbers[22].



Core or
Outer Core










1s2 1p6

2s2 1p6 1d10 1f14

2s2 2p6 1d10 1f14 (1g9/2)10

3s2 2p6 2d10 1f14 1g18 (1h l1/2)12

3s2 3p6 2d10 2f141g18 1h22 (1i l3/2)14



1s2 1p6

2s2 1p6 1d10

2s2 2p6 1d10 1f14



1s2 1p6


The values from Pauling's charts lay out by layer and shell number.  In chart A below, Pauling's chart expands to include the magic number 28 and an additional magic number, 184.


Below, chart B shows the spin associated with each layer and shell.  Beyond shell one there are two "halves" to each shell, which are designated \(a\) and \(b\).  The spin changes for each half shell.  The pattern begins with \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in shell one of the Mantle.  We add to shell two, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in shell 2a and \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in shell 2b.  The third sequence continues with \(\frac{5}{2}\) spin in shell 3a, then \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in the Outer Core shell 1, and then \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in the Mantle at 3b.  The fourth sequence has added, \(\frac{7}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 4a.  Then in the fifth, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin adds to the Outer Core shell 2a, \(\frac{5}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 4b, \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin Outer Core 2b, and \(\frac{9}{2}\) spin is added to 5a.  The sixth sequence expands with \(\frac{7}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 5b, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in Outer Core 3b, \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in Inner Core 1, and \(\frac{11}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 6a.  The remaining additions follow the same pattern. 



Chart C shows the series order of the nucleus fill sequence.  Chart D shows the number of nucleons per layer shell.  The values calculate by Pauling's formula 2j+1, where j is the spin as shown in chart B.  Chart E shows the cumulative total of the nucleons per layer shell as the nucleus fills.  To visualize the nuclear spin structure described above, see the Pauling Spheron Periodic Table in the appendix.

The equations for calculating the nuclear spin per sub shells \(a\) and \(b\) are:

\[a = s - \frac{1}{2} \tag{4.26}\]

\[b = s - \frac{3}{2} \tag{4.27}\]

where \(a\) and \(b\) belong to the shell number \(s\).  Applying the nuclear spin equations to Pauling's formula for the maximum number of nucleons in a nuclear shell we get:

\[\begin{array}{l} 2\left( {s - \frac{1}{2}} \right) + 1 \\  2\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right) + 1 \\  \end{array} \tag{4.28}\]

Each layer of the Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core follows the same structural system.   

If the total number \(\left( {tn} \right)\) of nucleons that can fit on a layer shell are 

\[tn = a + b \tag{4.29}\]

then the total number of nucleons on a layer shell can be as high as

\[tn = 4s - 2 \tag{4.30}\]

Science of Complexity

The purpose of showing Aether numbers, the ratio of musical tones, and atomic structure in this chapter is to illustrate a few of the ways in which the Aether unit influences the structure of the physical world.  No doubt, all dynamic and living processes, such as the patterns of seed development in flowers, the growth of plant structures, skeletal and extra-skeletal structures, and population growth patterns, are manifestations of Aether units. 

The concept of Aether structure was introduced and quantified as the relationship of 2-spin Aether units to ½ spin onta.  We show that a certain number of whole cycles produce specific geometrical structures and that these structures are themselves cyclical and appear in octaves.  Images produced by Ghim Wei Ho under the tutelage of Prof. Mark Welland of the University of Cambridge Nanoscale Science Laboratory[23] share a remarkable resemblance to the purely mathematical Aether structures.

rd secret1rd secret2rd secret3


The above images were produced using chemical vapor deposition and taken with a scanning electron microscope.  Notice the spike and petal formations, two dominant Aether structures.  It warrants further research to investigate the precise quantification of Aether structures and nano structures within the context of the Aether Physics Model.  If the APM does accurately quantify the structure of growing things, it will not only quantify the physical Universe, but also precisely quantify the living structures within it.   

The quality of our knowledge proves itself in the quality of our lives.  A knowledge constructed of concepts that identify and manipulate preestablished structures yields a world that is crowded, rigid, compressed, and impenetrable.  Human suffering is built up in layers of increasing solidity, each layer a further misreading of a fluid dynamic.[24]

-Tarthang Tulku

Modern physics attempts to describe the quantum structures in terms of macro structures.  In our macro world, things seem solid, rigid, and impenetrable.  Yet, at the quantum level of structure, the Aether Physics Model reveals a more fluid and dynamic structure for existence.  When we more closely study the seemingly rigid physical world, we see it is constantly changing according to processes of growth and decay, which may exist over extremely long times.  Our science would be simpler and more accurate if it reflected the true nature of existence, rather than our limited and preconceived notions of rigidity. 

From this brief introduction into Aether numbers, a new branch of science emerges.  It is the Science of Complexity.  Given an ordered reality consisting of objects and their environment, objects can bind by the three forces and give rise to a more complex and granulated reality.  The three forces of electromagnetism, electrostatics, and gravity are themselves evolved from the Gforce acting on the dimensions of onta.  The electrons and protons within the environment of Aether, bind by the forces, which give rise to neutrons and atoms.  The neutrons remain at the level of subatomic particles, but the atoms make up a completely new order of reality. 

Whereas electrons, protons, and neutrons have two spatial dimensions, atoms have three inherent spatial dimensions.  The two-dimensional onta bind to one another and the distance between them produces the third dimension of length.  Thus, atoms are the true quantum particles, as they are the first order of reality within spatial, three-dimensional existence. 

As the complexity of the material structures develop, so also does the complexity of the forces and environment.  The strong force that binds onta becomes the Van der Waals force that binds molecules.  The strong charge of the onta, when polar aligned, produces magnetism.  As atoms produce molecules, they develop increasingly versatile characteristics.  All along, while orders of reality become more complex, the structures build in the environment of Aether.  Because Aether encapsulates onta, the Aether binds as well, changing the geometry of the space-time fabric.

Therefore, force, matter, and environment progress from very simple states to states that are more complex.  They become cells, organs, living beings, communities, and nations.  They become minerals, rocks, mountains, planets, stars, solar systems, and galaxies.  There are numerous taxonomies of complex existence spanning many orders of reality.

As we quantify and understand the progressions of complexity, computer programs will model each system at their various levels of reality and predict evolutions not before imagined.  The understanding of the binding of onta, atoms, and molecules will lead to designer materials where the desired characteristics are input and computers reveal the blueprints that meet the requirements.

Endeavors such as these are possible only when the root cause of force, matter, and environment properly quantify.  The physics of the 20th Century focused only on matter, was not aware of the Gforce, and neglected the Aether.  Modern physics reached a dead end when protons and neutrons viewed as being two forms of nuclei.  The misperception resulted that smashed nuclei revealed smaller building blocks of matter called quarks, which are mere collision effects.  Scientists neglected the Aether because it presented problems regarding Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory, as Aether provides the basis for an absolute reference frame.  Is it mere ignorance that the Gforce remained undiscovered?  Or could there be prejudice against any evidence that might support the existence of a creator God? 

In any case, it takes a physics model that can explain the evolution and interaction of force, matter, and environment in order to give an accurate and true account of the Universe’s existence.

The Standard Model bases upon confusion beginning with the ambiguous definitions of dimensions, which are the physical world’s first order of reality.  The next two chapters lay the foundations required to correct this confusion and properly present the Aether Physics Model. 

[1] Albert Einstein, Sidelights of Relativity (Courier Dover Publications, 1983) 16-18

[2] TESLA, NIKOLA   1856-1943, American electrician and inventor, b. Croatia (then in Austria-Hungary). He emigrated to the United States in 1884, worked for a short period for Edison, and became a naturalized American citizen (1891). A pioneer in the field of high-voltage electricity, he made many discoveries and inventions of great value to the development of radio transmission and to the field of electricity. These include a system of arc lighting, the Tesla induction motor and system of alternating-current transmission, the Tesla coil, generators of high-frequency currents, a transformer to increase oscillating currents to high potentials, a system of wireless communication, and a system of transmitting electric power without wires. He produced the first power system at Niagara Falls, N.Y. There is a museum dedicated to his work in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.  "Tesla, Nikola," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[3] Lawrence M. Cockaday, New York Herald Tribune, Sept. 22, 1929, pp. 1, 29.

[4] “In 1874 the Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney ( 1826-1911) had also suggested the idea of a particle or atom of electricity, and in 1891 he suggested that the unit of negative electricity should be called the electron , which is what it has been called since.”  Keith J. Laidler, To Light Such a Candle: Chapters in the History of Science and Technology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 149.

[5] Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 6

[6] The Ether, Science, Vol. 18, No. 447. (Aug. 28, 1891), pp. 119-122.

[7] Rhumb Line  - The path of a ship that maintains a fixed compass direction, shown on a map as a line crossing all meridians at the same angle. Also called loxodrome.  The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[8] PARITY or space parity, in physics, quantity that refers to the relationship between an object or process and the image that it can produce in a mirror. For example, any right-handed object will produce a mirror-image counterpart that is identical to it in every way except that the mirror image is left-handed. A moving particle that spins in a clockwise manner, as would a right-handed screw advancing through space, will possess a mirror-image particle that is identical to it in every way except that it spins counterclockwise, as would a left-handed screw advancing through space. The law of conservation of parity implies that every real object or process has a mirror image that can also exist and that obeys the same physical laws. Although this concept has little significance in classical physics, it is of great importance in atomic and nuclear physics. From this law scientists inferred that all elementary particles and their interactions possessed mirror image counterparts that also exist. However, in 1956 T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang published a paper in which they argued that parity was not conserved in weak interactions. "Parity ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[9] Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 128

[10] Photo from The Hutchison Effect,

[11] “Fresnel further assumed that, when a body is in motion, part of the Aether within it is carried along-namely, that part which constitutes the excess of its density over the density of Aether in vacuo; while the rest of the Aether within the space occupied by the body is stationary.” Sir Edmund Whittaker A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) 110

[12] Quoted from Abraham Pais, Subtle Is the Lord?: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982) 113.

[13] Chukanov Energy

[14] Albert P. Carman, Science, New Series, Vol. 71, No. 1834 (Feb. 21, 1930), 214-215.

[15] Linus Pauling, Science, New Series, Vol. 150, No. 3694. (Oct. 15, 1965), pp. 297-305.

[16] "The experimental work of Val L. Fitch and James W. Cronin in 1964 demonstrated an asymmetry in matter/antimatter reactions that may explain why the universe is composed mostly of matter. For their discovery, they shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics. " "Antiparticle," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[17] Backus, John The Acoustical Foundations of Music: Musical Sound: its properties, production, behavior, and reproduction (New York, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1977) 147

[18] Backus, John The Acoustical Foundations of Music (New York – London, W.W. Norton & Company, 1977) 138

[19] "Pythagoras ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[20] Eric W. Weisstein. "Pythagorean Triple." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.

[21] EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE - physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different quantum numbers; the exclusion principle holds that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers in an atom. One of these quantum numbers describes one of the two possible directions for the electron's intrinsic spin. As a result of the exclusion principle, two electrons that are in the same energy level as described by the other three quantum numbers are differentiated from each other because they have opposite spins. This principle applies not only to atoms but to other systems containing particles as well, and it applies not only to electrons but also to a large class of particles collectively known as fermions.  "Exclusion Principle ," The Columbia Encyclopedia   

[22] Nucleon Configurations for the Magic Numbers from Principles of Radioisotope Methodology 1967 p.44, by Grafton D. Chase and Joseph L. Rabinowitz

[23] Nanotechnology Now Discover, The Secret Garden, October 2004

[24] Tarthang Tulku, Knowledge of Time and Space (Dharma Publishing, Dharma Press, Oakland, CA, 1990)