Secrets of the Aether

Atomic Mechanics and Structure of Nuclei

The Aether determines the atomic mechanics of atoms. That is, the structure of the Aether becomes the structure of the subatomic particles and, therefore, of the atoms.

Atomic Mechanics Vajra Periodic TableThere is a pattern to the development of the nucleus, just as there is a pattern to the development of the electron orbital structure. Wolfgang Pauli discovered that no two subatomic particles, in either the nucleus or the electron orbital structure, share the same placements in atomic structure[21]. The Aether Physics Model is in full agreement with the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

Just like the electron orbital structure, the nucleus also displays a pattern in its shell structure. It seems that the structure of the Aether is responsible for the nucleus structure. Linus Pauling discovered that the nucleus has three layers of build-up, in addition to the orbital shells having magic numbers of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126.

The number of neutrons in the nucleus can affect the stability of the nucleus. If there are too many or too few neutrons, the nucleus can be unstable and can decay. The magic numbers are the numbers of protons or neutrons that make a nucleus particularly stable. The magic numbers are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. The nucleus builds up in three different layers: the core, the shell, and the valence shell. The core is made up of the protons and neutrons that are closest to the center of the nucleus. The shell is made up of the protons and neutrons that are in the next layer out from the core. The valence shell is made up of the protons and neutrons that are in the outermost layer of the nucleus.[21.5]

Atomic Mechanics Pauling Spheron Periodic TablePauling called these three layers the “mantle,” “core or outer core,” and “inner core.” However, Pauling saw the nucleus constructed as clusters of spherons. A spheron would be a helium nucleus, a proton with two neutrons, or a pair of neutrons. The Aether Physics Model includes two new periodic tables based each on electron orbitals and the Pauling Spheron model. When carefully studied, these new periodic tables offer valuable clues to the physical structures of the nucleus and electron orbitals. 

According to the Aether Physics Model, the filling of spin positions with protons and neutrons in each layer follows the same pattern mathematically. Both protons and neutrons abide by the magic number sequence, and their structures exhibit a similar pattern independent of each other. Although the APM nuclear binding energy equation is not fully developed, it is possible that Pauling's spheron concept is accurate for particulate structure, and the orderly pattern of spin structure still holds true.

In simple terms, the first layer of an atom can accommodate a maximum of two protons and two neutrons within its first shell. The highest amount of binding energy is generated by atoms when the proton and neutron portions of the layer are filled. Additionally, when a new layer starts, it begins at the nucleus's center.

Following Pauling’s pattern of nucleus development, the next magic number in the sequence is 184. Just before element 184 creates, a fourth layer occurs in the center of the atomic nucleus beginning with elements 167 or 168. Therefore, the sequence of magic numbers is 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, and 184.

Below is a table of Pauling's layer configurations for the magic numbers[22].

Magic
Number

Mantle

Core or
Outer Core

Inner

Core

2

8

20

50

82

126

1s2

1s2 1p6

2s2 1p6 1d10 1f14

2s2 2p6 1d10 1f14 (1g9/2)10

3s2 2p6 2d10 1f14 1g18 (1h l1/2)12

3s2 3p6 2d10 2f141g18 1h22 (1i l3/2)14

 

1s2

1s2 1p6

2s2 1p6 1d10

2s2 2p6 1d10 1f14

 

1s2

1s2 1p6

 

The values from Pauling's charts layout by layer and shell number. In chart A below, Pauling's chart expands to include the magic number 28 and an additional magic number 184.

PaulingChartA

Below, chart B shows the spin associated with each layer and shell. Beyond shell one, there are two "halves" to each shell, which are designated \(a\) and \(b\). The spin changes for each half-shell. The pattern begins with \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in shell one of the Mantle. We add to shell two, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in shell 2a and \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in shell 2b. The third sequence continues with \(\frac{5}{2}\) spin in shell 3a, then \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in the Outer Core shell 1, and then \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in the Mantle at 3b. The fourth sequence has added, \(\frac{7}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 4a. Then in the fifth, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin adds to the Outer Core shell 2a, \(\frac{5}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 4b, \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin Outer Core 2b, and \(\frac{9}{2}\) spin is added to 5a. The sixth sequence expands with \(\frac{7}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 5b, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in Outer Core 3b, \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in Inner Core 1, and \(\frac{11}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 6a. The remaining additions follow the same pattern.

PaulingChartB

PaulingChartCDE

Chart C shows the series order of the atomic mechanic's nucleus fill sequence. Chart D shows the number of nucleons per layer shell. The values calculate by Pauling's formula 2j+1, where j is the spin as shown in chart B. Chart E shows the cumulative total of the nucleons per layer shell as the nucleus fills. To visualize the nuclear spin structure described above, see the Pauling Spheron Periodic Table in the appendix.

The equations for calculating the nuclear spin per sub shells \(a\) and \(b\) are:

\begin{equation}a = s - \frac{1}{2} \end{equation}4.26}\]

\begin{equation}b = s - \frac{3}{2} \end{equation}4.27}\]

where \(a\) and \(b\) belong to the shell number \(s\). Applying the nuclear spin equations to Pauling's formula for the maximum number of nucleons in a nuclear shell we get:

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l} 2\left( {s - \frac{1}{2}} \right) + 1 \\ 2\left( {s - \frac{3}{2}} \right) + 1 \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

Each Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core layer follows the same structural system.

If the total number \(\left( {tn} \right)\) of nucleons that can fit on a layered shell are:

\begin{equation}tn = a + b \end{equation}

then the total number of nucleons on a layered shell can be as high as

\begin{equation}tn = 4s - 2 \end{equation}

The Atomic Mechanics of Releasing Energy

The nuclear binding force quantifies according to equation (\ref{NBF}), for reasons explained in the Unified Force Theory chapter:

\begin{equation}\label{NBF}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{pmax}}^2 + {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 23.271forc \end{equation}

In the field of atomic mechanics, the total binding force, which includes nuclear and electron binding, is determined by adding up the magnetic charges of electrons, protons, and neutrons. For instance, the combined force exerted by the Aether to keep deuterium intact can be calculated in this manner.

\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{\left( {Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2 + Z \cdot {e_{emax}}^2} \right)}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 23.278forc \end{equation}

\(Z\) is the number of protons and electrons in deuterium, and \(N\) is the number of neutrons.

The distributed Compton wavelength can be understood as the surface that separates charges. It plays a crucial role in determining the quantum surface area for any spin position of the Aether.

When two subatomic particles come together, their primary angular momentum causes an overlap of the Aether unit. This overlap only occurs when the particles bind through magnetic force, causing the Aether to fold over onto itself. It's important to note that two Aether units without angular momentum cannot overlap.

Within the Aether unit, length is limited to two dimensions. The third dimension of length in volumetric space is determined by the distance between Aether units, which is one quantum distance. As a result, within an atom, photons typically travel the shortest distance between Aether units, which is usually one Compton wavelength.

The fabric of space is slightly stretched by the binding of electrons to protons, resulting in the folding of space in the neutron, which causes the Aether units to slightly pull towards each other.

When considering the Quantum level, Coulomb's law can be adjusted to directly determine the energy required to split a nucleus based on the number of subatomic particles present in the atom. Therefore, if the distance between the subatomic particles were one quantum distance, the total energy necessary to split the nucleus of Helium 4 would be 23.783MeV.

\begin{equation}\label{BFhelium}{k_C}\frac{{\left( {Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2} \right)}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} \cdot {\lambda _C} = 23.783MeV \end{equation}

Over the years, physicists have tested all atomic isotopes to determine their actual binding energy. The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a comprehensive list of atomic masses that can be used to calculate the binding energy for isotopes.[1].

Remember that atoms bind because of force, not energy. In the event that separation is required, the "binding energy" is needed to break the bond.

The calculated "binding energy" does not align with the actual "binding energy" due to the slight variations in the distance between Aether units caused by the configuration of nuclear magnetic charges and the presence of neutrons. The Standard Model refers to this difference as a "mass defect," but this term is misleading since mass is a dimension and cannot be converted into a unit of energy.

Using helium 4 as an example, the NIST measured binding energy is 28.293MeV. In equation (\ref{BFhelium}), the calculated binding energy for helium 4 is 23.783MeV. The ratio of actual to calculated binding energy is:

\begin{equation}\frac{{28.293MeV}}{{23.783MeV}} = 1.19 \end{equation}

The presence of Helium 4 has resulted in an average change in the distance between Aether units, which amounts to 1.19\({{\lambda _C}}\). The measured binding energy differs from the calculated binding energy by 4.510MeV. Assuming the APM binding energy equation and NIST-measured binding energy are accurate, the difference can be attributed to a shift in the distance between Aether units.

The energy that is released during fission is caused by the magnetic tension stored between the Aether units. When nuclear binding is released, the excess tension is also released, resulting in the release of energy. This energy is not only produced by the subatomic particles unbinding but also by the Aether "unbinding" process. Additionally, the production of photons from dark matter through the Casimir effect also contributes to the energy released during nuclear reactions. Therefore, the observed energy release during fission can be explained by these various factors.

In addition to the energy gained from fission, there is also energy gained from fusion. This occurs when subatomic particles bind together. The Aether is responsible for creating the magnetic force that attracts the magnetic charges of the particles. It's similar to two magnets being drawn together and gaining energy, aligning their poles, and accelerating until they make contact. Nuclear binding not only exerts a force between the particles but also between the Aether units, causing a change in distance that stores energy. Additionally, the Casimir effect plays a role in aligning the particles at the correct distance to create photons.

The constant process of assembling and disassembling atoms creates photons from the interaction of dark matter and Aether, which manifests as energy. The design of Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors to produce more fuel than they consume{3} is an interesting curiosity. The scientists must have known something about atomic reactions to design nuclear power plants in such a manner.

It is a common misconception that mass can be converted into energy. The apparent conversion of mass to energy in atomic nuclei is actually caused by the binding of space and matter. Additionally, photons are produced through the Casimir effect, providing even more energy. The Aether is constantly working, whether atoms are fusing together or not. The process of assembling and disassembling matter in order to obtain "free energy" is similar to a pumping action, where angular momentum is pumped from dark matter into the visible Universe. The additional angular momentum that enters the visible Universe eventually returns to dark matter during black hole implosion events. As a result, angular momentum is truly conserved and recycled.

When it comes to the distances between Aether units within atoms, it's important to note that not all atoms have a net distance greater than one quantum distance. Out of all the stable atomic isotopes, only Lithium 7 has a net distance of less than one. This suggests that Lithium has a greater potential than other stable isotopes to manipulate and influence the Aether.

If Lithium combines with another element or undergoes a resonant oscillation where it disassembles and reassembles, it could stimulate the Aether to produce photons that will increase the oscillation's amplitude. The excess amplitude results in heat and emits photons, which may transform into electrons through the photoelectric effect. Along with electron-sized photons, the process could also generate proton-sized photons. To harness the energy of the Aether through Lithium, we could bombard Lithium with X-rays or microwaves.

There have been reports indicating that Lithium batteries have a tendency to explode with more energy than anticipated.[2]. Explosions can happen in the vicinity of X-ray machines, medical equipment, and airport security systems. Lithium batteries can also explode due to internal heat. Although Lithium itself is not explosive, it has a tendency to accumulate excess energy that needs to be released.

There are multiple isotopes that seem to extract energy from the Aether, not just Lithium. A table has been provided below that lists all of the isotopes with a distance of less than one quantum distance between Aether units. The table illustrates that both deuterium (H2) and tritium (H3) are also strong contenders for harnessing energy from the Aether. While there are other promising isotopes, their availability in nature is limited.

EL = element, A = atomic number.

EL

A

Measured Binding Energy

Calculated Binding Energy

Net\({{\lambda _C}}\)

H

2

2.224MeV

11.895MeV

0.187

H

3

8.481MeV

17.849MeV

0.476

H

4

5.579MeV

23.802MeV

0.235

H

5

2.743MeV

29.756MeV

0.092

H

6

5.784MeV

35.709MeV

0.162

He

3

7.717MeV

17.837MeV

0.433

He

5

27.406MeV

29.744MeV

0.923

He

6

29.266MeV

35.698MeV

0.821

He

7

28.822MeV

41.651MeV

0.693

He

8

31.404MeV

47.605MeV

0.661

He

9

30.256MeV

53.558MeV

0.566

He

10

30.335MeV

59.512MeV

0.510

Li

4

4.620MeV

23.778MeV

0.195

Li

5

26.326MeV

29.732MeV

0.887

Li

6

31.992MeV

35.686MeV

0.898

Li

7

39.240MeV

41.639MeV

0.944

Li

8

41.273MeV

47.593MeV

0.868

Li

9

45.336MeV

53.546MeV

0.848

Li

10

45.311MeV

59.500MeV

0.763

Li

11

45.637MeV

65.453MeV

0.698

Li

12

44.408MeV

71.407MeV

0.623

Be

6

26.921MeV

35.674MeV

0.756

Be

7

37.596MeV

41.627MeV

0.904

Be

12

68.642MeV

71.395MeV

0.963

Be

13

68.136MeV

77.349MeV

0.882

Be

14

69.975MeV

83.302MeV

0.841

B

7

24.715MeV

41.615MeV

0.595

B

8

37.734MeV

47.569MeV

0.794

B

15

88.182MeV

89.244MeV

0.989

B

16

88.137MeV

95.197MeV

0.927

B

17

89.576MeV

101.151MeV

0.887

B

18

89.041MeV

107.104MeV

0.832

B

19

90.070MeV

113.058MeV

0.798

C

8

24.780MeV

47.557MeV

0.522

C

9

39.030MeV

53.511MeV

0.730

C

21

118.831MeV

124.953MeV

0.952

C

22

120.279MeV

130.907MeV

0.920

N

10

35.533MeV

59.452MeV

0.598

N

11

58.338MeV

65.406MeV

0.893

N

24

141.180MeV

142.802MeV

0.990

O

12

58.543MeV

71.347MeV

0.822

O

13

75.550MeV

77.301MeV

0.979

F

14

72.341MeV

83.243MeV

0.870

The Photon in Atomic Mechanics

Back in 1923, Arthur Compton discovered an issue with J.J. Thomson's electron model. It failed to explain the lower frequency and longer wavelength linked to "electron scattering." To address this in atomic mechanics, Compton envisioned the photon as a billiard ball that could go through the atom and remove electrons from a force within the atom following the Doppler principle.[3]

Compton scattering in atomic mechanicsPhoton scattering – Standard Model[4]

Similar to other theories in the Standard Model, Compton's theory considers the momentum of an imaginary, tiny billiard ball as if it were real and the billiard ball was imaginary. The theory explains the scattering of radiation using corpuscular photons, but it doesn't clarify how the photons always avoid hitting the atom's nucleus.

Additionally, according to Compton's theory, a photon is like a bullet that is emitted and hits the target directly.

Imagine an experiment where a researcher measures the Compton Effect at a 90-degree angle from the incoming photon. Only one photon is emitted, but it scatters at a 135-degree angle instead of toward the sensor at a 90-degree angle. The experiment should yield a null result. If repeated multiple times, the experiment should yield a null result almost 100% of the time due to the low odds of the photon reflecting directly toward the sensor (about 1/360 assuming the sensor is set up to receive photons over a 1-degree arc).

Despite the flaws in the logic of the billiard ball explanation of particles, the Aether Physics Model still adheres to Compton's equations when it comes to explaining incident radiation. This is because Compton's equations are rooted in empirical data. However, we will examine this data from a different perspective.

By examining a polar plot of Compton's equation, we can visualize the overall form of an electron. The left-hand graph illustrates the electron's shape, which emits photons in this pattern. If the electron were circular, the plot would also be circular, while a square electron would produce a plot that reflects its square shape.

Compton function in atomic mechanicsThe Aether Physics Model portrays subatomic particles as loxodromes that resonate within a given volume. If we examine subatomic particles over time, we can visualize them as a cardioid shape as seen by the human eye (when viewed from the forward direction of half-spin subatomic particles).

The visual output of Compton's equation, which shows how x-rays scatter off electrons, bears a striking resemblance to the cardioid-shaped electron in the Aether Physics Model (as depicted in the image on the right). It's important to note, however, that while these two shapes may appear similar, they differ in measurable ways.[5] The Compton function expands twice as fast at 180 degrees compared to the Loxodrome function.

The Aether Physics Model states that photons are genuine quantum particles that lack inherent frequency, unlike in the Standard Model. Instead, light is a term used to describe photons released at a specific frequency.

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}

Light is essentially, then, accelerating angular momentum.

\begin{equation}ligt = h \cdot accl \end{equation}

When an atom is hit by light, the valence electron absorbs angular momentum from the light, resulting in a deceleration of angular momentum.

Photon Radiation in Atomic Mechanics

It is often believed that photons travel in straight lines like ballistic particles. However, this is not completely accurate as a line has two directions. Photons actually travel from their source outward in one main direction, which makes them move in a ray-like pattern instead of a straight line.

If photons were considered as particles and multiple rays were emitted from a source, there would be gaps between the particles at a significant distance. This could cause the source to become invisible to some observers while being visible to others, or there may be flickering as the particles randomly reach a receiver.

When viewed from a far distance, a photon emitter appears to emit a constant stream of light without any flickering or spaces between the "light particles." However, as the distance increases, the intensity of the light decreases, suggesting that light spreads out as it travels. The reason for this is that photons are emitted in a cardioid shape of angular momentum from the emitter and then spread out radially. Even as the photon moves away from the emitter, a part of it remains connected to it.[6] Typically, when electrons emit light, it is dispersed in all directions, resulting in a spherical appearance. However, in crystals with polarization, the light waves are aligned horizontally in all bands.

When we take into account the complete angular momentum of the valence electron in the source atom, we can explain the increase in wavelength that is observed in the receiving atom.

In the field of atomic mechanics, when a valence electron is in an excited state, it emits photons at a specific frequency.

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}

The emitted light has a wavelength that is variable and follows Compton's wavelength function of \(1 - \cos \left( \theta \right)\). As the frequency of light can be expressed in terms of wavelength, we can denote the light unit as such.

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn\frac{c}{{{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}

Compton states that the wavelength of light varies depending on the angle at which it is observed.

The wavelength of light varies depending on the viewing angle.

\begin{equation}f\left( \theta \right) = 1 - \cos \left( \theta \right) \end{equation}

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn\frac{c}{{{\lambda _C}f\left( \theta \right)}} \end{equation}

This means that when electrons flow through a radiator, photons are transmitted at a perpendicular angle (theta = (1/2π, 3/2π)) to the direction of the flow at the same frequency as the emitter oscillation. However, photons at different frequencies are transmitted from other angles. Additionally, no photons are transmitted in the direction from which the photons or electrons originate.

The Atomic Mechanics of Absorption

The visible Universe's Aether units follow the quantum frequency rhythm, alternating between forward and backward time cycles. All the processes that will occur in the Universe occur during each cycle. Physical matter can only observe the forward time portion of the cycle as the forward time direction scans the Aether's spherical surface. In contrast, the backward time direction flows back through the polar axis. Consequently, subatomic particles exist solely as half-spin.

During a single quantum cycle, all processes occur in the forward time phase and remain inactive during the backward time phase.

Regarding atoms, angular momentum exchange happens primarily through photons and electrons. In this instance, we'll examine already transmitted photons' absorption (or reception).

Atoms emit photons at varying frequencies, resulting in different photon angular momentum arriving at different times and in different quantities. Each quantum moment (\(T_{q}\)) has a specific number of photon "fronts" arriving at an atom, and each front carries a particular amount of angular momentum to transfer to the atom. To absorb this momentum, the frequency of the arriving light must match the frequency of the atom or molecule receiving the light. If the frequencies do not synchronize, the light reflects instead. If the arriving light's frequency is the same as the atom or molecule's or a harmonic frequency, the light will decelerate and become absorbed by the atom or molecule immediately.

\begin{equation}\frac{{ligt}}{{accl}} = h \end{equation}

The amount of angular momentum the system absorbs is determined by the distance between the emitter and the receiver and their frequencies. When the distance between the two is greater, the angular momentum weakens due to divergence. It is important to note that the angular momentum is not lost but spreads over a larger area, resulting in less angular momentum contacting the atom or molecule. Additionally, if the frequencies of the emitter and receiver are out of sync, less angular momentum will be absorbed.

To clarify, we are not referring to a radio transmitter. Rather, we are referring to the natural exchange of photons between atoms.

Dimensions of Light in Atomic Mechanics

According to the Aether Physics Model, a photon is considered a genuine quantum particle. However, in the Standard Model, a quantum photon can possess any inherent frequency value. It is important to note that a quantum photon with a particular frequency is not feasible because a single quantum particle cannot display frequency. 

The angular momentum of an electron multiplied by the speed of a photon gives the measurement of a photon in the APM.

\begin{equation}phtn = h \cdot c \end{equation}

According to the Aether Physics Model, light can be described as the product of photon and frequency.

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}

The unit of light changes solely based on its frequency, as angular momentum and the speed of photons remain constant. Therefore, light with a frequency of 50MHz can be equated to:

\begin{equation}50MHz \cdot phtn = 4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}ligt \end{equation}

The unit of light, also known as "ligt", may refer to the mechanics of a single atom or molecule. The intensity of light can be calculated by multiplying the unit of light by the number of active atoms or molecules that are producing the light.

Gravitation Generated Photons

According to the Aether Physics Model's atomic mechanics, the gravitational constant contributes to the creation of photons among subatomic particles. Just like how the Aether unit, a rotating magnetic field, produces a photon between magnetic charges, gravity generates a photon between masses.

\begin{equation}A_{u} \cdot {e_{emax}}^{2} = phtn \end{equation}

\begin{equation}G \cdot {m_e} \cdot {m_e} = 2.788 \times {10^{ - 46}}phtn \end{equation}

The emission of photons from mass is more significant in heavier protons and neutrons, although it is still relatively smaller than the photon generated by a magnetic charge.

\begin{equation}G \cdot {m_p} \cdot {m_p} = 9.398 \times {10^{ - 40}}phtn \end{equation}

Experiments that confirm the Casimir effect also show that photons are produced through the interaction of magnetic charges. The magnetic charge of a subatomic particle is directly proportional to its mass, as both are parts of the same entity. However, while mass is one-dimensional, magnetic charge is two-dimensional and surface-like, which makes the production of photons from mass a highly inefficient process.

Photons generated by gravitation play a small but significant role in the expansion of the Universe on a massive scale.

The Atomic Mechanics of Fields

The Aether unit is a dynamic, rotating magnetic field. It appears to be a living fabric that provides the volume-resonance in which subatomic particles exist. The Aether Physics Model shows that all three physical manifestations of force (electrostatic, magnetic, and gravitational) trace back to the Gforce, which emanates through the Aether unit. The Gforce acts upon the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass differently, hence the appearance of three different manifestations of force.

The effect of Gforce on dimensions is equivalent to the field described in the Standard Model. In the APM's atomic mechanics, this field is referred to as the Aether. When Gforce interacts with Aether and mass, it generates a gravitational field. Likewise, Gforce interacting with Aether and electrostatic or magnetic charge produces the electrostatic and magnetic fields. These three fields represent the Aether's impact on the various carriers of mass, electrostatic charge, and magnetic charge.

The Columbia Encyclopedia describes the field as:

Fields are used to describe all cases where two bodies separated in space exert a force on each other. The alternative to postulating a field is to assume that physical influences can be transmitted through empty space without any material or physical agency. Such action-at-a-distance, especially if it occurs instantaneously, violates both common sense and certain modern theories, notably relativity, which posits that nothing can travel faster than light.

The Aether Physics Model defines the Aether as a fabric made up of quantum rotating magnetic fields. These fields can also be interpreted as electrostatic and gravitational fields from different perspectives. The Standard Model acknowledges the existence of these fields but denies the existence of the Aether itself. However, denying the Aether goes against common sense since its mathematical properties demonstrate the substance of the fields.

The Gforce is responsible for maintaining Aether units throughout the Universe, which eliminates objections about the perceived "action at a distance" argument.

We'll next be discussing electrodynamics within the framework of the Aether Physics Model. The APM allows for certain electrodynamic units that are not defined in the Standard Model due to its correct distribution of charge dimensions. With the identification of the curl unit, the APM will lead to more comprehensive electrodynamics. The curl of the Aether acts as a "tensor antagonist" to the length density of physical matter.

Field Interactions

Clerk Maxwell's work describes the mechanics of electric and magnetic fields using several measurements. These include the B field (magnetic flux density), the H field (magnetic field intensity), the E field (electric field strength or intensity), and the electric flux density (D).[8]. The variable W is the unit of energy (or work). The actual units of magnetic and electric fields rarely appear.

The Aether Physics Model uses quantum units to convert these variables.

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l} B = mfxd \\ H = mfdi \\ \varepsilon  = elfs \\ D = efxd \\ W = enrg \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

The Aether Physics Model includes additional units, such as magnetic field and rotating magnetic field, which expands the range of units available for analyzing electrodynamics.[9].

The equations related to magnetic field are:

\begin{equation}\label{mfld0}mfld = drag \cdot chrg \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{mfld1}mfld = mfxd \cdot volm \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{mfld2}mfld = \frac{{enrg}}{{mfdi}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{mfld3}mfld = \frac{{phtn}}{{curr}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{mfld4}mfld = 4\pi \cdot {\mu _0} \cdot swep \end{equation}

The equations related to electric field strength are:

\begin{equation}\label{elfs0}elfs = \frac{{forc}}{{chrg}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{elfs1}elfs = mfxd \cdot velc \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{elfs2}elfs = mfdi \cdot resn \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{elfs3}elfs = \frac{{irrd}}{{mfdi}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{elfs4}elfs = \frac{{4\pi }}{{{\varepsilon _0} \cdot area}} \end{equation}

The magnetic field and electric field quantum units are:

\(mfld = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) \(elfs = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\)

The magnetic field can be seen as flowing (volume times frequency) magnetism (mass-to-charge ratio). The electric field strength can be seen as accelerating or decelerating (length times frequency squared) magnetism (mass to charge ratio). Thus the magnetic field would preponderate during maximum current flow, and the electric field strength would preponderate during the maximum acceleration and deceleration of current.

Magnetic and electric field strength are different manifestations of magnetic flux density. The magnetic field is the product of volume times magnetic flux density (\ref{mfld1}), and the electric field is the product of velocity times magnetic flux density (\ref{elfs1}). As the magnetic field increases, the volume associated with the magnetic flux density increases while its velocity decreases. As the electric field strength increases, the volume associated with the magnetic flux density decreases while its velocity increases.

The magnetic field is orthogonal to the electric field strength. And since the magnetic field and electric field strength depend upon changing (or alternating) current, the magnetic field acts as a resistance to current, and the electric field strength acts as the work (energy) of current. From equations (\ref{mfld2}) and (\ref{elfs2}) we get this relationship:

\begin{equation}mfld \cdot elfs = resn \cdot enrg \end{equation}

The photon can be seen as magnetic field times current (\ref{mfld3}). The irradiance of the photon can be seen as electric field strength times magnetic field intensity (\ref{elfs3}).

From equations (\ref{mfld4}) and (\ref{elfs4}) we get:

\begin{equation}\label{eddy1}mfld \cdot elfs = \frac{{16{\pi ^2} \cdot {\mu _0}}}{{{\varepsilon _0}}} \cdot freq \end{equation}

Using the eddy current equation, we can rewrite equation (\ref{eddy1}) as:

\begin{equation}\label{eddy2}\frac{{mfld \cdot elfs}}{{freq}} = eddy \end{equation}

Equation (\ref{eddy2}) then indicates that the magnetic field times the electric field strength divided by the frequency of the alternating current yields the eddy current. To reduce eddy current in the core of a transformer, one would take steps either to reduce the magnetic field or electric field strength or increase the frequency. By creating capacitance using laminated core sheets, the electric field strength reduces. In addition, the laminations have the effect of reducing the speed of magnetic field propagation. Changing the properties of a conductor will affect eddy current loss, but engineering a reduction in magnetic field through external systems would also reduce the eddy current.

The Atomic Mechanics of the Quantum Hall Effect

In physics, the quantum Hall effect is measured using the SI and MKS systems of units. The value obtained is often perceived as obscure and random, represented by the number \(\phi_{0}=2.067833831\times 10^{-15} weber\). However, when this value is converted to QMU, it provides a clear and relevant value for the physics of the Hall effect.

\begin{equation}\frac{2.068\times 10^{-15}weber}{ccf}=\frac{mflx}{2}\end{equation}

It's evident that the Aether Physics Model is highly accurate and will prove to be beneficial when mainstream physicists begin to utilize it. From this straightforward observation, we can deduce that the Hall effect correlates with the quantum magnetic flux of half-spin electrons.

Atomic Mechanics of the Nuclear Binding Force

The Standard Model of particle physics explains the nuclear binding force in terms of particles called pi mesons[10]. The Standard Model theory states that these particles carry a force that binds the nucleus together. The pi meson hypothesis does not explain how force carries by a particle. One could reasonably expect that if pi mesons were true carriers of force, binding energy would be composed of pi mesons. If such a nucleus split, the pi mesons would fly apart and move a distance. (Force times length is equal to energy).

In the atomic mechanics of the Aether Physics Model, the Aether unit mediates the magnetic force by acting on the magnetic charge (unless the magnetic charge takes on a spherical geometry, Coulomb’s constant would mediate the force acting on the magnetic charge). In cases where the magnetic charges keep a small distance apart, the Aether unit of \(rmfd\) mediates the force manifesting between the magnetic charges.

\begin{equation}rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

The magnetic force between electrons is equivalent to the expression:

\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

In this expression, we can see how photons can propagate through Aether. The same phenomenon that produces a force between any two magnetic charges is the phenomenon of photons per area. In other words, photons' opposite spinning, double cardioid nature caused by the angular momentum within the electron and positron spin positions manifests the same mechanics as an Aether unit acting on magnetic charges. In cases where the magnetic charges are bound or remain far apart, the magnetic force mediates by the Coulomb constant.

\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

Also, the photon per area that yields a force is reflected in the operation of Crookes’ radiometer. A photon is equal to force times area. As photons are absorbed, a force manifests over an area. If photons are reflected, no force will manifest since the photon does not become part of the material. Crooke’s radiometer demonstrates that photons are not particulate and that mass doesn't need to manifest as angular momentum (electrons, protons, or neutrons) to convey force. Crooke’s radiometer also demonstrates that force is not just a static unit of mass times acceleration but a true, non-material manifestation of reality. A true, non-material manifestation of force in Crookes’ radiometer is consistent with the dynamic, living Gforce identified as the source of all forces in the Universe.

The physics of photons directly imparting force is also observed in the YORP effect[11] and shining light on soap bubbles[12].

In one of our papers, A New Foundation for Physics, we erroneously stated that a Crooke’s radiometer operated by producing positrons, which annihilated with electrons. Although this mechanics might work if the vanes are constructed from tungsten, ordinary materials do not routinely produce positrons. We thank Dr. Lester Hulett for inviting us to a demonstration where he proved this to us firsthand. Dr. Hulett is one of the foremost authorities on positrons who worked at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Nuclear binding energy” refers to the work required to disassemble or assemble a nucleus. The protons and neutrons bind together via the magnetic force. Work results when the magnetic force moves subatomic particles and the Aether a distance, such as in nuclear binding and unbinding processes.

The Aether Physics Model is agreeable with the mechanism of atomic energy release, as explained in the Standard Model regarding the mechanics of fission and fusion reactions. The total number of nucleons must be the same before and after the reaction. Protons can capture electrons to produce neutrons, and neutrons can release electrons to produce protons.

However, the method for understanding the release of energy is different in the atomic mechanics of the Aether Physics Model. The Standard Model of particle physics has a strange method for calculating binding energy. In the Standard Model, protons and neutrons are the constituents of the nucleus. The proton and neutron are manifestations of the same particle, called a nucleon. The nucleons measure in an arbitrary Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) unit. The atomic mass unit defines as 1/12 the mass of the Carbon 12 isotope. Except for carbon 12, the amu has nothing to do with atomic isotopes. The AMU is an arbitrarily averaged value for nucleons and has no one-to-one relationship to actual nucleons. Yet the Standard Model calculates an isotope's mass defect (binding energy) by subtracting the measured mass of the nucleus from the total AMU of the protons, neutrons, and electrons. In the APM, the electrons have nothing to do with the nuclear binding.

In the Standard Model, the difference between the measured mass of the atom and the sum of the masses of its parts is called the “mass defect” (\(\delta m\)), which can be calculated using Equation (\ref{massdefect}).[13]

\begin{equation}\label{massdefect}\delta m = \left[ {Z\left( {{m_p} + {m_e}} \right) + \left( {A - Z} \right){m_n}} \right] - {m_{atom}} \end{equation}

where:

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}\delta m = {\rm{mass\: defect\:}}\left( {amu} \right) \\ {m_p} = {\rm{mass\: of\: a\: proton\:}}\left( {1.007277amu} \right) \\ {m_n} = {\rm{mass\: of\: a\: neutron\:}}\left( {1.008665amu} \right) \\ {m_e} = {\rm{mass\: of\: an\: electron\:}}\left( {1.000548597amu} \right) \\ {m_{atom}} = {\rm{mass\: of\: nuclide\:}}_Z^AX\left( {amu} \right) \\ Z = {\rm{atomic\: number\: (number\: of\: protons)}} \\ A = {\rm{mass\: number\: (number\: of\: nucleons)}} \\ \end{array}\end{equation}

In other words, the above equation is fictional. There is no physical basis for subtracting a nucleus value, consisting only of the proton and neutron masses, from a total mass including the mass of the electrons.

The idea that there is a “mass defect” and that this is proof of Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence formula, \(E = m{c^2}\), is a trick resulting from the choice of arbitrary calculation techniques. However, the choice is forgivable when one looks at the history of nuclear physics[14]. During World War II, scientists were under enormous pressure to succeed in developing a nuclear bomb, and any equation that could get ballpark results would do. Nevertheless, the pressures of former times are not an excuse to settle for less-than-accurate descriptions and quantifications in quantum physics today.

Concerning the energy released during the fission and fusion processes, scientists admit that energy is released in both fission and fusion. Still, they do not explain the paradoxes that arise from their theories.

If we were able to fuse together or synthesize two neutrons and two protons to form an alpha particle, the resulting nucleus would actually be lighter than the total mass of the original nucleons. In this fusion process, mass would be lost.

Actually, the mass lost is radiated in the form of energy and this is equal to the binding energy that holds the nucleons together in the helium nucleus. Conversely, if a means were available to disintegrate an alpha particle into two neutrons and two protons, it is clear that 28MeV of energy would be required for the reaction.[15]

The last statement is ambiguous, consistent with the method of the Standard Model. The authors of the above quote avoid clearly stating that the energy also radiates during fission [16]. In fission reactions, such as that for uranium 235, it is well understood that energy is radiated, not absorbed. The Standard Model claims that nuclear reactions of fission and fusion varieties radiate energy, although fusion releases more energy than fission[17].

In the fusion reaction, the resulting nucleus is lighter than the sum of its components, presumably because some of the mass radiates away as energy. If this were true, then one or more of the subatomic particles would no longer be quantum and would have a different mass and angular momentum than it had as part of the nucleus. Energy is also radiated when the nucleus is split, meaning that more mass from the subatomic particles is lost (if we are to believe that energy is equivalent to mass). However, what would explain this mass loss if the atom were already deficient in mass?

If there is truly a conservation of energy and mass, it should cost almost twice the fusion binding energy to separate the helium nucleus in a fission process. This is because some subatomic mass was already lost during the fusion process (the mass lost during fusion must be replaced to conserve angular momentum, mass, and energy in the subatomic particles). However, the data shows net energy radiating from both fission and fusion processes; the Standard Model theory clearly claims that the “binding energy” for both is positive.

A proton and neutron can bind via magnetic charge (magnetic force) by adjoining their magnetic orientations. The neutron, having a neutralized electrostatic charge, assists the adjoining process.

The binding pattern takes the exact form identified by Linus Pauling in his Spheron Model of atomic structure.

The Aether Physics Model presents an alternative view to the Standard Model regarding “binding energy.” The “binding energy” equation writes:

\begin{equation}\label{BF0}{k_C}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\phi = BND \end{equation}

Where Z is the number of protons and N is the number of neutrons in the isotope. \(\phi \) is a variation in the quantum distance between Aether units. The folding of Aether causes this variation.

The variation of distance times the binding force is the energy source when a subatomic binding or unbinding occurs. Equation (\ref{BF1}) shows the binding force times the distance variation due to the Aether folding.

\begin{equation}\label{BF1}{k_C}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\phi {\lambda _C} = BND \end{equation}

The empirical range of \(\phi \) is from .092 (hydrogen 5) to about 1.479 (nickel 62).

In the fusion or the fission reactions, the distance between Aether units changes relative to the quantum length, and the subatomic particles binding force moves; thus, work occurs. The Gforce within the Aether units is the “binding energy” source when atomic nuclei compress or expand the Aether.

Again, Coulomb’s constant applies instead of the \(rmfd\) constant in the nuclear binding energy equation. It would appear that the net effect of bound nuclei magnetic charges causes the subatomic particles to behave as spherical entities. Equation (\ref{BF1}) represents the turning point, where primary angular momentum forms what begins to appear as the physical Universe since atoms are the first level of physical matter. This is because the two-dimensional surface areas of the subatomic particles now have a third dimension of length (distance from each other) by binding. These three length dimensions are at right angles to each other, thus forming a volume with a more or less spherical structure.

The binding energy per nucleon varies considerably in equation (\ref{BF0}). The maximum binding energies per nucleon tend to coincide with the more stable atomic isotopes. In the Standard Model, separating a stable isotope such as iron 56 would take more energy per nucleon than a less stable or weaker isotope such as deuterium[18].

In equation (\ref{BF1}), the binding energy per nucleon varies with the average variation of quantum distance between Aether units. In the case of deuterium (hydrogen 2), the average variation of quantum distance between subatomic particles is equal to \(0.187{\lambda _C}\).

\begin{equation}\frac{{BE}}{{BF}} = \frac{{2.225MeV}}{{.785newton}} = 0.187{\lambda _C} \end{equation}

where \({BE}\) is the empirical binding energy of the isotope and \({BF}\) is the calculated binding force. The average variation the force moves expresses in terms of the quantum distance. It turns out that after about the oxygen isotopes, the distance the magnetic forces move per nucleon (produced by Aether units) remains between 1 Compton wavelength and 1.5 Compton wavelengths, as shown in the graph below.

Nuclear binding energy in atomic mechanics.

The graph of the internal nuclear lengths looks familiar. In fact, the internal nuclear lengths of the isotopes are very similar to those shown in the graph of the isotope binding energies per nucleon, as seen below.

Quantum distances in atomic mechanics.

Electron Binding Energy

Physicists have attempted to quantify the electron binding energies of atoms. Lindgren[19] reports on probabilistic methods for deriving the electron binding energies using the Koopmans Theorem, many-body perturbation (MBPT), Coupled-Cluster Approach (CCA), Greene’s function, and the density functional theory (DFT) approach. Whitney[20][21] uses a new two-step variant of special relativity theory to uncover an underlying similarity between all elements and Hydrogen and algebraically characterizes all variations from that norm. The present work results in an accurate binding energy equation predicting all ground-state electrons.

Up to our discovery of the electron binding energy equation, the Aether Physics Model only quantified quantum structure instead of quantum mechanics. Despite the properly quantified Unified Force Theory contained within the Aether Physics Model, the model has not yet received significant attention from physicists and mathematicians. This lack of interest is partly due to the necessity of learning revised definitions for the dimensions, understanding that electrical units should always be expressed in dimensions of distributed charge (charge squared), and understanding the two distinctly different manifestations of charges. Further, the Aether Physics Model is a paradigm of Aether/angular momentum instead of the mass/energy paradigm presently in use.

Toroidal Structure of the Electron

While researching the evidence for electron radii, we came upon the research of David McCutcheon and his Ultrawave Theory[22], which gave an interesting view of the classical and Bohr electron radii:

\begin{equation}2\pi {r_e} \cdot 2\pi {a_0} = {\lambda _C}^2 \end{equation}

Others likely noticed this relationship, but such work was not located. The above relationship reveals that a toroid with a minor radius equal to the classical electron radius and a major radius equal to the Bohr radius has a surface area equal to the Compton wavelength squared.

Further, Planck’s constant easily demonstrates the quantum of action (for the electron) is equal to the mass of the electron times the Compton wavelength squared times the quantum frequency.

\begin{equation}h = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} \end{equation}

We used the above quantum analyses in developing the Aether Physics Model. The electron models are a toroid, which can have variable radii as long as the quantum surface area remains the same. Therefore, the electron is not a fixed-point particle but is a flexible toroidal entity. The flexibility is possible due to the Aether, which gives the electron its structure. Ontologically, the Aether unit pre-exists matter and contributes to the material structure of the angular momentum encapsulated by it.

Twistronics

The manipulation of atomic layers in materials through Twistronics has paved the way for new scientific discoveries and technological advancements. Twistronics involves rotating or twisting the layers of two-dimensional materials like graphene, TMDs, and hBN. This technique enables scientists to induce distinct electronic properties that are absent in the individual layers.

moire patternsThe Magic of Moiré Patterns

When two layers are twisted, a phenomenon called a moiré pattern emerges. This pattern arises due to the interference between the atomic lattices of the two layers, resulting in a periodic modulation of the electronic structure. The moiré pattern can dramatically alter the behavior of electrons, leading to the emergence of novel electronic states and phenomena.

Applications and Potential

Twistronics has garnered significant attention due to its potential applications in various fields. Here are a few areas where twistronics shows promise:

  1. Electronics and Optoelectronics: Scientists are working towards developing electronic devices that are ultrafast and consume less energy by adjusting the electronic properties of twisted materials. Twistronics may also pave the way for the creation of innovative optoelectronic devices, including highly effective photodetectors and LEDs.
  2. Superconductivity: Recent studies have revealed that Twistronics can trigger non-traditional superconductivity in specific substances. This breakthrough discovery has the potential to advance the development of high-temperature superconductors, paving the way for significant improvements in power transmission and energy storage systems.
  3. Quantum Computing: Twisted materials have the potential to create qubits, the building blocks of quantum computers, by controlling and manipulating electronic states. This twistronics technique could lead to the development of more stable and scalable quantum computing platforms in the future.
  4. Topological Insulators: In addition to its ability to twist and manipulate materials, Twistronics can also produce topological insulators. These materials have special conducting properties on their surfaces while remaining insulators in their bulk, making them ideal for use in quantum information processing and spintronics.

Challenges and Future Directions

Although twistronics has enormous potential, researchers face several challenges that need to be overcome. Achieving precise control over the twist angle, scalability, and a deeper understanding of the underlying physics are some of the crucial areas that require further exploration. The Aether Physics Model is an excellent solution for these challenges. Its geometrical modeling of subatomic particles and their space provides significant advantages over the Standard Model.

The fascinating field of Twistronics has surfaced as a novel way to control and design materials at the atomic level. Its potential applications in electronics, superconductivity, quantum computing, and other areas make it a game-changer for multiple industries. As researchers continue to uncover the secrets of twisted materials, we can anticipate remarkable advancements that will shape the technological landscape.

Hydrogen Binding Energy

Because of the relationship between the classical and Bohr electron radii, the proportion of the two equals the electron fine structure constant squared.

\begin{equation}\frac{{{r_e}}}{{{a_0}}} = {\alpha ^2} \end{equation}

An equation, once posted on a Vanderbilt University philosophy page[23], and by David McCutcheon, expressed the hydrogen 1s (ground state) orbital electron in terms of the electron fine structure and kinetic energy of the electron:

\begin{equation}{H_{1s}} = {\alpha ^2}\frac{{{m_e} \cdot {c^2}}}{2} = 13.606eV \end{equation}

In the Aether Physics Model, this would interpret as the ground state, the unbound ratio of the electron radii times the magnetic force of the electron at the range of one quantum length:

\begin{equation}{H_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}}}{{{a_0}}}{A_u}\frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} = 13.606eV \end{equation}

(Electron volts express energy above, although the same value written in quantum measurement units is \(2.663 \times {10^{ - 3}}enrg\).)

Helium Binding Energy

Due to the nature of curved Aether, the square root of each charge is used when multiplying charges. If there are two electron magnetic charges involved, then the magnetic force between them is equal to:

\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{2{e_{emax}} \cdot 2{e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = F \end{equation}

We could similarly calculate the kinetic energy as:

\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{2{e_{emax}} \cdot 2{e_{emax}}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} = {E_k} \end{equation}

The Aether structure building steps in the section about Aether Structures (page 67) involve quantifying the spin differences of matter and Aether. Although the quantum Aether unit has a 2-spin, subatomic particles only inhabit one-fourth of the Aether or half-spin.

The “spin” of the subatomic particles is a direct result of the two dynamic frequency dimensions of the Aether. One of the dynamic frequency dimensions manifests as forward/backward time; the other manifests as right/left spin torque direction. There is a third “static” frequency, resulting in a positive/negative electrostatic charge.

All matter in our observed Universe exists in only the forward time direction. This observed matter further divides into matter and antimatter, depending on which half of the spin torque direction cycle exists. Matter also divides into positive and negative charges depending on which half of the static charge cycle it exists.

The primary angular momentum composing subatomic particles can only spin in either the forward or backward time direction and either the right or left spin direction and exist in either the positive or the negative of the static charge dipole. Since the static charge is not part of the dynamic two-spin structure of the Aether, and angular momentum only exists in half the forward/backward time frequency and half the right/left spin direction, matter appears to have a half-spin.

Therefore, when half-spin subatomic particles bind, they are missing the backward time direction, yet the Aether sees this backward time direction. The result is that subatomic particles do not pair exactly opposite or adjacent to each other, as square building blocks seem to do at the macro level of existence. Instead, the subatomic particles (being curved toroidal structures to begin with), build up in a twisted pattern.

This twisted construction affects the minor and major radii of the toroidal electrons. The effect is additive as electrons bind to each other and fill the Aether spin positions around an atomic nucleus.

In the case of the 1s orbital electrons, the minor radius decreases with the total number of electrons (equal to the number of protons in a neutral atom). Designating the number of protons as Z, the minor radius decreases in steps of half spin.

\begin{equation}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} - 1}}{2} \end{equation}

The major radius increases in steps of half spin:

\begin{equation}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2} \end{equation}

The above stepping patterns are the phi and Phi numbers. In the case of the first binding, where there are two electrons, we get:

\begin{equation}\label{BEphi}\begin{array}{l}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} - 1}}{2} = phi = .618... \\ \frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2} = Phi = 1.618... \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

The above numbers are the Golden Ratio \(Phi\), and \(phi\) iis reciprocal.

With the increase in the number of protons in the atoms, there is an increase in the number of electrons. The total electron radii deform accordingly. As the minor radius shrinks and the major radius grows, there is a deformation as the Aether units stretch, and thus the distance between them shrinks. The distance empirically induces in terms of the quantum length as (the nth root is a capital Z squared):

\begin{equation}\frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{\sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}}} \end{equation}

There is no electron magnetic force binding in the neutral hydrogen atom because there is only one electron. Still, when we look at helium and all other neutral atoms, the electron binding energy equation for the 1s “orbital” electron becomes:

\begin{equation}\label{BE1s}{Z_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot Z \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}

In the case of the neutral helium atom, we can calculate the 1s orbital electron binding energies as:

\begin{equation}\label{BEneutralHe}H{e_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{2^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{2^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{2 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 2 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{2^2}}]{2}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} = 24.721eV \end{equation}

The empirically measured 1s orbital electron binding energy for helium is 24.6eV.

Other Binding Energy Equations

As the complexity of the atomic bindings increases, it becomes apparent that there is another factor at play that has yet to be properly quantified. The elements ranging from lithium to neon form the second orbital layer around the nucleus. Although it may just be a coincidence, it is noteworthy that these eight out of the first ten elements calculate to eight-tenths of their measured values. The calculation variations for elements from sodium to uranium are linear with respect to the measured electron binding energies, suggesting a straightforward physical explanation.

When a linear adjustment applies to the equation, the calculations are remarkably close to the measured values:

\begin{equation}\label{BEeq}{Z_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{Z\cdot{e_{emax}} \cdot {\rm{Z}}\cdot{e_{emax}}\cdot\sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}\cdot(.757 + .0028Z)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}{\rm{ }} \end{equation}

Although the equation above can be simplified, it is still included to serve as a reminder to the reader of its physical interpretation. The empirical data derived from the above equations draws from Gwyn Williams’[24] compilation of electron binding energies. Table 2 shows the measured and calculated 1s orbital binding energies in \(eV\) per atomic element and the deviation between them based upon equation (\ref{BEeq}). Figure 1 depicts the deviation of the calculations from the empirically measured electron binding energies of the 1s orbital position for each element for equation (\ref{BEeq}).

Table 3 lists the measured 1s orbital binding energies in \(eV\) per atomic element compared to the calculations of the equation (without the linear adjustment). Figure 2 shows the deviation of the unadjusted (\ref{BE1s}) calculations from the empirical electron binding energies of the 1s orbital positions for each atomic element. For those who want to find out the ultimate physical component of the 1s orbital binding energy equation, we provide the unadjusted data.

Table 2 – Empirical and Calculated Binding Energies with Errors [equation]

EBE table2

Values calculated in Microsoft Excel

EBE figure1

Table 3 - Empirical and Calculated Binding Energies with Errors [equation ] via MS Excel

EBE table3

Electron binding energy in atomic mechanics

Sample Detailed Calculations

In the atomic mechanics of the Aether Physics Model, we can apply equation (\ref{BEeq}) to any element from lithium to uranium.

Oxygen

Calculating the 1s orbital for oxygen, we get \(534.534eV\) (all values are off from the table due to rounding):

\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{8^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{8^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{8 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 8 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{8^2}}]{2} \cdot (.757 + .0028 \cdot 8)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = \frac{{2.818 \times {{10}^{ - 15}}m \cdot 3.531}}{{5.292 \times {{10}^{ - 11}}m \cdot 4.531}}1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{64 \cdot 1.400 \times {{10}^{ - 37}}cou{l^2} \cdot 1.011 \cdot .779}}{{2 \cdot 2.426 \times {{10}^{ - 12}}m}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = 4.150 \times {10^{ - 5}} \cdot 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{7.055 \times {{10}^{ - 36}}cou{l^2}}}{{4.852 \times {{10}^{ - 12}}m}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = 8.564 \times {10^{ - 17}}joule = 534.534eV\end{equation}

Iron

The ground state electron for iron is similarly calculated:

\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{{26}^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{{26}^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{26 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 26 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{{26}^2}}]{2} \cdot (.757 + .0028 \cdot 26)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = \frac{{2.818 \times {{10}^{ - 15}}m \cdot 12.510}}{{5.292 \times {{10}^{ - 11}}m \cdot 13.510}}1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{676 \cdot 1.400 \times {{10}^{ - 37}}cou{l^2} \cdot 1.001 \cdot .830}}{{2 \cdot 2.426 \times {{10}^{ - 12}}m}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = 4.931 \times {10^{ - 5}} \cdot 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{7.861 \times {{10}^{ - 35}}cou{l^2}}}{{4.852 \times {{10}^{ - 12}}m}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = 1.134 \times {10^{ - 15}}joule = 7.077 \times {10^3}eV\end{equation}

Uranium

The calculation for uranium is:

\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{{92}^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{{92}^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{92 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 92 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{{92}^2}}]{2} \cdot (.757 + .0028 \cdot 92)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = \frac{{2.818 \times {{10}^{ - 15}}m \cdot 45.503}}{{5.292 \times {{10}^{ - 11}}m \cdot 46.503}}1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{8.464 \times {{10}^3} \cdot 1.400 \times {{10}^{ - 37}}cou{l^2} \cdot 1.000 \cdot 1.015}}{{2 \cdot 2.426 \times {{10}^{ - 12}}m}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = 5.211 \times {10^{ - 5}} \cdot 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{1.202 \times {{10}^{ - 33}}cou{l^2}}}{{4.852 \times {{10}^{ - 12}}m}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = 1.832 \times {10^{ - 14}}joule = 1.144 \times {10^5}eV\end{equation}

Conclusion

The electron binding energy equations for the 1s orbitals in the Aether Physics Model are not completely accurate but are quite close. It's worth noting that the elemental ground states are calculated from first principles. While there's a chance that the data could be flawed, it's more probable that there are certain aspects of the Aether atomic mechanics that the equation hasn't considered yet. These aspects might come to light as future updates to the equation.

The Aether Physics Model's first distinctive quantum mechanical expression is the equation for electron binding energy, which proves the model's feasibility. In contrast to the mass/energy paradigm's quantum mechanics, the Aether Physics Model is precise and does not involve probability functions or paradoxes, which suggests that it will outperform the Standard Model once it is fully developed.

After quantifying the quantum structure using the Aether Physics Model and creating an initial set of equations, it is necessary to further develop the analysis until it comprehensively explains all aspects of the atom. This will enable us to quantify the structural aspects of molecules related to it. Additionally, it is crucial to thoroughly explore and quantify the mechanics of light.

Acknowledgment

We thank Dr. Cynthia Whitney of Galilean Electrodynamics[25] for providing references and background information on prior electron energy binding equation research. We also thank Dr. Gerald Hooper of Leicester, UK, and Dr. Phil Risby of DES Group, UK, for their guidance.

Addendum

Richard Merrick, who mathematically analyzes sound harmonics, suggested that the missing parameter in the electron binding energy equation and the subatomic g-factors might be due to harmonics. We discussed the possibility that the missing parameter might be similar to the Pythagorean comma meantone. Depending upon the reference, the Pythagorean comma meantone is a small variation of frequency between the harmonic derived from a progression of fifths and the harmonic, which is twice the original frequency. Richard also pointed out the \(Phi\) twist portion of the electron binding energy equation (\ref{BEphi}) is equal to:

\begin{equation}\frac{{\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}}}{{\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}} = \frac{{Z(last)}}{{Z(next)}} \end{equation}

In an attempt to capture the “comma,” the value of \({Z(current)}\) per \({Z(last)}\) was found effective:

\begin{equation}\frac{{Z(current)}}{{Z(last)}} = comma \end{equation}

Due to the distributed nature of the quantum structure, it was noted that the \(Phi\) twist and the comma would also be distributed. This resulted in the following electron binding energy equation:

\begin{equation}\label{BE2}{Z_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}{{\left( {\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} - 1}}{2}} \right)}^2}}}{{{a_0}{{\left( {\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}} \right)}^2}}}{A_u}\frac{{{Z^2} \cdot {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot \sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} \cdot {\left( {\frac{Z}{{Z - 1}}} \right)^2} \end{equation}

Equation (\ref{BE2}) is considerably more accurate than equation (\ref{BEneutralHe}) for elements lithium through uranium. More important, equation (\ref{BE2}) provides a smooth curve for all the elements except nitrogen.

Electron binding energy figure 3

A closer view reveals nitrogen has a slightly erratic ground state binding energy compared to the rest of the values.  Assuming the electron binding energy equation is close to representing the true ground state binding energies, we can offset the empirical nitrogen ground state binding energy of 409.9 eV by 1.46%, giving a nitrogen ground state binding energy of 403.9 eV.

Nitrogen anomaly in atomic mechanics

We consulted Gwyn Williams to verify the calculated nitrogen ground state binding energy. In his reply, he stated:

In Cardona and Ley’s book[26], it's definitely 409.9. In Beardon and Burr, rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 125 (1967) it's given as 401.6 +- 0.4, and in a paper I have by Wolfgang Lotz, dated February 1970[27], and for which I can't find the reference, it's given as 403.

So even if the latest version of the electron binding energy equation is not quite finished, it may still have scientific value in verifying the empirical electron binding energies.

Atomic Mechanics of Energy from the Aether

Technically, it is not possible to get energy from the Aether. This is because energy is not subatomic particles. Only photons, electrons, and protons are subatomic particles arising from the Aether in the physical realm. Nevertheless, by generating subatomic particles and putting them to work, it is possible to produce “energy from the Aether.”

In the atomic mechanics of the Aether Physics Model, photons are subatomic particles with a velocity imparted by the Aether. Photons convert to electrons through the photoelectric effect. Thus if a device is properly constructed to generate photons from dark matter, and if a circuit that converts photons to electrons is incorporated, a steady flow of electric current can be put into motion without needing a battery or a dynamo.

Each unit of Aether is dynamic and independent of all other Aether units. The Aether has reciprocal angular momentum per charge (conductance), which can manipulate into producing the angular momentum of a photon via the Casimir effect. The method involves no sleight-of-hand math or invented concepts; this theory rests on empirical data.

The Casimir effect is the key to energy extraction from the Aether. Taking the quantum case where the length \(L\) and area \(A\) have the Compton wavelength, the Casimir equation writes in terms of quantum measurements and units:

\begin{equation}\label{casimir2}\begin{array}{l} L = {\lambda _C} \\ A = {\lambda _C}^2 \\ \frac{{\pi \cdot h \cdot c}}{{480 \cdot {L^4}}}A = 2.208 \times {10^{ - 4}}newton \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

The Planck constant \(h\) times the speed of photons \(c\) produces the photon unit in the Aether Physics Model. Expressing the force in \(forc\) units we get:

\begin{equation}\label{casimir3}\frac{{\pi \cdot phtn \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{480 \cdot {\lambda _C}^4}} = 6.545 \times {10^{ - 3}}forc \end{equation}

where \(forc\) is equal to \(.034newton\).

Hendrick Casimir derived equation (\ref{casimir2}) from empirical data. Steven Lamoreaux proved the Casimir equation correct within 5% in 1996. Therefore, there is a margin for adjusting the numerical part of the equation.

Notice that the number \({480}\) appears in Casimir’s equation. In the Aether Physics Model, all quantum-related equations depend on quantum measurements. Earlier, it appeared that \(4\pi \) and \(16{\pi ^2}\) have quantum dimension properties. When examining the \(\frac{\pi }{{480}}\) component of equation (\ref{casimir3}) we note that it is very close to \(\frac{1}{{16{\pi ^2}}}\). Adjusting Casimir’s equation accordingly, we get:

\begin{equation}\label{casimir4}\frac{{phtn \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{16{\pi ^2} \cdot {\lambda _C}^4}} = 6.333 \times {10^{ - 3}}forc \end{equation}

Now we can cancel out the \({16{\pi ^2}}\) terms:

\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^4}} = forc \end{equation}

The Casimir equation can also transform into the Coulomb expression for the electron magnetic charge. From equation (\ref{casimir4}) we can replace \(\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}}\) with \({e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {k_C}\).

\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {k_C} \end{equation}10.72}\]

and ultimately produce the magnetic force law for the electron:

\begin{equation}rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

Where \(rmfd\) is the quantum unit of the Aether and is equal to Coulomb's constant times \({16{\pi ^2}}\). This form of the equation tells us that the Aether exerts a force between magnetic charges that is proportional to the distance between them squared. The magnetic force is dependent on the magnetic charge.

So far, from the Casimir equation, we have shown that photons between plates can create force and that photon-created force is identical to the magnetic charge-created force. Therefore, it would follow that the Casimir effect is an example of the magnetic force law.

Capacitance defines as a unit using capacitor plates with quantum measurements:

\begin{equation}capc = {\varepsilon _0}\frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}

Where \({\varepsilon _0}\) is the permittivity constant, the capacitance between two plates depends on the Aether constant of permittivity, the common area of the plates, and the distance between the plates.

If we wanted to produce energy from the Aether, we would produce photons between magnetic charges. The ideal configuration would be magnetic charges arranged in a spherical form. Two spherical objects (of magnetic charge) held a certain distance apart (adjacent or concentric) produce a capacitance. The ratio of the spherically arranged magnetic charge to capacitance determines the amount of energy that results.

However, since electricity is a quantum process with photons and electrons of a specific magnitude, the spherical objects must adhere to a specific design and position to produce a specific capacitance. When properly tuned, the Aether between the plates will resonate and generate photons, which can directly convert to electrons via the photoelectric effect.

The quantum unit of energy in the Aether Physics Model is \(enrg\), and it is equal to:

\begin{equation}enrg = rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} = {m_e}{c^2} \end{equation}

If we want to know the energy available between two plates, we use this equation:

\begin{equation}\label{Ecapc}\frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{capc}} = enrg \end{equation}

So equation (\ref{Ecapc}) shows that the spherical constant times magnetic charge divided by the capacitance of the plates is equal to the energy produced. The magnetic charge is inherent to the electron; the capacitance is a function of the Aether. There is no input to this system designed to get energy, as the system draws on the inherent resonance in the quantum Aether unit \(\left( {rmfd} \right)\). Thus, equation (\ref{Ecapc}) shows how energy can tap from the Aether.

The equation suggests that photons generate at a very specific frequency.

For energy to come from this system, there must be a dielectric between the magnetic charges. The dielectric can be "free space," but the load across the plates must not short out the miniature capacitor. Due to the \({4\pi }\) spherical constant times the magnetic charge, spherical capacitor plates would seem to work better than flat capacitor plates. In actual experiments, there is some validation of this supposition.

A paper with a similar theory is Lecture No. 27, Our Future Energy Source, The Vacuum, 2002, by Harold Aspden.

Expanding Universe

As a direct result of magnetic charges coming into proximity with each other within atoms and molecules in stars, photons create continually. This causes a constant stream of new primary angular momentum to flow into the Universe. Atoms continually absorb these new photons and convert them into electrons, positrons, and photons via the photoelectric effect, Compton Effect, and pair production. The same process likely occurs between protons and neutrons to produce some types of gamma rays.

Can new protons be created by a process similar to that, which creates electrons? Probably, but experimentation is needed to prove it.

Just on the evidence of the Casimir effect, there is sufficient proof to conclude that the Universe can expand. Research into the possibility of creating protons from Aether (in fusion reactions) could provide even more insight into the expanding Universe.

Astronomical evidence is inferred from the dark matter halo of galaxies that the angular momentum that produces neutrinos exists outside the Aether units and in large quantities. This hidden angular momentum is dark matter. Astrophysicists hypothesize its existence. Thus, it is possible visible matter increases in mass and charge as dark matter absorbs into the Aether via the Casimir effect.

Part of the cosmological redshift could similarly be due to adding new Aether units into the Universe. The amount of space between two points would also continually increase, giving the appearance of objects moving away from each other. This expansion would manifest as a redshift. It should be possible to calculate the rate of Aether unit growth in the Universe using redshift data if such a process exists.

Magnecules

The electric force associated with spherical structures tends to be weaker than those associated with toroidal structures. This is apparent in the nuclear binding energy equation, where a nucleon binds in a spherical shape and mediates by Coulomb’s constant. In electron bindings, the electrons are toroidal when binding and mediate by the Aether constant.

Most molecules have a spherical structure, but not all. Since all subatomic particles have a magnetic charge, atoms construct from subatomic particles, and molecules construct from atoms, some atomic and molecular structures can take on a toroidal geometry. When the toroidal geometry constructs due to the magnetic alignment of the magnetic charges among protons, neutrons, or electrons, the overall magnetic structure of the subatomic particles survives into the macrostructure. This is the source of permanent magnetism in atoms and molecules. The more subatomic particles polarized in the same orientation, the greater the net magnetic strength of the macrostructure.

When subjecting atoms to an intense magnetic field, suitable temperature, and proper cooling environment, they may form molecules with magnetic properties. Dr. Ruggero Santilli first observed and identified such a molecule while investigating a type of gas patented in 1898[28]. He has subsequently named the type of molecule a “magnecule,” as it has magnetic bindings between atoms rather than the standard electrostatic bindings.

Since the Standard Model does not recognize the magnetic charge of the electron, it is at a loss to quantify the electronic, atomic, and molecular magnetic properties. When fully developed, the Aether Physics Model will likely provide a simple quantification of the magnecule and lead to many similar discoveries. Since the magnetic charge binds with more force than the electrostatic charge, materials made with toroidal molecular structures will likely be stronger and lighter. This should be true for solids, gases, and fluids.

Already, the MagneGas™ molecule is composed of a chain of \({H_2}\) and \(CO\) molecules are observed to be magnetic and cling to the surface of its container. When ignited, the MagneGas™ will not burn a human hand but quickly melt a tungsten rod and brick. These unique properties attribute to both the subatomic particles' magnetic charge and the magnecule's toroidal macrostructure.

references

[1] Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/Compositions/stand_alone.pl?

[2] "Lithium batteries don't emit strong enough bursts of energy to run power tools or computer hard drives and, because of lithium's reactivity, they are prone to explode." John Carpi, "Green Batteries: Powering Innovation," E Apr. 1994, Questia, 11 June 2004 <http://www.questia.com/>.

[3] “It is of interest to notice that according to the classical theory, if an x-ray were scattered by an electron moving in the direction of propagation at a velocity \({\beta}'c\) , the frequency of the ray scattered at an angle \(\theta\) is given by the Doppler Principle as \(\nu_{\theta}=\nu_{0}\bigg/\left ( 1+\frac{2{\beta}'}{1-{\beta}'}sin^{2}\frac{1}{2}\theta \right )\)” Morris H. Shamos, Great Experiments in Physics “Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein” (New York, Dover Publications Inc., 1987) 353

[4] Graphic from Nuclear Radiation Physics, 1949

[5] Per explanation by Dr. Lester Hulett in conversation with the author.

[6] As proposed by Dr. Cynthia Whitney.

[8] Warren B. Boast PhD Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 399

[9] "ELECTRODYNAMICS - The study of phenomena associated with charged bodies in motion and varying electric and magnetic fields" "Electrodynamics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[10] “Pion or pi meson, lightest of the meson family of elementary particles . The existence of the pion was predicted in 1935 by Hideki Yukawa, who theorized that it was responsible for the force of the strong interactions holding the atomic nucleus together. It was first detected in cosmic rays by C. F. Powell in 1947. The pion is actually a multiplet of three particles. The neutral pion, \({\pi _0}\), has a mass about 264 times that of the electron. The charged pions, \(\pi + \) and \(\pi - \), each have a mass about 273 times that of the electron. The neutral pion is its own antiparticle , while the negative pion is the antiparticle of the positive pion. It is now known that each pion (and, more generally, each meson) consists of a quark bound to an antiquark. Free pions are unstable. The charged pions decay with an average lifetime of 2.55 × 10−8 sec into a muon of like charge and a neutrino or antineutrino; the neutral pion decays in about 10−15 sec, usually into a pair of photons but occasionally into a positron-electron pair and a photon.” "Pion ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[11] Stephen C. Lowry, Alan Fitzsimmons, Petr Pravec, David Vokrouhlick, Hermann Boehnhardt, Patrick A. Taylor, Adrian Galád, Mike Irwin, Jonathan Irwin, Peter Kusnirák, Direct Detection of the Asteroidal YORP Effect (Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1139040, Published Online, March 8, 2007)

[12] Robert D. Schroll, Régis Wunenburger, Alexis Casner, Wendy W. Zhang, and Jean-Pierre Delville, Liquid Transport due to Light Scattering (Phys. Rev. Lett, American Physical Society, 2007) vol. 98, num. 133601

[13] Atomic and Nuclear PhysicsDOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Mass Defect and Binding Energy p17

[14] Gerard H. Clarfield and William M. Wiecek, Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States, 1940-1980, 1st ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1984)

[15] Lapp, R.E. PhD and Andrews, H.L. PhD, Nuclear Radiation Physics, Prentice Hall, New York 1948 p.141

[16] Fission - A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus, especially a heavy nucleus such as an isotope of uranium, splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, releasing from 100 million to several hundred million electron volts of energy. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[17] "The energy released during fusion is even greater than that released during fission."  "Nuclear Energy ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[18] “This energy is called the binding energy of the nuclide, and is a direct measure of nuclear stability.” Stephenson, Richard Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1954 p13

[19] Lindgren, Ingvar, Calculation of Electron Binding Energies and Affinities (Phys. Scr. T120 15-18, doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2005/T120/002, 2005)

[20] Whitney, Cynthia, Algebraic Chemistry: Parts I Through V (Hadronic Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, February 2006) pp 1-46

[21] Whitney, Cynthia, Algebraic Chemistry Based on a PIRT (Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory conference, London, UK, 2006)

[21.5] Pauling, Linus. "The Chemical Bond: A Molecular Structure Viewed through Quantum Mechanics." Cornell University Press, 1960. p 244

[22] Web site formerly located at http://davidmac_no1.tripod.com/ut_part1/, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20040923070747/http:/davidmac_no1.tripod.com/.

[23] Inactive page: http://ransom.isis.vanderbilt.edu/philosophy/FineStructureConstant.htm

[24] Williams, Gwyn http://xray.uu.se/hypertext/EBindEnergies.html Values are taken from J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, (1967) p.125, except values marked '*' are from M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978) with additional corrections, and values marked with '+' are from J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 21, (1980) p.275. [reference copied from web page]

[25] http://www.galileanelectrodynamics.com/

[26] M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978)

[27] Lotz Wolfgang, Electron Binding Energies in Free Atoms (J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 60, 1970) 206-210

[28] Hilliary Eldridge, Electrical Ketoet, patent# 603058 filed June 28, 1897 and issued April 26, 1898.

[21] Pauli, Wolfgang. "The Exclusion Principle." Handbuch der Physik, vol. 5, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1958, pp. 1–168

[22] Nucleon Configurations for the Magic Numbers from Principles of Radioisotope Methodology 1967 p.44, by Grafton D. Chase and Joseph L. Rabinowitz