Structure of Atomic Nuclei
The Aether determines the structures of atoms. That is, the structure of the Aether becomes the structure of the subatomic particles, and therefore of the atoms.
There is a pattern to the development of the nucleus, just as there is a pattern to the development of the electron orbital structure. Wolfgang Pauli discovered that no two subatomic particles, in either the nucleus or the electron orbital structure, share the same placements in atomic structure[21]. The Aether Physics Model is in full agreement with the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
Similar to the electron orbital structure, the nucleus follows a pattern in shell structure. The structure of the nucleus appears to be due to the structure of the Aether. Linus Pauling deduced that in addition to the orbital shells having the magic numbers of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126, the nucleus builds up in three different layers.
Pauling called these three layers the “mantle,” “core or outer core,” and “inner core.” However, Pauling saw the nucleus constructing as clusters of spherons. A spheron would be a helium nucleus, a proton with two neutrons, or a pair of neutrons.
The Aether Physics Model mathematically shows each layer has the same pattern for filling spin positions with protons and neutrons. Both protons and neutrons follow the magic number sequence. Both proton and neutron structures follow the same pattern independently from each other. Since the APM nuclear binding energy equation is not yet complete, it could be that Pauling’s spheron concept is correct for particulate structure, and yet the spin structure would still follow an orderly pattern.
This means, for example, that in the first layer and its first shell there can be up to 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Atoms produce the largest “binding energies” after filling both the proton and neutron portions of the layer. When a new layer starts, it always begins at the center of the nucleus.
Following Pauling’s pattern of nucleus development, the next magic number in the sequence is 184. Just before the element 184 creates, a fourth layer occurs in the center of the atomic nucleus beginning with elements 167 or 168. Therefore, the complete sequence of magic numbers is 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, and 184.
Below is a table of Pauling's layer configurations for the magic numbers[22].
Magic 
Mantle 
Core or 
Inner Core 

2 8 20 50 82 126 
1s2 1s2 1p6 2s2 1p6 1d10 1f14 2s2 2p6 1d10 1f14 (1g9/2)10 3s2 2p6 2d10 1f14 1g18 (1h l1/2)12 3s2 3p6 2d10 2f141g18 1h22 (1i l3/2)14

1s2 1s2 1p6 2s2 1p6 1d10 2s2 2p6 1d10 1f14

1s2 1s2 1p6

The values from Pauling's charts lay out by layer and shell number. In chart A below, Pauling's chart expands to include the magic number 28 and an additional magic number, 184.
Below, chart B shows the spin associated with each layer and shell. Beyond shell one there are two "halves" to each shell, which are designated \(a\) and \(b\). The spin changes for each half shell. The pattern begins with \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in shell one of the Mantle. We add to shell two, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in shell 2a and \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in shell 2b. The third sequence continues with \(\frac{5}{2}\) spin in shell 3a, then \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in the Outer Core shell 1, and then \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in the Mantle at 3b. The fourth sequence has added, \(\frac{7}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 4a. Then in the fifth, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin adds to the Outer Core shell 2a, \(\frac{5}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 4b, \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin Outer Core 2b, and \(\frac{9}{2}\) spin is added to 5a. The sixth sequence expands with \(\frac{7}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 5b, \(\frac{3}{2}\) spin in Outer Core 3b, \(\frac{1}{2}\) spin in Inner Core 1, and \(\frac{11}{2}\) spin in Mantle shell 6a. The remaining additions follow the same pattern.
Chart C shows the series order of the nucleus fill sequence. Chart D shows the number of nucleons per layer shell. The values calculate by Pauling's formula 2j+1, where j is the spin as shown in chart B. Chart E shows the cumulative total of the nucleons per layer shell as the nucleus fills. To visualize the nuclear spin structure described above, see the Pauling Spheron Periodic Table in the appendix.
The equations for calculating the nuclear spin per sub shells \(a\) and \(b\) are:
\begin{equation}a = s  \frac{1}{2} \end{equation}4.26}\]
\begin{equation}b = s  \frac{3}{2} \end{equation}4.27}\]
where \(a\) and \(b\) belong to the shell number \(s\). Applying the nuclear spin equations to Pauling's formula for the maximum number of nucleons in a nuclear shell we get:
\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l} 2\left( {s  \frac{1}{2}} \right) + 1 \\ 2\left( {s  \frac{3}{2}} \right) + 1 \\ \end{array} \end{equation}
Each layer of the Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core follows the same structural system.
If the total number \(\left( {tn} \right)\) of nucleons that can fit on a layer shell are:
\begin{equation}tn = a + b \end{equation}
then the total number of nucleons on a layer shell can be as high as
\begin{equation}tn = 4s  2 \end{equation}
How Atoms Release Energy
The nuclear binding force quantifies according to equation (\ref{NBF}), for reasons explained in the Unified Force Theory chapter:
\begin{equation}\label{NBF}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{pmax}}^2 + {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 23.271forc \end{equation}
In the atom, the total binding force (nuclear binding plus electron binding) calculates from the sum of all magnetic charge in the electrons, protons, and neutrons. For example, the total force applied by the Aether to hold deuterium together is:
\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{\left( {Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2 + Z \cdot {e_{emax}}^2} \right)}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 23.278forc \end{equation}
where \(Z\) is the number of protons and electrons in deuterium, and \(N\) is the number of neutrons.
The distributed Compton wavelength is the surface between charges because it provides the quantum surface area of any spin position of the Aether.
In addition, since the subatomic particle primary angular momentum is spinning in an Aether unit, two subatomic particles together would require an overlap of the Aether. The only time Aether space overlaps is when two subatomic particles bind together through the magnetic force, causing the Aether to fold over onto itself. Two Aether units without angular momentum existing in them cannot overlap.
Length exists as only two dimensions within the Aether unit; the third dimension of length in volumetric space is due to the distance between Aether units, which is one quantum distance. Therefore, in an atom, the shortest distance available for photons to travel from one Aether unit to the next is usually one Compton wavelength.
However, due to the binding of electrons to protons to produce the folded space of the neutron, the Aether units slightly pull toward each other and stretch the fabric of space.
At the Quantum level, Coulomb's law can be modified to directly calculate the amount of energy that it should take to separate a nucleus, based on the number of subatomic particles in the atom. So the total energy it would take to separate the nucleus of Helium 4 if the distance between subatomic particles were one quantum distance is equal to 23.783MeV:
\begin{equation}\label{BFhelium}{k_C}\frac{{\left( {Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2} \right)}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} \cdot {\lambda _C} = 23.783MeV \end{equation}
Physicists have tested all known atomic isotopes for their actual “binding energy” over the years. A complete list of atomic masses for calculating binding energies for isotopes is available at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)[1].
It is important to remember that atoms do not bind due to energy; they bind due to force. The "binding energy" is the actual amount of energy that would be required to pull the atom apart, if such a thing occurs.
The actual "binding energy" never agrees with the calculated "binding energy" because Aether units slightly change their distance from each other depending on the configuration of the nuclear magnetic charges and the presence of neutrons. In the Standard Model, the difference between the calculated binding energy and the measured binding energy designates as “mass defect.” The term “mass defect” implies that something has happened to the mass. However, since mass is merely a dimension, nothing ever happens to the mass. It defies logic to suggest that the dimension or measurement of mass converts to a unit of energy.
Using helium 4 as an example, the NIST measured binding energy is 28.293MeV. In equation (\ref{BFhelium}) the calculated binding energy for helium 4 is 23.783MeV. The ratio of actual to calculated binding energy is:
\begin{equation}\frac{{28.293MeV}}{{23.783MeV}} = 1.19 \end{equation}
Therefore, Helium 4 has caused an average change of distance between Aether units that is equal to 1.19\({{\lambda _C}}\). The difference between the measured binding energy and APM calculated binding energy is 4.510MeV. If the APM binding energy equation and NIST measured binding energy are correct then the difference must be due to a change of distance between Aether units.
Energy is stored as magnetic tension between the Aether units. When the nuclear binding releases, the extra tension also releases. Therefore, there is not only energy released due to the subatomic particles unbinding, but also there is energy released due to the Aether "unbinding." Further, due to the Casimir effect, the process of producing photons from dark matter also adds energy to the nuclear reaction. Thus, we generally explain the energy release observed in fission.
Nevertheless, there is also an energy gain from fusion. That is, while there is extra energy when the subatomic particles unbind (fission), there is also extra energy when the subatomic particles bind (fusion). When two subatomic particles come near each other, the Aether causes the magnetic force that magnetically attracts the magnetic charges. This is just like two magnets that get too close to each other, which suddenly gain energy, align their poles, and accelerate until contact. Like fission, the nuclear binding not only exerts force between subatomic particles, but also between Aether units. The force between Aether units results in a change in distance, which stores energy. In addition, the Casimir effect comes into play once more as subatomic particles magnetically align at the correct distance to create photons.
The constant process of assembling and disassembling atoms creates photons from the interaction of dark matter and Aether, which manifests as energy. The design of LiquidMetalCooled Fast Breeder Reactors to produce more fuel than they consume{3} is an interesting curiosity. The scientists must have known something about atomic reactions in order to design nuclear power plants in such a manner.
There is no conversion of mass into energy. The apparent conversion of mass to energy in atomic nuclei is due to the binding of space along with the binding of matter. In addition, photons produce through the Casimir effect, which provide even more energy. The Aether is doing work regardless of whether the atoms fuse or fizz. The process of assembling and disassembling matter to get “free energy” is similar to a pumping action, except that it pumps angular momentum from dark matter into the visible Universe. The extra angular momentum that pumps into the visible Universe ultimately returns to dark matter when black hole implosion events occur. Thus, angular momentum is truly conserved and recycled.
With regard to internal nuclear lengths (distances between Aether units), not all atoms have a net distance between Aether units of greater than one quantum distance. Of all the stable atomic isotopes, only Lithium 7 has a net distance between Aether units of less than one. What does this mean? It means Lithium has more potential than other stable isotopes to manipulate the Aether and cause it to work.
It follows that if Lithium combines either with another element or disassembles and reassembles through a resonant oscillation, then it may induce the Aether to generate photons, which could contribute to the amplitude of the oscillation. The excess amplitude manifests as heat and radiates photons. The photons may then convert to electrons via the photoelectric effect. In addition to electronsized photons, the process may also generate protonsized photons. Tapping the energy of the Aether through Lithium may be as simple as bombarding Lithium with Xrays or microwaves.
There are reports that Lithium batteries explode with more energy than expected[2]. Such explosions occur near Xray machines, in medical equipment, and near airport security systems. Even internal excitation from heat causes Lithium batteries to explode. The lithium itself is not explosive, but it tends to acquire excess energy that must be released somewhere.
Lithium is not the only isotope that would appear to draw energy from the Aether. Below is a table of all the isotopes with a net distance of less than one quantum distance between Aether units. From the table we can see that deuterium (H2) and tritium (H3) are also excellent candidates for drawing energy from the Aether. Although there are other excellent candidate isotopes, the quantities of those isotopes in nature are limited.
EL = element, A = atomic number.
EL 
A 
Measured Binding Energy 
Calculated Binding Energy 
Net\({{\lambda _C}}\) 
H 
2 
2.224MeV 
11.895MeV 
0.187 
H 
3 
8.481MeV 
17.849MeV 
0.476 
H 
4 
5.579MeV 
23.802MeV 
0.235 
H 
5 
2.743MeV 
29.756MeV 
0.092 
H 
6 
5.784MeV 
35.709MeV 
0.162 
He 
3 
7.717MeV 
17.837MeV 
0.433 
He 
5 
27.406MeV 
29.744MeV 
0.923 
He 
6 
29.266MeV 
35.698MeV 
0.821 
He 
7 
28.822MeV 
41.651MeV 
0.693 
He 
8 
31.404MeV 
47.605MeV 
0.661 
He 
9 
30.256MeV 
53.558MeV 
0.566 
He 
10 
30.335MeV 
59.512MeV 
0.510 
Li 
4 
4.620MeV 
23.778MeV 
0.195 
Li 
5 
26.326MeV 
29.732MeV 
0.887 
Li 
6 
31.992MeV 
35.686MeV 
0.898 
Li 
7 
39.240MeV 
41.639MeV 
0.944 
Li 
8 
41.273MeV 
47.593MeV 
0.868 
Li 
9 
45.336MeV 
53.546MeV 
0.848 
Li 
10 
45.311MeV 
59.500MeV 
0.763 
Li 
11 
45.637MeV 
65.453MeV 
0.698 
Li 
12 
44.408MeV 
71.407MeV 
0.623 
Be 
6 
26.921MeV 
35.674MeV 
0.756 
Be 
7 
37.596MeV 
41.627MeV 
0.904 
Be 
12 
68.642MeV 
71.395MeV 
0.963 
Be 
13 
68.136MeV 
77.349MeV 
0.882 
Be 
14 
69.975MeV 
83.302MeV 
0.841 
B 
7 
24.715MeV 
41.615MeV 
0.595 
B 
8 
37.734MeV 
47.569MeV 
0.794 
B 
15 
88.182MeV 
89.244MeV 
0.989 
B 
16 
88.137MeV 
95.197MeV 
0.927 
B 
17 
89.576MeV 
101.151MeV 
0.887 
B 
18 
89.041MeV 
107.104MeV 
0.832 
B 
19 
90.070MeV 
113.058MeV 
0.798 
C 
8 
24.780MeV 
47.557MeV 
0.522 
C 
9 
39.030MeV 
53.511MeV 
0.730 
C 
21 
118.831MeV 
124.953MeV 
0.952 
C 
22 
120.279MeV 
130.907MeV 
0.920 
N 
10 
35.533MeV 
59.452MeV 
0.598 
N 
11 
58.338MeV 
65.406MeV 
0.893 
N 
24 
141.180MeV 
142.802MeV 
0.990 
O 
12 
58.543MeV 
71.347MeV 
0.822 
O 
13 
75.550MeV 
77.301MeV 
0.979 
F 
14 
72.341MeV 
83.243MeV 
0.870 
Photon Mechanics
In 1923, Arthur Compton noted that J.J. Thomson's model of the electron did not account for the lower frequency (longer wavelength) associated with "electron scattering." To account for this, Compton imagined the photon as a billiard ball that passed through the atom and dislodged electrons from a force within the atom according to the Doppler principle[3].
Photon scattering – Standard Model[4] 
Compton's theory, like so many other theories in the Standard Model, accounts for the momentum of an imaginary, miniature billiard ball, as though the momentum were something real and the billiard ball was something imaginary. It explains the scattering of radiation in terms of corpuscular photons, but not how the photons always manage to miss the nucleus of the atom.
Further, Compton's theory of a corpuscular incident photon assumes that the light emits as bullets that happen to shoot directly at the target.
Imagine an experiment setup where the researcher is going to measure the Compton Effect at 90 degrees from the angle of the incoming “billiard ball” photon. Only one photon emits. The photon scatters at 135 degrees, instead of toward the sensor, which resides at 90 degrees. The experiment should show a null result. In fact, if the experiment is repeated many times over, it should show a null result almost 100% of the time because the odds of the photon being reflected exactly toward the sensor is about 1/360 (assuming that the sensor is set up to receive photons over an arc of 1 degree).
Nevertheless, aside from the defects in logic in the billiard ball explanation of particles, Compton’s equations are still applicable to the Aether Physics Model’s explanation of incident radiation. This is because Compton’s equations based upon the empirical data. We will look at the same empirical data but give a different interpretation of it.
Looking at a polar plot of Compton’s equation for the scattering xrays, we can see the general shape of what the electron should look like. The graph on the left represents the general shape of the electron since it radiates photons as these shapes. If the electron were circular, the plot would be circular, and if the electron were square, the plot would reflect the squareness of the electron.
In the Aether Physics Model, the subatomic particles model as loxodromes through spaceresonance. When we look down the time axis we can see that a subatomic particle would look like a cardioid as perceived through human eyes (from within the forward time direction of halfspin subatomic particles).
The image produced by Compton’s equation for the scattering xrays of electrons looks like the cardioid shaped electron as modeled in the Aether Physics Model as seen in the image at right. However, even though the APM loxodrome and Compton cardioid look alike, they are quantifiably different in proportion[5]. The Compton function extends at twice the rate of expansion at 180 than the loxodrome function.
According to the Aether Physics Model, photons are true quantum “particles” and have no inherent frequency as they do in the Standard Model. Light is a unit to describe photons emitted at a frequency.
\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}
Light is essentially, then, accelerating angular momentum.
\begin{equation}ligt = h \cdot accl \end{equation}
When light strikes an atom, angular momentum from the light is absorbed and transferred to the valence electron. The absorption is a process of decelerating angular momentum.
Light Radiation
It often states that light travels in straight lines, such as a ballistic particle. This is not entirely true. A line has two directions, light travels specifically from the source, outward, and only in one direction (the forward direction). Therefore, light travels as a ray, not as a line.
Further, if light were a particle, and several rays were cast from an emitter, then at some great distance there will be gaps between the light particles. At a great distance, the emitter would become invisible for some observers and not for others, or there would be a flickering as light particles randomly arrived at a receiver.
However, in reality, a light emitter seen from a great distance does not flicker and spaces do not appear between "light particles." A decrease in light intensity observes with distance, indicating that light is spreading as it travels. The simple explanation is that light emits as a cardioid band of angular momentum from the emitter and expands radially. Part of the photon always remains connected to the emitter[6]. In most cases, the bands of light emit in all orientations as the emitting electrons arrange in all orientations, thus giving the appearance of spherical emission. However, in polarized crystals light emits with all the bands horizontally aligned.
The observed lengthening of the wavelength produced by the receiving atom can be accounted for when we take into account the full angular momentum of the source atom valence electron.
A valence electron in an excited system will give off photons at a certain frequency.
\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}
The wavelength of this emitted light is variable and satisfies Compton’s wavelength function of \(1  \cos \left( \theta \right)\). Since the frequency of light can express in terms of wavelength, the light unit can notate as:
\begin{equation}ligt = phtn\frac{c}{{{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}
According to Compton, the wavelength of the light will depend on the angle from which it views.
The wavelength of light is a function of the viewing angle:
\begin{equation}f\left( \theta \right) = 1  \cos \left( \theta \right) \end{equation}
\begin{equation}ligt = phtn\frac{c}{{{\lambda _C}f\left( \theta \right)}} \end{equation}
What this means is that light is transmitted perpendicular \(\left[ {\theta = \left( {\frac{1}{2}\pi ,\frac{3}{2}\pi } \right)} \right]\) to the direction of electron flow through a radiator at the same frequency of the emitter oscillation, and at different frequencies from other angles. It also means that there is no light transmitted in the direction from which the photons or electrons are coming.
Absorption
The Aether units of the visible Universe cycle to the rhythm of the quantum frequency. This means the Aether units cycle between forward and backward time. In each cycle of forward and backward time, all the processes of the Universe that are going to occur do so in that period. Physical matter, for whatever reason, can only see the forward time portion of the cycle. Thus, subatomic particles exist only as halfspin.
So in one quantum cycle all the processes that are going to take place, take place in forward time, and they remain dormant through the backward time phase.
At the atomic level, angular momentum among atoms transmits in the form of photons and electrons. We will look at the case of photons already transmitted and that are now being absorbed (received).
Photons emit from different atoms at a wide range of frequencies, meaning that photon angular momentum arrives at atoms at various times and in various quantities. In one quantum moment \(\left( {{T_q}} \right)\) there are a given number of photon “fronts” arriving at an atom. The photon front has a certain amount of angular momentum available to transfer to the atom. In order for that angular momentum to be absorbed, the frequency of the arriving light synchronizes to the frequency of the atom or molecule receiving the light, otherwise it reflects. If the frequency of the atom or molecule is a frequency of the arriving light, or even a harmonic frequency, the light will instantly decelerate, thus being absorbed into the atom or molecule.
\begin{equation}\frac{{ligt}}{{accl}} = h \end{equation}
The amount of angular momentum that will be absorbed into the system will depend on the distance between the emitter and the receiver, and on their frequencies. The further the distance between the two, the weaker the angular momentum becomes, due to divergence. (The angular momentum is not lost; it spreads over a greater area and thus less angular momentum is contacting the atom or molecule.) The further out of sync the two frequencies are, the less angular momentum will be absorbed.
Emission
In the first two editions of “Secrets of the Aether”, we published hypothetical views on how emissions might take place in the Aether Physics Model. Now that we are getting a clearer view on some aspects of the Aether, it is apparent that photon structure is more complicated than originally thought. The photons expand yet remain connected to their emitter. There seems to be several different processes for absorbed angular momentum to be stored in the atom, and thus several different methods for the stored angular momentum to reemit.
Consistent with the rest of the APM, we withdraw our emissions explanations until we have specific data to work with.
The Dimensions of Light
In the Aether Physics Model, a photon is a true quantum “particle.” In the Standard Model a quantum photon can have any value of inherent frequency. A quantum photon with frequency is meaningless because it is not possible for a single quantum particle to exhibit frequency. It is like one hand clapping, or an ocean consisting of one water molecule.
In the APM, the photon quantifies as the angular momentum of the electron times the speed of photons.
\begin{equation}phtn = h \cdot c \end{equation}
The Aether Physics Model describes light as photon times frequency.
\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}
Since angular momentum and the speed of light are constant, the unit of light changes only by the frequency. So light with a frequency of 50MHz is equal to:
\begin{equation}50MHz \cdot phtn = 4.047 \times {10^{  13}}ligt \end{equation}
The unit of light (ligt) may pertain to the mechanics of a single atom or molecule. The intensity of light is equal to the unit of light times the number of active atoms or molecules that produce light.
Gravitation Generated Photons
The gravitational constant is also responsible for producing a photon among subatomic particles. Just as the Aether unit (rotating magnetic field) produces a photon between magnetic charges, the gravitational constant (gravity) produces a photon between masses.
\begin{equation}rmfd \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}} = phtn \end{equation}
\begin{equation}G \cdot {m_e} \cdot {m_e} = 2.788 \times {10^{  46}}phtn \end{equation}
The production of photons from mass is much stronger in the heavier proton and neutron (although still considerably smaller than the strong charge generated photon):
\begin{equation}G \cdot {m_p} \cdot {m_p} = 9.398 \times {10^{  40}}phtn \end{equation}
The creation of photons between magnetic charges verifies in the experiments that prove the Casimir effect. The magnetic charge and mass of a subatomic particle are directly proportional, as they are two characteristics of the same thing. However, mass is single dimensional (a line) whereas magnetic charge is twodimensional (surfacelike) so that it is highly inefficient to produce photons from mass.
Fields
The Aether unit is a dynamic rotating magnetic field. It appears to be a living fabric that provides the volumeresonance in which subatomic particles exist. As shown in the Aether Physics Model, all three physical manifestations of force (electrostatic, magnetic, and gravitational) trace back to the Gforce, which in turn emanates through the Aether unit. The Gforce acts upon electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass in different ways, hence the appearance of three different manifestations of force.
The influence of Gforce, as it acts upon dimensions, is the APM equivalent of what the Standard Model considers a “field.” In the APM, the Aether is the field. Since the Gforce acts through the Aether on mass, it produces a gravitational field. Similarly, the Gforce acting through the Aether on electrostatic charge and magnetic charge produces the electrostatic and magnetic fields. All three fields are different views of the same Aether acting upon the different “carriers” of electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass.
The Columbia Encyclopedia describes the field as:
Fields are used to describe all cases where two bodies separated in space exert a force on each other. The alternative to postulating a field is to assume that physical influences can be transmitted through empty space without any material or physical agency. Such actionatadistance, especially if it occurs instantaneously, violates both common sense and certain modern theories, notably relativity, which posits that nothing can travel faster than light.
The Aether Physics Model quantifies the Aether as a fabric of quantum rotating magnetic fields, which in turn is also the electrostatic field and gravitational field when seen from different perspectives. The Standard Model postulates the existence of the field, but denies the existence of the Aether. Denying the Aether violates common sense, since the Aether mathematically demonstrates as the substance of the fields. With the Gforce acting simultaneously throughout the Universe to maintain Aether units, we eliminate the objection of the apparent “action at a distance” argument.
The rest of this section touches upon the topic of electrodynamics from within the paradigm of the Aether Physics Model. Certain electrodynamic units undefined in the Standard Model can exist in the Aether Physics Model because the APM has the correct distributed dimensions of charge. Nevertheless, there is a need for more research before a complete electrodynamics results from the APM.
Field Interactions
According to the work of Clerk Maxwell, the mechanics of the electric and magnetic fields are normally expressed in terms of the B field (magnetic flux density), the H field (magnetic field intensity), the e field (electric field strength – or electric field intensity), and the electric flux density (D)[8]. The variable W is the unit of energy (or work). The actual units of magnetic and electric fields rarely appear.
In the Aether Physics Model, these variables convert to quantum units:
\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l} B = mfxd \\ H = mfdi \\ \varepsilon = elfs \\ D = efxd \\ W = enrg \\ \end{array} \end{equation}
The Aether Physics Model further includes the units of magnetic field, rotating magnetic field, and several others, thus providing a wider range of units for analyzing electrodynamics[9].
The equations related to magnetic field are:
\begin{equation}\label{mfld0}mfld = drag \cdot chrg \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{mfld1}mfld = mfxd \cdot volm \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{mfld2}mfld = \frac{{enrg}}{{mfdi}} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{mfld3}mfld = \frac{{phtn}}{{curr}} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{mfld4}mfld = 4\pi \cdot {\mu _0} \cdot swep \end{equation}
The equations related to electric field strength are:
\begin{equation}\label{elfs0}elfs = \frac{{forc}}{{chrg}} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{elfs1}elfs = mfxd \cdot velc \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{elfs2}elfs = mfdi \cdot resn \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{elfs3}elfs = \frac{{irrd}}{{mfdi}} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{elfs4}elfs = \frac{{4\pi }}{{{\varepsilon _0} \cdot area}} \end{equation}
The magnetic field and electric field quantum units are:
\(mfld = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\)  \(elfs = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) 
The magnetic field can be seen as flowing (volume times frequency) magnetism (mass to charge ratio). The electric field strength can be seen as accelerating or decelerating (length times frequency squared) magnetism (mass to charge ratio). Thus the magnetic field would preponderate during maximum current flow and the electric field strength would preponderate during the maximum acceleration and deceleration of current.
The magnetic field and electric field strength are different manifestations of magnetic flux density. The magnetic field is the product of volume times magnetic flux density (\ref{mfld1}) and the electric field is the product of velocity times magnetic flux density (\ref{elfs1}). As the magnetic field increases, the volume associated with the magnetic flux density increases, while its velocity decreases. As the electric field strength increases, the volume associated with the magnetic flux density decreases, while its velocity increases.
The magnetic field is orthogonal to the electric field strength. And since the magnetic field and electric field strength depend upon changing (or alternating) current, the magnetic field acts as a resistance to current and the electric field strength acts as the work (energy) of current. From equations (\ref{mfld2}) and (\ref{elfs2}) we get this relationship:
\begin{equation}mfld \cdot elfs = resn \cdot enrg \end{equation}
The photon can be seen as magnetic field times current (\ref{mfld3}). The irradiance of the photon can be seen as electric field strength times magnetic field intensity (\ref{elfs3}).
From equations (\ref{mfld4}) and (\ref{elfs4}) we get:
\begin{equation}\label{eddy1}mfld \cdot elfs = \frac{{16{\pi ^2} \cdot {\mu _0}}}{{{\varepsilon _0}}} \cdot freq \end{equation}
Using the eddy current equation we can rewrite equation (\ref{eddy1}) as:
\begin{equation}\label{eddy2}\frac{{mfld \cdot elfs}}{{freq}} = eddy \end{equation}
Equation (\ref{eddy2}) then indicates that the magnetic field times the electric field strength divided by the frequency of the alternating current yields the eddy current. To reduce eddy current in the core of a transformer, one would take steps either to reduce the magnetic field or electric field strength, or else to increase the frequency. By creating capacitance using laminated core sheets, the electric field strength reduces. In addition, the laminations have the effect of reducing the speed of magnetic field propagation. Changing the properties of a conductor will affect eddy current loss, but engineering a reduction in magnetic field through external systems would also reduce eddy current.
Nuclear Binding Force
The Standard Model of particle physics explains the nuclear binding force in terms of particles, called pi mesons[10]. Standard Model theory states that these particles carry a force that keeps the nucleus bound together. The pi meson hypothesis does not explain how force carries by a particle. One could reasonably expect that if pi mesons were true carriers of force, then binding energy would be composed of pi mesons. For if such a nucleus split, the pi mesons would fly apart and move a distance. (Force times length is equal to energy).
In the Aether Physics Model, the Aether unit mediates the magnetic force by acting on the magnetic charge (unless the magnetic charge takes on a spherical geometry, in which case Coulomb’s constant would mediate the force acting on the magnetic charge). In cases where the magnetic charges keep a small distance apart, the Aether unit of \(rmfd\) mediates the force manifesting between the magnetic charges.
\begin{equation}rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}
magnetic force between electrons is equivalent to the expression:
\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}
In this expression, we can see how photons can propagate through Aether. The same phenomenon that produces force between any two magnetic charges is the phenomenon of photons per area. In other words, the opposite spinning, double cardioid nature of photons caused by the angular momentum within the electron and positron spin positions manifests the same mechanics as an Aether unit acting on magnetic charges. In cases where the magnetic charges are bound, or remain far apart, the magnetic force mediates by the Coulomb constant.
\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}
Also, the photon per area that yields a force is reflected in the operation of Crookes’ radiometer. A photon is equal to force times area. As photons are absorbed, a force manifests over an area. If photons are reflected, no force will manifest since the photon does not become part of the material. The Crooke’s radiometer demonstrates that photons are not particulate and that it is not necessary for mass to manifest as angular momentum (electrons, protons, or neutrons) in order to convey force. The Crooke’s radiometer also demonstrates that force is not just a static unit of mass times acceleration, but rather is a true, nonmaterial manifestation of reality. A true, nonmaterial manifestation of force in the Crookes’ radiometer is consistent with the dynamic, living Gforce identified as the source of all forces in the Universe.
The physics of photons directly imparting force are also observed in the YORP effect[11] and shining light on soap bubbles[12].
In one of our papers, A New Foundation for Physics, we erroneously stated that a Crooke’s radiometer operated by producing positrons, which annihilated with electrons. Although this mechanics might work if the vanes constructed from tungsten, ordinary materials do not routinely produce positrons. We thank Dr. Lester Hulett for inviting us to a demonstration where he proved this to us first hand. Dr. Hulett is one of the foremost authorities on positrons who worked at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Nuclear Binding Energy
The phrase “nuclear binding energy” actually refers to the amount of work required to disassemble or assemble a nucleus. The protons and neutrons bind together via the magnetic force. Work results when the magnetic force moves subatomic particles and the Aether a distance, such as occurs in nuclear binding and unbinding processes.
The Aether Physics Model is agreeable with the mechanism of atomic energy release as explained in the Standard Model when it comes to the mechanics of fission and fusion reactions. That is, the total number of nucleons must be the same both before and after the reaction. Protons can capture electrons to produce neutrons, and neutrons can release electrons to produce protons.
The method for understanding the release of energy, however, is different in the Aether Physics Model. The Standard Model of particle physics has a strange method for calculating binding energy. In the Standard Model, protons and neutrons are the constituents of the nucleus. The proton and neutron present as two manifestations of the same particle, called a nucleon. The nucleons measure in an arbitrary unit called Atomic Mass Unit (AMU). The atomic mass unit defines as 1/12 the mass of the Carbon 12 isotope. Except for carbon 12, the amu has nothing to do with any of the atomic isotopes. The AMU is an arbitrarily averaged value for nucleons and has no onetoone relationship to actual nucleons. Yet the Standard Model calculates the mass defect (binding energy) of an isotope by subtracting the measured mass of the nucleus from the total AMU of the protons, neutrons, and electrons. In the APM, the electrons have nothing whatsoever to do with the nuclear binding.
In the Standard Model, the difference between the measured mass of the atom and the sum of the masses of its parts is called the “mass defect” (\(\delta m\)), which can be calculated using Equation (\ref{massdefect}).[13]
\begin{equation}\label{massdefect}\delta m = \left[ {Z\left( {{m_p} + {m_e}} \right) + \left( {A  Z} \right){m_n}} \right]  {m_{atom}} \end{equation}
where:
\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}\delta m = {\rm{mass\: defect\:}}\left( {amu} \right) \\ {m_p} = {\rm{mass\: of\: a\: proton\:}}\left( {1.007277amu} \right) \\ {m_n} = {\rm{mass\: of\: a\: neutron\:}}\left( {1.008665amu} \right) \\ {m_e} = {\rm{mass\: of\: an\: electron\:}}\left( {1.000548597amu} \right) \\ {m_{atom}} = {\rm{mass\: of\: nuclide\:}}_Z^AX\left( {amu} \right) \\ Z = {\rm{atomic\: number\: (number\: of\: protons)}} \\ A = {\rm{mass\: number\: (number\: of\: nucleons)}} \\ \end{array}\end{equation}
In other words, the above equation is fictional. There is no physical basis for subtracting a nucleus value, consisting only of the proton and neutron masses, from a total mass including the mass of the electrons.
The idea that there is a “mass defect,” and that this mass defect is proof of Einstein’s massenergy equivalence formula, \(E = m{c^2}\), is a trick resulting from the choice of arbitrary calculation techniques. However, when one looks at the history of nuclear physics[14], the choice is forgivable. During World War II, scientists were under enormous pressure to succeed in the development of a nuclear bomb, and any kind of equation that could get ballpark results would do. Nevertheless, the pressures of former times are not an excuse to settle for less than accurate descriptions and quantifications in quantum physics today.
Concerning the energy released during fission and fusion processes, scientists admit that energy releases in both fission and fusion, but they do not explain the paradoxes that arise from their theories.
If we were able to fuse together or synthesize two neutrons and two protons to form an alpha particle, the resulting nucleus would actually be lighter than the total mass of the original nucleons. In this fusion process, mass would be lost.
Actually, the mass lost is radiated in the form of energy and this is equal to the binding energy that holds the nucleons together in the helium nucleus. Conversely, if a means were available to disintegrate an alpha particle into two neutrons and two protons, it is clear that 28MeV of energy would be required for the reaction.[15]
The last statement is ambiguous, consistent with the method of the Standard Model. The authors of the above quote take care to avoid clearly stating that the energy radiates during fission as well[16]. In fission reactions, such as that for uranium 235, it is well understood that energy is radiated, not absorbed. The Standard Model claims that nuclear reactions of both the fission and fusion varieties radiate energy, although fusion releases more energy than fission[17].
In the fusion reaction, the resulting nucleus is lighter than the sum of its components, presumably because some of the mass radiates away as energy. If this were true, then one or more of the subatomic particles would no longer be quantum and would have a different mass and angular momentum than it had as part of the nucleus. Energy is also radiated when the nucleus is split, meaning that more mass from the subatomic particles is lost (if we are to believe that energy is equivalent to mass). However, what would be the explanation for this mass loss, if the atom were already deficient in mass?
If there is truly a conservation of energy and mass, then it should cost almost twice the fusion binding energy to separate the helium nucleus in a fission process. This is because some of the subatomic mass was already lost during the fusion process (the mass lost during fusion must be replaced to conserve angular momentum, mass, and energy in the subatomic particles). However, the data shows that there is net energy radiating from both fission and fusion processes; and the Standard Model theory clearly claims that the “binding energy” for both is positive.
In the Aether Physics Model, an electron and proton bind to each other when Aether folds to produce a neutron. LIkewise, protons and neutrons can form similar types of pairs with their own types of subatomic particles. Each independent Aether unit has a spin position available for a proton and an antiproton. When the proton spin position is full, the antiproton spin position is not. The antiproton spin position is equivalent to a proton spin position in another Aether unit at 180 degrees. When two protons come close enough, their Aether units fold over each other in such a way that each proton fills the antiproton spin position of the other proton.
The same mechanism holds true for the neutron. Since the neutron is essentially a proton, except with a bound electron, it shares the same mechanics.
The proton and neutron have slightly different angular momenta. This tends to cause protons to join only with protons, and neutrons to join only with neutrons, through folded Aether units. Thus, both protons and neutrons generate the same “magic number” patterns independently of each other in various isotope configurations.
A proton and neutron can bind via magnetic charge (magnetic force) by adjoining their magnetic orientations. The neutron, having a neutralized electrostatic charge, assists the adjoining process.
The pattern of binding takes the exact form identified by Linus Pauling in his Spheron Model of atomic structure.
The Aether Physics Model presents an alternative view to the Standard Model regarding “binding energy.” The “binding energy” equation writes:
\begin{equation}\label{BF0}{k_C}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\phi = BND \end{equation}
where Z is the total number of protons and N are the total number of neutrons in the isotope. \(\phi \) is a variation in the quantum distance between Aether units. The folding of Aether causes this variation.
The variation of distance times the binding force is the source of energy when a subatomic binding or unbinding occurs. Equation (\ref{BF1}) shows the binding force times the variation of distance due to the Aether folding.
\begin{equation}\label{BF1}{k_C}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\phi {\lambda _C} = BND \end{equation}
The empirical range of \(\phi \) is from .092 (hydrogen 5) to about 1.479 (nickel 62).
In the fusion or the fission reactions, the distance between Aether units changes relative to the quantum length, the subatomic particles binding force moves, thus work occurs. The Gforce within the Aether units is the source of the “binding energy” when atomic nuclei compress or expand the Aether.
Again, Coulomb’s constant applies instead of the \(rmfd\) constant in the nuclear binding energy equation. It would appear that the net effect of bound nuclei magnetic charges causes the subatomic particles to behave as spherical entities. Equation (\ref{BF1}) appears to represent the turning point, where primary angular momentum forms what begins to appear as the physical Universe, since atoms are the first level of physical matter. This is because the two dimensional surface areas of the subatomic particles now have a third dimension of length (distance from each other) by way of binding. These three length dimensions are at right angles to each other, thus forming a volume with a more or less spherical structure.
In equation (\ref{BF0}), the binding energy per nucleon varies considerably. The maximum binding energies per nucleon tend to coincide with the more stable atomic isotopes. In the Standard Model, this means that it would take more energy per nucleon to separate a stable isotope such as iron 56 than it would a less stable or weaker isotope such as deuterium[18].
In equation (\ref{BF1}) the binding energy per nucleon varies with average variation of quantum distance between Aether units. In the case of deuterium (hydrogen 2) the average variation of quantum distance between subatomic particles is equal to \(0.187{\lambda _C}\).
\begin{equation}\frac{{BE}}{{BF}} = \frac{{2.225MeV}}{{.785newton}} = 0.187{\lambda _C} \end{equation}
where \({BE}\) is the empirical binding energy of the isotope and \({BF}\) is the calculated binding force. The average variation the force moves expresses in terms of the quantum distance. It turns out that after about the oxygen isotopes, the distance the magnetic forces move per nucleon (produced by Aether units) remains between 1 Compton wavelength and 1.5 Compton wavelengths, as shown in the graph below.
The graph of the internal nuclear lengths looks familiar. In fact, the internal nuclear lengths of the isotopes are very similar to those shown in the graph of the isotope binding energies per nucleon, as seen below.
Electron Binding Energy
Physicists have attempted to quantify the electron binding energies of atoms. Lindgren[19] reports on probabilistic methods for deriving the electron binding energies using the Koopmans Theorem, manybody perturbation (MBPT), CoupledCluster Approach (CCA), Greene’s function, and the density functional theory (DFT) approach. Whitney[20][21] uses a new twostep variant of special relativity theory to uncover an underlying similarity between all elements and Hydrogen, and algebraically characterizes all variations from that norm. The present work results directly in an accurate binding energy equation predicting for all ground state electrons.
Up to our discovery of the electron binding energy equation, the Aether Physics Model only quantified quantum structure, as opposed to quantum mechanics. Despite the properly quantified Unified Force Theory contained within the Aether Physics Model, the model has not yet received significant attention from physicists and mathematicians. This lack of interest is partly due to the necessity of learning revised definitions for the dimensions, understanding that electrical units should always be expressed in dimensions of distributed charge (charge squared), and understanding the two distinctly different manifestations of charges. Further, the Aether Physics Model is a paradigm of Aether/angular momentum, as opposed to the mass/energy paradigm presently in use.
Meaning of Kinetic Energy
All energy transactions occur in two parts. There is the source of the energy and there is the receiver of the energy. To put it in common language, there is cause and effect. Whether an electron is seen being acted upon, or doing the acting, it is only half the energy transaction. Therefore, the binding energy equation will represent only half the energy transaction.
Toroidal Structure of the Electron
While researching the evidence for electron radii, we came upon the research of David McCutcheon and his Ultrawave Theory[22], which gave an interesting view of the classical and Bohr electron radii:
\begin{equation}2\pi {r_e} \cdot 2\pi {a_0} = {\lambda _C}^2 \end{equation}
It is likely others have noticed this relationship, but such work was not located. The above relationship reveals that a toroid with a minor radius equal to the classical electron radius and major radius equal to the Bohr radius has the surface area equal to the Compton wavelength squared.
Further, Planck’s constant easily demonstrates the quantum of action (for the electron) is equal to the mass of the electron times the Compton wavelength squared times the quantum frequency.
\begin{equation}h = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} \end{equation}
We used the above quantum analyses in developing the Aether Physics Model. It turns out the electron models as a toroid, which can have variable radii as long as the quantum surface area remains the same. Therefore, the electron is not a fixedpoint particle, but is a flexible toroidal entity. The flexibility is possible due to the Aether, which gives the electron its structure. Ontologically, the Aether unit preexists matter and contributes to the material structure of the angular momentum encapsulated by it.
Hydrogen Binding Energy
Because of the relationship between the classical and Bohr electron radii, the proportion of the two is equal to the electron fine structure constant squared.
\begin{equation}\frac{{{r_e}}}{{{a_0}}} = {\alpha ^2} \end{equation}
An equation, once posted on a Vanderbilt University philosophy page[23], and by David McCutcheon, expressed the hydrogen 1s (ground state) orbital electron in terms of the electron fine structure and kinetic energy of the electron:
\begin{equation}{H_{1s}} = {\alpha ^2}\frac{{{m_e} \cdot {c^2}}}{2} = 13.606eV \end{equation}
In the Aether Physics Model, this would interpret as the ground state, unbound ratio of the electron radii times the magnetic force of the electron at the range of one quantum length:
\begin{equation}{H_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}}}{{{a_0}}}{A_u}\frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} = 13.606eV \end{equation}
(Electron volts express energy above, although the same value written in quantum measurement units is \(2.663 \times {10^{  3}}enrg\).)
Helium Binding Energy
Due to the nature of curved Aether, when multiplying charges the square root of each charge is used. If there are two electron magnetic charges involved, then the magnetic force between them is equal to:
\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{2{e_{emax}} \cdot 2{e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = F \end{equation}
We could similarly calculate the kinetic energy as:
\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{2{e_{emax}} \cdot 2{e_{emax}}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} = {E_k} \end{equation}
In the section about Aether Structures (page 67), the Aether structure building steps involve quantifying the spin differences of matter and Aether. Although the quantum Aether unit has 2spin, subatomic particles only inhabit one fourth of the Aether, or half spin.
The “spin” of the subatomic particles is a direct result of the two dynamic frequency dimensions of the Aether. One of the dynamic frequency dimensions manifests as forward/backward time, the other manifests as right/left spin torque direction. There is actually a third “static” frequency, which results in positive/negative electrostatic charge.
All matter in our observed Universe exists in only the forward time direction. This observed matter further divides into matter and antimatter, depending on which half of the spin torque direction cycle it exists. Matter also divides into positive and negative charge depending on which half of the static charge cycle it exists.
The primary angular momentum composing subatomic particles can only spin in either the forward or backward time direction, and either the right or left spin direction, and exist in either the positive or the negative of the static charge dipole. Since static charge is not part of the dynamic twospin structure of the Aether, and angular momentum only exists in half the forward/backward time frequency and half the right/left spin direction, matter appears to have halfspin.
Therefore, when half spin subatomic particles bind they are missing the backward time direction, yet the Aether sees this backward time direction. The result is that subatomic particles do not pair exactly opposite or adjacent to each other, as square building blocks seem to do at the macro level of existence. Instead, the subatomic particles (being curved toroidal structures to begin with), build up in a twisted pattern.
This twisted construction affects the minor and major radii of the toroidal electrons. As electrons bind to each other and fill the Aether spin positions around an atomic nucleus, the effect is additive.
In the case of the 1s orbital electrons, the minor radius decreases with the total number of electrons (which is equal to the number of protons in a neutral atom). Designating the number of protons as Z, the minor radius decreases in steps of half spin.
\begin{equation}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1}  1}}{2} \end{equation}
The major radius increases in steps of half spin:
\begin{equation}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2} \end{equation}
The above stepping patterns are the phi and Phi numbers. In the case of the first binding, where there are two electrons, we get:
\begin{equation}\label{BEphi}\begin{array}{l}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1}  1}}{2} = phi = .618... \\ \frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2} = Phi = 1.618... \\ \end{array} \end{equation}
The above numbers are the Golden Ratio \(Phi\) and \(phi\) its reciprocal.
With the increase in the number of protons in the atoms, there is an increase in the number of electrons. The total electron radii deform accordingly. As the minor radius shrinks and the major radius grows, there is a deformation as the Aether units stretch and thus the distance between them shrinks. The distance empirically induces in terms of the quantum length as (the nth root is a capital Z squared):
\begin{equation}\frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{\sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}}} \end{equation}
There is no electron magnetic force binding in the neutral hydrogen atom because there is only one electron, but when we look at helium and all other neutral atoms, the electron binding energy equation for the 1s “orbital” electron becomes:
\begin{equation}\label{BE1s}{Z_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot Z \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}
In the case of the neutral helium atom, we can calculate the 1s orbital electron binding energies as:
\begin{equation}\label{BEneutralHe}H{e_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{2^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{2^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{2 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 2 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{2^2}}]{2}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} = 24.721eV \end{equation}
The empirically measured 1s orbital electron binding energy for helium is 24.6eV.
Other Binding Energies
As the bindings continue into complexity, it is clear another factor comes into play, which does not yet properly quantify. The elements lithium through neon comprises the second orbital layer around the nucleus. It may just be coincidence, but these eight out of the first ten elements calculate to eight tenths of their measured values. From sodium to uranium, the calculation variations are linear with respect to the measured electron binding energies indicating a simple physical explanation.
When a linear adjustment applies to the equation, the calculations are remarkably close to the measured values:
\begin{equation}\label{BEeq}{Z_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{Z\cdot{e_{emax}} \cdot {\rm{Z}}\cdot{e_{emax}}\cdot\sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}\cdot(.757 + .0028Z)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}{\rm{ }} \end{equation}
The above equation may be simplified, but it remains in its present form to remind the reader of its physical interpretation. The empirical data used to derive the above equations draws from Gwyn Williams’[24] compilation of electron binding energies. Table 2 shows the measured and calculated 1s orbital binding energies in \(eV\) per atomic element and the deviation between them based upon equation (\ref{BEeq}). Figure 1 depicts the deviation of the calculations from the empirically measured electron binding energies of the 1s orbital position for each element for equation (\ref{BEeq}).
Table 3 lists the measured 1s orbital binding energies in \(eV\) per atomic element in comparison to the calculations of equation (without the linear adjustment). Figure 2 shows the deviation of the unadjusted (\ref{BE1s}) calculations from the empirical electron binding energies of the 1s orbital positions for each atomic element. The unadjusted data presents for those interested in discovering the final physical component of the 1s orbital binding energy equation.
Sample Detailed Calculations
We can apply equation (\ref{BEeq}) to any element from lithium to uranium.
Oxygen
Calculating the 1s orbital for oxygen we get \(534.534eV\) (all values are off from table due to rounding):
\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{8^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{8^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{8 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 8 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{8^2}}]{2} \cdot (.757 + .0028 \cdot 8)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = \frac{{2.818 \times {{10}^{  15}}m \cdot 3.531}}{{5.292 \times {{10}^{  11}}m \cdot 4.531}}1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{64 \cdot 1.400 \times {{10}^{  37}}cou{l^2} \cdot 1.011 \cdot .779}}{{2 \cdot 2.426 \times {{10}^{  12}}m}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = 4.150 \times {10^{  5}} \cdot 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{7.055 \times {{10}^{  36}}cou{l^2}}}{{4.852 \times {{10}^{  12}}m}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}{O_{1s}} = 8.564 \times {10^{  17}}joule = 534.534eV\end{equation}
Iron
The ground state electron for iron is similarly calculated:
\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{{26}^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{{26}^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{26 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 26 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{{26}^2}}]{2} \cdot (.757 + .0028 \cdot 26)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = \frac{{2.818 \times {{10}^{  15}}m \cdot 12.510}}{{5.292 \times {{10}^{  11}}m \cdot 13.510}}1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{676 \cdot 1.400 \times {{10}^{  37}}cou{l^2} \cdot 1.001 \cdot .830}}{{2 \cdot 2.426 \times {{10}^{  12}}m}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = 4.931 \times {10^{  5}} \cdot 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{7.861 \times {{10}^{  35}}cou{l^2}}}{{4.852 \times {{10}^{  12}}m}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}F{e_{1s}} = 1.134 \times {10^{  15}}joule = 7.077 \times {10^3}eV\end{equation}
Uranium
The calculation for uranium is:
\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}\frac{{\sqrt {{{92}^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{{a_0}\frac{{\sqrt {{{92}^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}}{A_u}\frac{{92 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot 92 \cdot {e_{emax}} \cdot \sqrt[{{{92}^2}}]{2} \cdot (.757 + .0028 \cdot 92)}}{{2{\lambda _C}}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = \frac{{2.818 \times {{10}^{  15}}m \cdot 45.503}}{{5.292 \times {{10}^{  11}}m \cdot 46.503}}1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{8.464 \times {{10}^3} \cdot 1.400 \times {{10}^{  37}}cou{l^2} \cdot 1.000 \cdot 1.015}}{{2 \cdot 2.426 \times {{10}^{  12}}m}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = 5.211 \times {10^{  5}} \cdot 1.419 \times {10^{12}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^3}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot cou{l^2}}}\frac{{1.202 \times {{10}^{  33}}cou{l^2}}}{{4.852 \times {{10}^{  12}}m}}\end{equation}
\begin{equation}{U_{1s}} = 1.832 \times {10^{  14}}joule = 1.144 \times {10^5}eV\end{equation}
Conclusion
The Aether Physics Model electron binding energy equations for the 1s orbitals are not exact, but very close, especially considering that all the elemental ground states are calculated from first principles. There is the possibility the data could be faulty, however it is more likely there are aspects of the Aether structure, which the equation is not yet addressing. These aspects may surface as future modifications to the equation.
The electron binding energy equation is the first unique quantum mechanical expression of the Aether Physics Model and demonstrates the model is viable. Unlike the quantum mechanics of the mass/energy paradigm, the Aether Physics Model is discrete and devoid of probability functions and paradoxes, which should make it superior to the Standard Model when fully developed.
Now that the Aether Physics Model quantifies the quantum structure and we have produced our first set of equations, the analysis must develop further until it explains all aspects of the atom. We should then be able to quantify the structural aspects of associated molecules. We also need to quantify and explore the mechanics of light very thoroughly.
Acknowledgement
We thank Dr. Cynthia Whitney of Galilean Electrodynamics[25] for providing references and background information on prior electron energy binding equation research. We also thank Dr. Gerald Hooper of Leicester, UK and Dr. Phil Risby of DES Group, UK for their guidance on this subject.
Addendum
Richard Merrick, who mathematically analyzes the harmonics of sound, suggested the missing parameter in the electron binding energy equation and also the subatomic gfactors might be due to harmonics. We discussed the possibility that the missing parameter might be similar to the Pythagorean comma meantone. Depending upon the reference, the Pythagorean comma meantone is a small variation of frequency between the harmonic derived from a progression of fifths and the harmonic, which is twice the original frequency. Richard also pointed out the \(Phi\) twist portion of the electron binding energy equation (\ref{BEphi}) is equal to:
\begin{equation}\frac{{\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1}  1}}{2}}}{{\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}}} = \frac{{Z(last)}}{{Z(next)}} \end{equation}
In an attempt to capture the “comma,” the value of \({Z(current)}\) per \({Z(last)}\) was found effective:
\begin{equation}\frac{{Z(current)}}{{Z(last)}} = comma \end{equation}
Due to the distributed nature of quantum structure, it was noted that the \(Phi\) twist and comma would also be distributed. This resulted in the following electron binding energy equation:
\begin{equation}\label{BE2}{Z_{1s}} = \frac{{{r_e}{{\left( {\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1}  1}}{2}} \right)}^2}}}{{{a_0}{{\left( {\frac{{\sqrt {{Z^2} + 1} + 1}}{2}} \right)}^2}}}{A_u}\frac{{{Z^2} \cdot {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot \sqrt[{{Z^2}}]{2}}}{{2{\lambda _C}}} \cdot {\left( {\frac{Z}{{Z  1}}} \right)^2} \end{equation}
Equation (\ref{BE2}) is considerably more accurate than equation (\ref{BEneutralHe}) for elements lithium through uranium. More important, equation (\ref{BE2}) provides a smooth curve for all the elements, except nitrogen.
A closer view reveals nitrogen has a slightly erratic ground state binding energy compared to the rest of the values. Assuming the electron binding energy equation is close to representing the true ground state binding energies, then we can offset the empirical nitrogen ground state binding energy of 409.9 eV by 1.46%, which gives a nitrogen ground state binding energy of 403.9 eV.
We consulted Gwyn Williams to verify the calculated nitrogen ground state binding energy. In his reply, he stated:
In Cardona and Ley’s book[26] it's definitely 409.9. In Beardon and Burr, rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 125 (1967) it's given as 401.6 + 0.4, and in a paper I have by Wolfgang Lotz, dated February 1970[27], and for which I can't find the reference, it's given as 403.
So even if the latest version of the electron binding energy equation is not quite finished, it may still have scientific value in verifying the empirical electron binding energies.
Energy from the Aether
Technically, it is not possible to get energy from the Aether. This is because energy is not subatomic particles. Only photons, electrons, and protons are subatomic particles that come from the Aether into the physical realm. Nevertheless, by generating subatomic particles, and putting the subatomic particles to work, then it is possible to produce “energy from the Aether.”
In the Aether Physics Model, photons are subatomic particles with a velocity that is imparted by the Aether. Photons convert to electrons through the photoelectric effect. Thus if a device is properly constructed to generate photons from dark matter, and if a circuit that converts photons to electrons is incorporated, a steady flow of electric current can be put into motion without the need for a battery or a dynamo.
Each unit of Aether is dynamic and independent of all other Aether units. The Aether has reciprocal angular momentum per charge (conductance), which can manipulate into producing the angular momentum of a photon via the Casimir effect. The method involves no sleight of hand math or invented concepts; this theory rests on empirical data.
The Casimir effect is widely considered to hold the key to the extraction of energy from the Aether. Taking the quantum case where the length \(L\) and area \(A\) have the Compton wavelength, the Casimir equation writes in terms of quantum measurements and units:
\begin{equation}\label{casimir2}\begin{array}{l} L = {\lambda _C} \\ A = {\lambda _C}^2 \\ \frac{{\pi \cdot h \cdot c}}{{480 \cdot {L^4}}}A = 2.208 \times {10^{  4}}newton \\ \end{array} \end{equation}
The Planck constant \(h\) times the speed of photons \(c\) produces the photon unit in the Aether Physics Model. Expressing the force in \(forc\) units we get:
\begin{equation}\label{casimir3}\frac{{\pi \cdot phtn \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{480 \cdot {\lambda _C}^4}} = 6.545 \times {10^{  3}}forc \end{equation}
where \(forc\) is equal to \(.034newton\).
Hendrick Casimir derived equation (\ref{casimir2}) from empirical data. Steven Lamoreaux proved the Casimir equation correct within 5% in 1996. Therefore, there is a margin for adjusting the numerical part of the equation.
Notice that the number \({480}\) appears in Casimir’s equation. In the Aether Physics Model all quantum related equations depend on quantum measurements. Earlier it appeared that \(4\pi \) and \(16{\pi ^2}\) have quantum dimension properties. When examining the \(\frac{\pi }{{480}}\) component of equation (\ref{casimir3}) we note that it is very close to \(\frac{1}{{16{\pi ^2}}}\). Adjusting Casimir’s equation accordingly, we get:
\begin{equation}\label{casimir4}\frac{{phtn \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{16{\pi ^2} \cdot {\lambda _C}^4}} = 6.333 \times {10^{  3}}forc \end{equation}
Now we can cancel out the \({16{\pi ^2}}\) terms:
\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^4}} = forc \end{equation}
The Casimir equation can also transform into the Coulomb expression for the electron magnetic charge. From equation (\ref{casimir4}) we can replace \(\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}}\) with \({e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {k_C}\).
\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {k_C} \end{equation}10.72}\]
and ultimately produce the magnetic force law for the electron:
\begin{equation}rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}
where \(rmfd\) is the quantum unit of the Aether and is equal to Coulomb's constant times \({16{\pi ^2}}\). This form of the equation tells us that the Aether exerts a force between magnetic charges that is proportional to the distance between them squared. The magnetic force is dependent on the magnetic charge.
So far, from the Casimir equation, we have shown that photons between plates can create force, and that photoncreated force is identical to the magnetic charge created force. Therefore, it would follow that the Casimir effect is an example of the magnetic force law.
Capacitance defines as a unit using capacitor plates with quantum measurements:
\begin{equation}capc = {\varepsilon _0}\frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}
where \({\varepsilon _0}\) is the permittivity constant, the capacitance between two plates is dependent on the Aether constant of permittivity, the common area of the plates, and the distance between the plates.
If we wanted to produce energy from the Aether, we would produce photons between magnetic charges. The ideal configuration would be magnetic charges arranged in a spherical form. Two spherical objects (of magnetic charge) held a certain distance apart (either adjacent or concentric) produce a capacitance. The ratio of the spherically arranged magnetic charge to capacitance determines the amount of energy that results.
However, since electricity is a quantum process, with photons and electrons of a specific magnitude, the spherical objects must adhere to a specific design and position to produce a specific capacitance. When properly tuned, the Aether between the plates will resonate and generate photons, which can directly convert to electrons via the photoelectric effect.
The quantum unit of energy in the Aether Physics Model is \(enrg\) and it is equal to:
\begin{equation}enrg = rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} = {m_e}{c^2} \end{equation}
If we want to know the energy available between two plates, we use this equation:
\begin{equation}\label{Ecapc}\frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{capc}} = enrg \end{equation}
So equation (\ref{Ecapc}) shows that the spherical constant times magnetic charge divided by the capacitance of the plates is equal to the energy produced. The magnetic charge is inherent to the electron; the capacitance is a function of the Aether. There is no input to this system designed to get energy, as the system draws on the inherent resonance in the quantum Aether unit \(\left( {rmfd} \right)\). Thus, equation (\ref{Ecapc}) shows how energy can tap from the Aether.
The equation suggests that photons generate at a very specific frequency.
In order for energy to come from this system, there must be a dielectric between the magnetic charges. The dielectric can be "free space," but then the load placed across the plates must not short out the miniature capacitor. Due to the \({4\pi }\) spherical constant times the magnetic charge, it would seem that spherical capacitor plates would work better than flat capacitor plates. In actual experiments, there is some validation of this supposition.
A paper with similar theory is Lecture No. 27, Our Future Energy Source, The Vacuum, 2002 by Harold Aspden.
Expanding Universe
As a direct result of magnetic charges coming into proximity with each other within atoms and molecules in stars, photons create continually. This causes a constant stream of new primary angular momentum to flow into the Universe. Atoms continually absorb these new photons and convert them into electrons, positrons, and photons via the photoelectric effect, Compton Effect, and pair production. The same process likely occurs between protons and neutrons to produce some types of gamma rays.
Can new protons be created by a process similar to that, which creates electrons? Probably, but experimentation is needed in order to prove it.
Just on the evidence of the Casimir effect there is sufficient proof to conclude that the Universe is capable of expanding. Research into the possibility of creating protons from Aether (in fusion reactions) could provide even more insight into the expanding Universe.
There is astronomical evidence inferred from the dark matter halo of galaixes that the angular momentum that produces neutrinos exists outside the Aether units and in large quantities. This hidden angular momentum is dark matter. Astrophysicists hypothesize its existence. Thus, it is possible visible matter increases in mass and charge as dark matter absorbs into the Aether via the Casimir effect.
Part of the cosmological red shift could similarly be due to the addition of new Aether units into the Universe. The amount of space between two points would also continually increase, giving the appearance of objects moving away from each other. This expansion would manifest as a red shift. It should be possible to calculate the rate of Aether unit growth in the Universe using red shift data, if such a process exists.
Big Bang – Slow Bang
Was there a Big Bang? Perhaps. Maybe after the Universe expands to a certain point it collapses back onto itself, causing primary angular momentum to reach incredible density and to compact as a “big crunch,” returning the angular momentum to the place where dark matter is stored outside the Aether. In this case, black holes would not release information back to the visible Universe. Once the physical Universe crushed, the black holes are gone.
If it is shown that Aether units are capable of duplication, like living beings, then the survival of even just a few Aether units somewhere in the Universe would allow for the rejuvenation and expansion of Aether once again. However, it makes more sense to look at the Universe as a continual process of growth and decay where some areas of the Universe are going through the growth phase and others are going through the decay phase. It would mirror a standard population scenario such as humans see today. Everywhere there are people in their growth phase and others in their decay phase. Every now and then, a major catastrophe hits the Earth, wiping out large portions of the population, and then the survivors repopulate.
If the populating Aether theory were correct, the concept of a single event type of Big Bang would need reassessment. Slow Bang would more accurately describe the evercontinuing cosmological birth.
Magnecules
The electric force associated with spherical structures tends to be weaker than the electric force associated with toroidal structures. This is apparent in the nuclear binding energy equation where a nucleon binds in a spherical shape and mediates by Coulomb’s constant. In electron bindings, the electrons are toroidal when binding and mediate by the Aether constant.
Most molecules have a spherical structure, but not all. Since there is a magnetic charge in all subatomic particles, and atoms construct from subatomic particles, and molecules construct from atoms, it is possible for some atomic and molecular structures to take on a toroidal geometry. When the toroidal geometry constructs due to the magnetic alignment of the magnetic charges among proton, neutrons, or electrons, then the overall magnetic structure of the subatomic particles survives into the macro structure. This is the source of permanent magnetism in atoms and molecules. The more subatomic particles polarized in the same orientation, the greater the net magnetic strength of the macro structure.
When subjecting atoms to an intense magnetic field, suitable temperature and proper cooling environment, they may form molecules with magnetic properties. Dr. Ruggero Santilli first observed and identified such a molecule while investigating a type of gas first patented in 1898[28]. He has subsequently named the type of molecule a “magnecule,” as it has magnetic bindings between atoms rather than the standard electrostatic bindings.
Since the Standard Model does not recognize the magnetic charge of the electron, it is at a loss to quantify the electronic, atomic, and molecular magnetic properties. When fully developed, the Aether Physics Model will likely provide a simple quantification of the magnecule and lead to many similar discoveries. Since the magnetic charge binds with more force than the electrostatic charge, materials made with toroidal molecular structures will likely be stronger and lighter. This should be true not only for solids, but also for gases and fluids.
Already, the MagneGas™ molecule composed from a chain of \({H_2}\) and \(CO\) molecules observes to be magnetic in nature and clings to the surface of its container. When ignited, the MagneGas™ will not burn a human hand but will quickly melt a tungsten rod and brick. These unique properties attribute to both the magnetic charge of the subatomic particles and the toroidal macro structure of the magnecule.
[1] Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements http://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/Compositions/stand_alone.pl?
[2] "Lithium batteries don't emit strong enough bursts of energy to run power tools or computer hard drives and, because of lithium's reactivity, they are prone to explode." John Carpi, "Green Batteries: Powering Innovation," E Apr. 1994, Questia, 11 June 2004 <http://www.questia.com/>.
[3] “It is of interest to notice that according to the classical theory, if an xray were scattered by an electron moving in the direction of propagation at a velocity \({\beta}'c\) , the frequency of the ray scattered at an angle \(\theta\) is given by the Doppler Principle as \(\nu_{\theta}=\nu_{0}\bigg/\left ( 1+\frac{2{\beta}'}{1{\beta}'}sin^{2}\frac{1}{2}\theta \right )\)” Morris H. Shamos, Great Experiments in Physics “Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein” (New York, Dover Publications Inc., 1987) 353
[4] Graphic from Nuclear Radiation Physics, 1949
[5] Per explanation by Dr. Lester Hulett in conversation with the author.
[6] As proposed by Dr. Cynthia Whitney.
[8] Warren B. Boast PhD Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 399
[9] "ELECTRODYNAMICS  The study of phenomena associated with charged bodies in motion and varying electric and magnetic fields" "Electrodynamics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
[10] “Pion or pi meson, lightest of the meson family of elementary particles . The existence of the pion was predicted in 1935 by Hideki Yukawa, who theorized that it was responsible for the force of the strong interactions holding the atomic nucleus together. It was first detected in cosmic rays by C. F. Powell in 1947. The pion is actually a multiplet of three particles. The neutral pion, \({\pi _0}\), has a mass about 264 times that of the electron. The charged pions, \(\pi + \) and \(\pi  \), each have a mass about 273 times that of the electron. The neutral pion is its own antiparticle , while the negative pion is the antiparticle of the positive pion. It is now known that each pion (and, more generally, each meson) consists of a quark bound to an antiquark. Free pions are unstable. The charged pions decay with an average lifetime of 2.55 × 10^{−8} sec into a muon of like charge and a neutrino or antineutrino; the neutral pion decays in about 10^{−15} sec, usually into a pair of photons but occasionally into a positronelectron pair and a photon.” "Pion ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.
[11] Stephen C. Lowry, Alan Fitzsimmons, Petr Pravec, David Vokrouhlick, Hermann Boehnhardt, Patrick A. Taylor, Adrian Galád, Mike Irwin, Jonathan Irwin, Peter Kusnirák, Direct Detection of the Asteroidal YORP Effect (Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1139040, Published Online, March 8, 2007)
[12] Robert D. Schroll, Régis Wunenburger, Alexis Casner, Wendy W. Zhang, and JeanPierre Delville, Liquid Transport due to Light Scattering (Phys. Rev. Lett, American Physical Society, 2007) vol. 98, num. 133601
[13] Atomic and Nuclear PhysicsDOEHDBK1019/193 Mass Defect and Binding Energy p17
[14] Gerard H. Clarfield and William M. Wiecek, Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States, 19401980, 1st ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1984)
[15] Lapp, R.E. PhD and Andrews, H.L. PhD, Nuclear Radiation Physics, Prentice Hall, New York 1948 p.141
[16] Fission  A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus, especially a heavy nucleus such as an isotope of uranium, splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, releasing from 100 million to several hundred million electron volts of energy. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
[17] "The energy released during fusion is even greater than that released during fission." "Nuclear Energy ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.
[18] “This energy is called the binding energy of the nuclide, and is a direct measure of nuclear stability.” Stephenson, Richard Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, McGrawHill Book Company, Inc. 1954 p13
[19] Lindgren, Ingvar, Calculation of Electron Binding Energies and Affinities (Phys. Scr. T120 1518, doi:10.1088/00318949/2005/T120/002, 2005)
[20] Whitney, Cynthia, Algebraic Chemistry: Parts I Through V (Hadronic Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, February 2006) pp 146
[21] Whitney, Cynthia, Algebraic Chemistry Based on a PIRT (Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory conference, London, UK, 2006)
[22] Web site formerly located at http://davidmac_no1.tripod.com/ut_part1/, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20040923070747/http:/davidmac_no1.tripod.com/.
[23] Inactive page: http://ransom.isis.vanderbilt.edu/philosophy/FineStructureConstant.htm
[24] Williams, Gwyn http://xray.uu.se/hypertext/EBindEnergies.html Values are taken from J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of XRay Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, (1967) p.125, except values marked '*' are from M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1978) with additional corrections, and values marked with '+' are from J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "CoreLevel Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 21, (1980) p.275. [reference copied from web page]
[25] http://www.galileanelectrodynamics.com/
[26] M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1978)
[27] Lotz Wolfgang, Electron Binding Energies in Free Atoms (J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 60, 1970) 206210
[28] Hilliary Eldridge, Electrical Ketoet, patent# 603058 filed June 28, 1897 and issued April 26, 1898.
[21] EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE  physical principle enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 stating that no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy state simultaneously. The energy states, or levels, in an atom are described in the quantum theory by various values of four different quantum numbers; the exclusion principle holds that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers in an atom. One of these quantum numbers describes one of the two possible directions for the electron's intrinsic spin. As a result of the exclusion principle, two electrons that are in the same energy level as described by the other three quantum numbers are differentiated from each other because they have opposite spins. This principle applies not only to atoms but to other systems containing particles as well, and it applies not only to electrons but also to a large class of particles collectively known as fermions. "Exclusion Principle ," The Columbia Encyclopedia
[22] Nucleon Configurations for the Magic Numbers from Principles of Radioisotope Methodology 1967 p.44, by Grafton D. Chase and Joseph L. Rabinowitz