The Whole of the Quantum Realm is Constant
All quantum units are also quantum constants. This is possible because the Universe arose from very precise, first measurements. The quantum measurements apply equally to force, matter, and the environment, as they all arise from the same source. A physics system where quantum units are also quantum constants has many advantages, particularly when we examine the qualities of subatomic particles and their interactions.
Why should the measurements be quantum at all? If the quantum measurements of subatomic particles did not exist, there would be no conservation laws and the Universe would lack a reliable framework. It is because there is a single Aether unit, a single value for electron mass, a single value for proton mass, a single quantum length, a single quantum frequency, a single quantum electrostatic charge, a single quantum magnetic charge for the electron, and a single quantum magnetic charge for the proton, that we can make predictions about the Universe at all.
At the level of quantum existence, each interaction will be the same on Earth as in some distant Quasar, star, open space, or galaxy. This means not only will the electron angular momentum be the same in all places and at all times, but also that the velocity of light in a vacuum, the permeability, the conductance, and the permittivity of Aether will be the same.
We can apply quantum measurements in order to understand other quantum units. For example, if potential defines as the amount of work performed per electron magnetic charge, and we know that electron magnetic charge has specific geometry, we have a basis for understanding the geometrical requirements of potential at a quantum level. In order to maximize the potential for a given system of electrons (such as in a Tesla coil), it is necessary to magnetically align the electrons in the appropriate direction. Therefore, we focus on coil geometry rather than on increasing the power to produce the correct electron alignment. Without the proper mechanical (geometrical) structures, there are unavoidable losses, as electrons move into a geometry not made for them. The losses manifest as impedance and ultimately as heat.
In a properly designed Tesla coil[1], the electrons all work in unison, thus there is considerably improved efficiency. Investigation of the work of Nikola Tesla and his Wardencliffe Worldwide Power System (1905) has shown this author that Tesla succeeded in discovering the ideal coil geometries. The ideal geometries would have either a coil designed with a combination flat spiral and tall solenoid secondary coil, or a secondary coil in the shape of an upside down tornado (image at right), or cone. With any of these configurations, the electrons align for maximum current in the flat spiral geometry and maximum potential in the tall solenoid geometry, thus increasing the efficiency of the oscillator.
Analyzing the Constants
We have discussed quantum measurements in terms of their existence and dimensional structure. Now we will analyze specific wellknown constants by their quantum measurements.
Quantum measurements show that all true quantum constants have a definite structure, imparted by the Aether. The precision and symmetry of the quantum measurements are stunning, leaving no doubt about the Aether Physics Model’s relevance to reality.
Magnetic Constant
As noted before, the Aether unit, which is also the magnetic constant, is equal to:
\[rmfd = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \tag{7.1}\]
The difference between the magnetic constant and the Coulomb electrostatic constant is geometry. \(16{\pi ^2}\) is equal to two orthogonal spheres \(\left( {4\pi \times 4\pi } \right)\). \(16{\pi ^2}\) is also equal to 4 toroids \(\left( {4 \times 4{\pi ^2}} \right)\), which is the same as 4 circles scanning circles \(\left( {4 \times 2\pi \times 2\pi } \right)\). There are other ways to break down the Aether geometrical constant, which demonstrate elsewhere in this book.
Coulomb’s Constant
From Coulomb’s constant, four other essential constants arise. Coulomb’s constant expresses in terms of the motion constant (speed of photons), conductance constant, permeability constant, and permittivity constant as:
\[{k_C} = \frac{{c \cdot Cd \cdot {\mu _0}}}{{{\varepsilon _0}}} \tag{7.2}\]
In terms of quantum measurements, Coulomb’s constant is equal to:
\[{k_C} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{16{\pi ^2}{e_{a}}^2}} \tag{7.3}\]
where \(\frac{{{m_a}}}{{{e_a}^2}}\) is a mass to charge ratio that is constant throughout the Universe and \({{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}\) is the double cardioid geometry of volumeresonance (the double loxodrome of the Aether unit) that is also constant. The fact that the double cardioid geometry divides by the \({16{\pi ^2}}\) double loxodrome constant indicates that \({k_C}\) geometry is spherical in both surface area and solid angle. Coulomb’s constant works out to spherical geometry, which explains why it mediates spherical electrostatic charge in Coulomb’s law:
\[{k_C} = \frac{{e \cdot e}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = \frac{{forc \cdot \alpha }}{{2\pi }} \tag{7.4}\]
In Coulomb’s law, only one dimension of each distributed charge multiplies to determine the force, since two charges will always be orthogonal to each other. This indicates the mechanics of the way charges interact.
Also in equation (7.4) we see a new quantum constant. The quantum constant of \({forc}\) measures force and is equal to \(.034newton\). The correct way to write Coulomb’s force law in quantum measurements is:
\[{k_C}\frac{{2\pi \cdot e \cdot e}}{{\alpha \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \tag{7.5}\]
When Coulomb’s force law (electrostatic force law) notates as in equation (7.5), we can better relate it to the magnetic force law as follows:
\[rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \tag{7.6}\]
Both equations (7.5) and (7.6) thus express in terms of the quantum unit of \(forc\). From the simplicity of (7.6), it appears that equation (7.5) is a modification of equation (7.6), accounting for the sphericity of electrostatic charge. It is important to see this special modification of the Aether equations in terms of accommodating sphericity, because a similar occurrence happens at the atomic level when the structure of the nucleus produces sphericity.
Coulomb’s constant further analyzes in terms of its geometry, to show how it functions in the Universe. Gforce is a quantum measurement unit and is equivalent to \(1.21 \times {10^{44}}newton\).
Coulomb’s constant in terms of Gforce is equal to:
\[{k_C} = \frac{{Gforce}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \cdot \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}} \tag{7.7}\]
Gforce itself can be thought of as pressure times area. Push your finger onto a table and feel the pressure times area of force. Now imagine that same force applied to an area between two charges. Pay particular attention to the two different types of forces. In the case of the finger, the force originates from the body to which the finger belongs and is a physical force. In the case of the two charges, the force originates between them and is a direct manifestation of Gforce. This is an important distinction regarding the nature of forces.
The Gforce manifests as a surface between two charges or masses. This surface exerts a force that either pushes apart or pulls together. At the quantum level, this surface is a curved surface matching the geometry of the subatomic particle. At the macro level, this surface can envision as a flat plane between two objects.
The plane for Coulomb’s constant is equal to area per Aether magnetic charge. In other words, the plane has a specific proportion of length dimensions (area) per strong charge dimensions. This proportion names stroke (page 50).
\[str{k_a} = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}} \tag{7.8}\]
Coulomb’s constant then expresses in terms of Gforce as:
\[{k_C} = \frac{{Gforce}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \cdot str{k_a} \tag{7.9}\]
With Coulomb’s constant, the double loxodrome geometrical constant \({\left( {16{\pi ^2}} \right)}\) divides Gforce, thus producing spherical geometry. This suggests that Gforce has double loxodrome geometry, as does the Aether unit.
The \(rmfd\) constant expresses in terms of Gforce as:
\[rmfd = Gforce \cdot str{k_a} \tag{7.10}\]
Constant Speed of Photons
We ask the question, “What is it that makes the speed of photons constant?” In the Aether Physics Model the answer is, “the quantum measurements.” The speed of photons is equal to the quantum length times the quantum frequency.
\[c = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q} \tag{7.11}\]
The smallest natural length times the highest natural frequency gives the fastest velocity for a subatomic particle. However, smaller lengths and higher frequencies do exist via interference waves[2].
Herein lays the key to understanding the speed of light. Primary angular momentum is equal to a circle of mass times motion. The speed of photons is essentially the motion constant. It is not the speed it takes to get from one Aether unit to the next; rather it is the speed it takes for a subatomic particle to “spin through” one Aether unit. All subatomic particles always spin at the speed of photons, because Aether spins at the speed of photons.
In the Aether Physics Model, matter never moves out of its Aether unit; it always remains in the same region of volumeresonance. However, the volume resonance is a rotating magnetic field, which allows what we perceive as space to move relative to adjoining units of space. This is very close to the scenario of Aether presented by René Descartes.
A given Aether unit cannot slip past another Aether unit faster than its spin will allow, thus motion is limited to the speed of photons.
Then there is the situation of folding a large portion of Aether fabric by means of an intense magnetic force attraction. For example, let us imagine a device that stretches a field of Aether (Aether fabric) from the Moon to the Earth. Physical matter existing in one region of s[ace then crosses over the folded fabric of space, and the folded space returns to its normal position. Matter has still traveled less than the speed of photons, and yet by skipping over a region of space it has traveled from the Earth to Moon at a speed that is overall fasterthanphotons.
Another scenario could demonstrate faster than photon speed. Since photon speed is determined by a subatomic particle spinning through an Aether unit, what if we bypassed the subatomic particle altogether and modulated the Aether unit instead?
It may be possible to send a mechanical wave through the Aether by vibrating Aether units using the magnetic force. Scientists refer to such a disturbance as a gravitational wave. The wave would be akin to a sound wave, except that instead of displacing molecules of air, we are displacing space itself. In addition, since the displacement does not involve subatomic particles spinning through Aether, the photon speed limitation does not apply.
The mechanism for modulating Aether units will likely involve pulsed magnetic waves. Pulsed magnetic wave technology already exists, so it becomes merely a matter of testing. Pulsed magnetic waves could open the door to many other tests concerning the Aether.
\({c^2}\) Constant
What exactly does it mean to square the speed of photons? It means nothing as far as velocity is concerned. The speed of photons is what it is, a velocity. When the dimensions are changed, it is no longer a velocity. For example, when we multiply velocity by frequency we get the unit of acceleration.
\[velc \cdot freq = accl \tag{7.12}\]
Equation (7.12) could also notate in terms of quantum measurements:
\[{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2 = accl \tag{7.13}\]
One way to see acceleration is as a point gaining length on a line. For example, if an object (representing a point) moves 1 ft in one second and then two feet in the next second (for a total of three feet in two seconds) then the object is accelerating at the rate of one foot per second per second.
Similarly, the unit of sweep is equal to velocity times length:
\[velc \cdot leng = swep \tag{7.14}\]
\[{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} = swep \tag{7.15}\]
Sweep is the scanning of an area by a line. For example, assume a broom edge is a thin line. Then sweep across the floor. The sweep is the area per time swept by the line of the broom. The sweep could apply to a circle expanding on a surface, like the expanding ring of a water wave when a stone tosses into a still pond. The sweep could apply to a ray having angular velocity around the origin of the ray, or to a line in the form of a circle scanning out a cylinder.
With angular momentum, the line also has mass. A circular line of mass sweeps a tubular spin position area of the Aether.
\({c^2}\) is equal to velocity times velocity, which can be written in quantum measurements as:
\[{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2 = temp \tag{7.16}\]
where temp (also “rdtn” for radiation) is the quantum unit of radiation or temperature. In equation (7.16) an accelerating area is swept. In other words, instead of a point gaining length on a line as in acceleration, there is now a line sweeping an area at an accelerating rate. In the case of energy, the line also has a dimension of mass. So energy appears as a line of mass sweeping an area at an accelerating rate.
\[\left( {{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}} \right) \cdot accl = enrg \tag{7.17}\]
For photons traveling at the speed of photons, the frame number determines the area scanned at any given time. A frame is one of a sequence of areas designated by its time value.
\[\begin{array}{l} {f_{rame}} = 1 \\ {d_f} = {\lambda _C} \cdot {f_{rame}} \\ {t_f} = {T_q} \cdot {f_{rame}} \\ \frac{{{d_f}^2}}{{{t_f}^2}} = {c^2} \\ \end{array} \tag{7.18}\]
where \({d_f}\) is the distance of the frame from the origin and \({t_f}\) is the time of the frame from the origin. At frame equals \(1\), the total area scanned is equal to \({\lambda _C}^2\). At frame equals \(2\), the total area scanned is \(4{\lambda _C}^2\) and so on. Therefore, \({c^2}\) demonstrates as an accelerating area, which is the same thing as saying it is radiating. With temperature, radiation can accelerate outward and then inward as a continual expansion and contraction.
A steradian is a solid angle of a sphere. The case of frame equals \(1\) shows that the area scanned by \({c^2}\) is one steradian of the sphere of the same radius. One manifestation of a steradian would be a cone. The volume of the cone compared to the volume of the sphere is one steradian. In addition, the sphere surface area enclosed by the cone compared to the total surface of the sphere is one steradian.
The manifestation of the steradian most often encountered at the subatomic level is that of two opposing cones, as in the image below.
The dark green area in the above graphic represents the steradian of the entire light green sphere. The sphere surface has a solid angle of \(1\) and the steradian surface a solid angle of \(\frac{1}{{4\pi }}\). The solid angle of \(1\) is also equal in area to \(4\pi {r^2}\), where \(r\) is the radius of the sphere. Therefore, one steradian of the sphere surface area is also equal to the radius of the sphere squared.
\[\frac{{4\pi {r^2}}}{{4\pi }} = {r^2} \tag{7.19}\]
In the image above, the steradian, or area scanned by \({c^2}\), radiates as an accelerating area. The ratio of the relative area scanned to the corresponding sphere surface will always be \(\frac{1}{{4\pi }}\) regardless of the frame. In the graphic at right, each frame represents as a concentric cylinder. In the empirical case of a photon, which is an expanding electron, the circular cylinder replaces with a cardioid shaped “cylinder” as shown to the left.
Therefore, \({c^2}\) is the radiation frame constant. The same analysis applies to the constant speed of sound in a given material, and to other constant velocities.
When the frame constant of radiation applies to the electron mass, it gives the amount of work performed by virtue of the electron’s existence. The electron quantifies by its angular momentum, which is equal to Planck’s constant \(h\).
\[{m_e} \cdot swep = h \tag{7.20}\]
The angular momentum of the electron appears as the mass of the electron sweeping through an Aether spin position. Each quantum moment, the electron repeats this sweeping action. The frequency at which the repetitive sweeping occurs is the quantum frequency:
\[h \cdot {F_q} = {m_e} \cdot {c^2} = enrg \tag{7.21}\]
where \(enrg\) is the work performed by the electron in each frame of its existence. In other words, by virtue of its existence the mass of the electron is forever scanning an increasing area, thus manifesting energy.
Within a molecular or atomic substance, the outward expanding radiation collides with similar substances and reflects back toward its source. We can call this process of collisions “temperature,” as discussed earlier in the chapter called Units. Following the equations of (7.18), the temperature expands in the angle of the steradian as shown above. However, when other atoms or molecules interact with each other by exchanging photons, resonance occurs. Each particle then oscillates photons among them producing a damped wave, as shown below:
The above graphic is a damped wave caused by the electronpositron pair emitting from an atom. The image uses unequal scales for easier comprehension. If the energy level is high enough, the electron and positron will electromagnetically shoot away as two complete subatomic particles in opposite directions. If the energy level is low enough, we see half the electron angular momentum and positron angular momentum expand outward by continuing to share Aether units. These combine to produce a 1spin photon that will radiate from the source atom in a cardioid pattern as concentric “cylinders.” The remaining angular momentum returns with its Aether unit to the atom to produce another photon.
The electromagnetic force exerted by the emitted photons of the atoms and molecules then transfer momentum to each other causing expansion. We experience this expansion as temperature.
When the intensity of the pair production increases substantially, we experience the emission as gamma rays.
The electron is doing work, as are all subatomic particles, all the time. In this sense, the Universe is a sea of energy waiting for utilization. The trick to tapping this sea of energy lies in finding a way to put a load directly on the subatomic particles. It is possible that some isotopes, and perhaps even some molecules, have a structure that could allow for the tapping of energy. It would be possible if the subatomic particles are magnetically aligned (through a crystal structure) in such a way that they produce a natural rotating magnetic field, or perhaps it could occur via the exchange of electrons in one direction around a spherical or cylindrical crystal. Two conductors could tap the energy by placing this natural rotating magnetic field between them.
Orders of Motion
We could say that the first order of motion is the speed of photons, or the quantum unit of velocity. In terms of mass, the first order of motion is momentum:
\[momt = {m_e} \cdot c \tag{7.22}\]
The second order of motion would be energy:
\[enrg = {m_e} \cdot {c^2} \tag{7.23}\]
The third order of motion is then light:
\[ligt = {m_e} \cdot {c^3} \tag{7.24}\]
If we pause to contemplate these various orders of motion, we can see a progression from momentum, to energy, to light. These orders of motion present an increasing intensity in the levels of action.
The Aether involves the fourth order of motion as seen in the Aether magnetic constant and in the Newton gravitational constant:
\[rmfd = \frac{{mchg \cdot {c^4}}}{{accl}} \tag{7.25}\]
\[G = \frac{{{c^4}}}{{{m_a} \cdot accl}} \tag{7.26}\]
The fourth order of motion per acceleration is a constant in both the Aether magnetic constant and the Newton gravitational constant. The difference between the two is that in the Aether magnetic constant the magnetism (mass to charge ratio – \(mchg\)) has mass, but in the Newton gravitational constant, mass associated with the Aether, is reciprocal mass. Reciprocal Aether mass has a different manifestation than normal mass and refers to the maximum amount of mass a quantum Aether unit can contain.
It is fascinating to contemplate the fourth order of motion in the Aether. If energy is a higher order of motion than momentum, and light is a higher order of motion than energy, then the Aether must have a higher order of motion than light.
It is tempting to explain that the Aether does not really have a fourth order of motion because the fourth order per acceleration is equal to the double cardioid unit:
\[\frac{{{c^4}}}{{accl}} = dcrd \tag{7.27}\]
However, as can be seen in equation (7.26), the mass of the Aether times acceleration is equal to the Gforce, which is primary to acceleration. Therefore, the Newton gravitational constant is equal to the fourth order of motion per Gforce.
\[G = \frac{{{c^4}}}{{Gforce}} \tag{7.28}\]
Conductance Constant
The conductance constant offers an opportunity to test the validity of the Aether Physics Model with regard to Classical physics. In Classical physics, all electrically related units other than permeability, permittivity, inductance, capacitance, and conductance express in units with single dimension charge. In the Aether Physics Model, all electrically related units express in distributed dimensions of charge.
Therefore, the reciprocal nature of resistance and conductance in Classical physics appears as the reciprocal of magnetic flux and conductance in the Aether Physics Model.
Aether Physics Model 
Classical Physics 

Resistance 
\(resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\)  \(R = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}\) 
Conductance 
\(cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\)  \(G = \frac{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}\) 
Magnetic Flux 
\(mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\)  \(\lambda = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot coul}}\) 
Although the Classical physics shows resistance to be the reciprocal of conductance, experiments do not verify this.
But for reasons related to the different measurement principles and the electrical properties of the skin, the hypothesis of linear relationship between changes in the skin [conductance] and the resulting resistance from the measurement cannot be maintained (Lykken & Venables, 1971). Therefore, it is recommended that researchers use skin conductance only[3].
However, there is evidence to suggest a linear relationship between conductance and magnetic flux:
It is shown, for normal wall thicknesses, that flux leakage is determined essentially by the wall conductance, defined as the product of wall thickness and wall conductivity.[4]
There are other instances, especially in the field of nanotechnology, where conductance has a linear, reciprocal relationship to magnetic flux.
At first glance, it may appear that classical physics expresses resistance in terms of distributed charge. However, it readily appears from Ohm’s law that this is not the case. Resistance is the result of potential divided by current. Both potential and current in classical physics express in terms of single dimension charge. Equation (7.29) shows that the classical dimensions of potential divided by the classical dimensions of current equal the classical dimensions of resistance.
\[\frac{{\left( {\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot coul}}} \right)potential}}{{\left( {\frac{{coul}}{{sec}}} \right)current}} = \left( {\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}} \right)resistance \tag{7.29}\]
The fact that \(resn\) appears in the Aether Physics Model with charge to the fourth power shows that resistance is a unit determined by two separate subatomic particles working against each other.
In equation (7.2), the conductance constant shows to be a factor of Coulomb’s constant. In quantum measurements, the conductance constant notates as:
\[Cd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}} \tag{7.30}\]
Conductance of the Aether is also equal to:
\[Cd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{h} \tag{7.31}\]
The variable \(h\) is Planck’s constant and represents the angular momentum of the electron. Aether conductance is also equal to other expressions of strong charge to primary angular momentum.
\[Cd = \frac{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}{{{h_p}}} \tag{7.32}\]
\[Cd = \frac{{{e_a}^2}}{{{h_a}}} \tag{7.33}\]
where \({{h_p}}\) and \({{h_a}}\) are the angular momentum of the proton and Aether, and \({{e_{emax}}^2}\) and \({{e_a}^2}\) are the magnetic charge of the proton and Aether. This is just one of many demonstrations of the exact mass to magnetic charge ratio, which is consistent throughout the Universe. Wherever magnetic charge appears, it is always exactly proportional to the mass within the angular momentum that produces it, and therefore it is quantum[5].
The Standard Model of particle physics does not recognize conductance as an essential constant. This might prompt one to ask, why bother? As shown in the Aether Physics Model, the conductance constant is essential for understanding the magnetic charge of the subatomic particles. The understanding of magnetic charge in turn reveals the relationships of the strong nuclear force, Van der Waals force, Casimir force, plasmas, and other phenomena.
An essential use of the conductance constant appears in the magnetic charge equation:
\[{e_{emax}}^2 = h \cdot Cd \tag{7.34}\]
The same form of equation holds for any subatomic particle with angular momentum. The angular momentum of the proton in the Aether Physics Model is similar to the angular momentum of the electron, with the exception that it calculates with the mass of the proton.
\[{h_p} = {m_p} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} \tag{7.35}\]
\[{e_{pmax}}^2 = {h_p} \cdot Cd \tag{7.36}\]
Due to the incorrect assumption in Classical physics that resistance is the reciprocal of conductance, the science of psychophysiology has suffered a crucial setback. Scientists assume reciprocal measured skin resistance equals skin conductance, even though experiment shows this to be false. Thus, an incorrect understanding of the relationship between conductance and resistance has hindered scientists from advancing in their understanding of the nature of consciousness. (On page 272, consciousness introduces with respect to the dynamic, living Aether.)
Permeability Constant
The permeability constant is also a part of Coulomb’s constant and the \(\textit{rmfd}\) constant. In quantum measurements, permeability expresses as:
\[{\mu _0} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}} \tag{7.37}\]
Notice the mass to magnetic charge ratio of Aether \(\left( {\frac{{{m_a}}}{{{e_a}^2}}} \right)\). However, any mass to magnetic charge ratio such as \(\frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\), \(\frac{{{m_p}}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}\), or \(\frac{{{m_n}}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}\) would do. This is because the mass to magnetic charge ratio is always constant.
Permeability is a quality of Aether unit that refers to the degree it can be penetrated or permeated. Permeability is the quality of Aether that “grabs” onto magnetic charge as it passes through. Think of water permeating a piece of cloth. The water can pass through the cloth, but there is a certain amount of drag imposed on its movement. Aether permeability has this type of effect on magnetic charge.
Permittivity Constant
Another component of Coulomb’s constant and the \(\textit{rmfd}\) constant is the permittivity constant.
\[{\varepsilon _0} = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}} \tag{7.38}\]
Aether permittivity (absolute) defines as “the ratio of the electric displacement of a medium to the electric force producing it.[6]” As seen from the dimensions, the permittivity constant of the Aether includes the full dimensions of volumeresonance (double cardioid), which can be thought of as a cavity in which subatomic particles reside. The cavity times the magnetic constant (mass to magnetic charge ratio) also relates as capacity for magnetic charge. The degree to which magnetic charge can fill this capacity is the permittivity.
One might notice, however, that the dimensions are reciprocal in equation (7.38), that is, the double cardioid constant is in the denominator as is the mass to magnetic charge ratio. However, since permittivity itself has a reciprocal relationship in the Aether unit, it works out that permittivity is its magnetic capacity.
\[\textit{rmfd} = \frac{{c \cdot Cd \cdot {\mu _0} \cdot \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \tag{7.39}\]
Planck’s Constant
Just like Coulomb’s constant, the Newton gravitational constant, speed of photons constant, speed of photons squared constant, permeability constant, and permittivity constant, the Standard Model of particle physics essentially claims that Planck’s constant is a constant of convenience that happens to show up in many places.
The following quote from H.A. Lorentz in a book by James Murphy and Max Planck[7] illustrates many of the areas where Planck’s constant applies.
"We have now advanced so far that this constant (Planck’s universal \(h\)) not only furnishes the basis for explaining the intensity of radiation and the wavelength for which it represents a maximum, but also for interpreting the quantitative relations existing in several other cases among the many physical quantities it determines. I shall mention only a few; namely, the specific heat of solids, the photochemical effects of light, the orbits of electrons in the atom, the wavelengths of the lines of the spectrum, the frequency of the Roentgen rays which are produced by the impact of electrons of given velocity, the velocity with which gas molecules can rotate, and also the distances between the particles which make up a crystal. It is no exaggeration to say that in our picture of nature nowadays it is the quantum conditions that hold matter together and prevent it from completely losing its energy by radiation. It is convincingly clear that we are here dealing with real relations because the values of \(h\) as derived from the different phenomena always agree, and these values differ only by slight shades from the number which Planck computed twentyfive years ago on the experimental data that were then available."
According to Max Planck…
…the laws of thermodynamics are only of a summary and statistical nature and can give only summary results when applied to electronic processes in the atom. Now if the quantum of action has the significance which has come to be ascribed to it today in thermodynamics it must make itself felt also in every single process within the atom, in every case of emission and absorption of radiation and in the free dispersion of light radiation[8].
Action is the attribute of a real thing, not of convenience constants. If there is a quantum of action, then there is something doing the action. There are only three stable forms of subatomic particles in the atom that could be candidates for the quantum of action. These are the electron, proton, and neutron. Since all the phenomena associated with Planck’s constant are electronic processes, then the only logical candidate among these three is the electron. It is a very reasonable assumption that Planck’s constant directly quantifies the electron. Moreover, since Planck’s constant is in the unit of angular momentum, it is reasonable to state further that Planck’s constant refers directly to the angular momentum of the electron.
God did not design the Planck constant just to help Max Planck, Louis de Broglie, and Albert Einstein convert energy to frequency in the equation:
\[E = h \cdot f \tag{7.40}\]
Further still, Einstein may have applied Max Planck’s constant directly to the energy of photon radiation, but Einstein did not discover, nor did he quantify, a quantum photon. Albert Einstein claimed to have quantified the photon, but what he called the photon was not quantum at all. Einstein merely stated what others had stated, that Planck’s constant (angular momentum of the electron) times frequency yields the amount of work performed by the electron:
Within a few years after its promulgation Einstein applied the quantum theory to explain the constitution of light and showed that light follows the same process as heat radiation and is emitted in parcels or quanta, called photons[8].
Einstein also made the empirical observation that everyone else did, that photons travel at the speed of photons, but he never made the connection that the photon actually quantifies as Planck’s constant times the speed of photons. Nor did he realize that light was equal to the photon times frequency.
A look at the Planck constant in terms of quantum measurement reveals clearly that Planck’s constant refers specifically to the electron. The angular momentum of the electron is equal to the mass of the electron times its sweep.
\[h = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} = {m_e} \cdot swep \tag{7.41}\]
\[h = 6.626 \times {10^{  34}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec}} \tag{7.42}\]
In the Aether Physics Model, the photon and the electron closely relate to each other, just as empirical evidence show. The photon unit is equal to:
\[phtn = h \cdot c \tag{7.43}\]
What could be simpler and easier to understand? A photon is electron angular momentum of the electron jumping an orbital, and that is exploding outward at the speed of photons. Light defines as photons produced at a given frequency by the atoms that produce photons:
\[ligt = phtn \cdot freq \tag{7.44}\]
In the Aether Physics Model, we are dealing with cause and effect. Electrons define exactly as the data shows, as primary angular momentum. Photons mathematically define from the electrons that produce them. Energy appears as a unit of work, not as an object equal to a dimension. Mass is seen as a dimension, and not as matter. All the functions within the APM are clean, mathematically and geometrically correct, and modeled precisely.
With an accurate electron structure to work with, we may reasonably posit that the other form of stable matter, the proton, is similarly structured.
Newton Gravitational Constant
\[G = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_a}}} = \frac{{dcrd}}{{{m_a}}} \tag{7.45}\]
The Newton gravitational constant is equal to double cardioid per Aether mass. The Aether mass is the maximum value of mass capable of being contained within an Aether unit.
The gravitational constant is equal to:
\[G = 6.672 \times {10^{  11}}\frac{{{m^3}}}{{kg \cdot se{c^2}}} \tag{7.46}\]
and can be represented as:
\[G = 6.672 \times {10^{  11}}\frac{{{m^2}}}{{k{g^2}}}newton \tag{7.47}\]
Just as the electrostatic and magnetic constants represent as a surface of distributed charge through which the Gforce acts, the gravitational constant represents as a surface of distributed mass through which the Gforce acts. It is likely that this “surface” actually curves at the quantum level, although it models as a flat surface at the macro level.
In the Coulomb constant and magnetic constant, the Gforce acts from a surface per charge named “stroke.” The stroke so names because it has a forward and backward component, or a dipole of magnetism. Linear mass is only one dimension. The gravitational force only extends in one vector relative to the type of mass acted upon. As a result, the gravitational force is attractive for like types of matter and repulsive for matter/antimatter interactions.
The surface from which the gravitational constant acts, describes in terms of “reach” \(\left( {Rch} \right)\). \({Rch}\) is equal to:
\[Rch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_a}^2}} = 5.513 \times {10^{  55}}\frac{{{m^2}}}{{k{g^2}}} \tag{7.48}\]
With similarity to the Coulomb and \(\textit{rmfd}\) constants, the Newton gravitational constant expresses in terms of Gforce:
\[G = Gforce \cdot Rch \tag{7.49}\]
A Gforce that is common to both magnetism and gravity also links together the two forces. Magnetism cannot convert to gravity because magnetism and gravity are already two aspects of the same thing. Think about a rectangular sign. If you look at the broad side of the sign, you see an area, but if you turn the sign 90 degrees, you see only the edge of the sign, which appears as a line. The Coulomb and \(\textit{rmfd}\) constants have surface geometry, and the Newton gravitational constant has linear geometry.
Ultimately, there is only one force in the Universe, the Gforce. As shown in this model, the Gforce acts upon electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass in different ways, appearing to human perception as three different kinds of force. If we were to see the Sun through three different colors of glass, we would be clever enough to realize that the Sun is not really three different colors.
Fine Structure Constants
In the early days, while developing the Aether Physics Model, I read a web page by Dr. James G. Gilson[9] that inspired me to look into the fine structure constant. The theories and equations presented by various authors all based upon numerological treatments, which left me wondering about the physical cause of the fine structure constant.
After a few hours of manipulating the new value for magnetic charge, which I had calculated from the conductance constant, I found an incredibly simple and highly instructive equation for the physical origin of the electron fine structure. Within a few minutes, I had also calculated the fine structures of the proton and neutron as well. It was not until a few weeks later that I realized the fine structure equation was really the Unified Charge Equation, which is the foundation of the Unified Force Theory. I reasoned that the fine structure constant is the proportion between a subatomic particle's elementary charge and its equivalent spherical magnetic charge, shown below.
The Fine Structure Constant designates by alpha \(\left( \alpha \right)\) and defines by NIST as:
\[\alpha = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{4\pi {\varepsilon _0}\hbar c}} \tag{7.50}\]
The value works out to:
\[\alpha = 7.297352568 \times {10^{  3}} \tag{7.51}\]
But the Fine Structure constant is not directly related to permittivity as equation (7.50) seems to suggest. It is a function of the conductance of the Aether, and more specifically, it represents the proportion of spherical electrostatic charge to the equivalent spherical magnetic charge.
\[\alpha = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot h \cdot Cd}} \tag{7.52}\]
or,
\[\alpha = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \tag{7.53}\]
The magnetic charge has a steradian angle of the \(1\) solid angle of electrostatic charge. The magnetic charge results from halfspin angular momentum spinning through the Aether unit, and therefore the magnetic charge has halfspin. To bring the magnetic charge to the same geometry as the electrostatic charge, \(2\) times \(4\pi \) multiplies the magnetic charge. Thus, the halfspin magnetic charge converts to onespin, and the steradian angle of magnetic charge converts to a spherical angle of \(1\), making both expressions geometrically balanced. That leaves the fine structure as the proportion between the electrostatic charge and equivalent spherical magnetic charge.
So the Aether Physics Model precisely and fundamentally describes the fine structure constant of the electron. However, the same structure further applies to the other forms of stable matter. Equation (7.52) is equal to the Unified Charge Equation:
\[{e^2} = 8\pi \alpha \cdot {e_{emax}}^2 \tag{7.54}\]
The application of the same method to the proton and neutron quickly resulted in fine structures for both subatomic particles.
\[p = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \tag{7.55}\]
\[p = 3.974 \times {10^{  6}} \tag{7.56}\]
\[n = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}} \tag{7.57}\]
\[n = 3.969 \times {10^{  6}} \tag{7.58}\]
where \(p\) is the proton fine structure and \(n\) is the neutron fine structure. As shown earlier, the angular momentum times the conductance constant gives the electromagnetic charge. Multiplying the electromagnetic charge by \({8\pi }\) yields the equivalent geometry of a sphere. Each subatomic particle would necessarily then have its own fine structure constant.
gfactor Constants
Free Electron gfactor
Because the electron has an electric charge and an intrinsic rotational motion, or spin, it behaves in some respects like a small bar magnet; that is, it is said to have a magnetic moment. Because the electron also has mass, it behaves in some respects like a spinning top; that is, it is said to have spin angular momentum. The g factor of the electron is defined as the ratio of its magnetic moment to its spin angular momentum. This factor is nominally 2 and was first measured with high accuracy during the period from 1961 to 1963. Using electric and magnetic fields, electrons were trapped with spins prealigned in a particular direction for a known length of time. The g factor was then obtained from the change in spin direction during the trapping period and the magnitude of the trapping magnetic field. Recent improvements in this basic method of measuring the g factor reduced the original 0.027 parts per million uncertainty obtained earlier to 0.003 parts per million.[10]
According to NIST, the gfactor of the electron notates as:
\[{g_e} = \frac{{2{\mu _e}}}{{\frac{{e\hbar }}{{2{m_e}}}}} \tag{7.59}\]
and has the value of:
\[{g_e} =  2.0023193043718 \tag{7.60}\]
and NIST gives the magnetic moment of the electron as:
\[{\mu _e} =  928.476412 \times {10^{  26}}{\rm{J }}{{\rm{T}}^{  1}} \tag{7.61}\]
The quantum measurements equation for electron magnetic moment in single charge dimensions is:
\[{\mu _e} = {g_e}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \tag{7.62}\]
This can be arranged as:
\[{\frac{\mu _e}\cdot ccf}{magm} = \frac{g_e}{8\pi} \tag{7.62}\]
Note that magnetic moment defines by the gfactor in equation (7.62). Now look again at the NIST equation (7.59) above for the gfactor of the electron. The gfactor defines by the magnetic moment. This is a serious error in physics, wherein the gfactor and the magnetic moment presume to define each other. This is the same as saying that the gfactor is an empircal obvservation with no mathematical explanation. Later you will see the Aether Physics Model suggestions for the electron and proton gfactors.
Gyromagnetic Ratio
The electron gyromagnetic ratio as defined by NIST is:
\[{\gamma _e} = \frac{{2\left {{\mu _e}} \right}}{\hbar } \tag{7.63}\]
\[{\gamma _e} = 1.76085974 \times {10^{11}}{{\rm{s}}^{{\rm{  1}}}}{\rm{ }}{{\rm{T}}^{{\rm{  1}}}} \tag{7.64}\]
According to NIST, the electron gyromagnetic ratio is a positive number because it takes the absolute value of electron magnetic moment, which was negative due to the assumed negative gfactor for the electron.
The negative value for the gfactor supposedly derived from the negative charge of the electron. However, what logic would then formulate the neutron gfactor as negative? The neutron is neutral. Can the electron and neutron gfactors be negative from different causes? That does not seem likely. As seen in the discussion on magnetic moment, there is no mathematical reason for the electron gfactor to be negative, but there is a possible reason for the neutron gfactor to be negative. Because there is no logic in making the electron gfactor negative, the electron gfactor in the Aether Physics Model is positive.
While researching the cardioid geometry of the Aether in the zaxis of time, we observed the \(Phi\) and \(phi\) proportions within it. \(Phi\) is the Golden Ratio and \(phi\) is its reciprocal. It could turn out that the electron gfactor is due to an offset of the loxodrome at the poles of the Aether unit. Nevertheless, it is not clear that this is what the gfactor refers. It is interesting that the electron gfactor expresses as:
\[\frac{{{g_e}}}{2} = \frac{1}{{\sin \left( {Phi} \right)}} \tag{7.65}\]
and the proton gfactor as:
\[\frac{{{g_p}}}{2} = \frac{{Phi}}{{\sin \left( {phi} \right)}} \tag{7.66}\]
Using the symbol \(\Phi \) for \(Phi\) and \(\phi \) for \(phi\), we could possibly solve for the neutron gfactor thus:
\[\frac{{{g_n}}}{2} = \sin \left( 1 \right)\frac{{\sin \left( \phi \right)}}{{\left[ {\Phi \left( {  \sin \left( \Phi \right) + \sin \left( \Phi \right)  \cos {{\left( \Phi \right)}^2} + \sin \left( 1 \right)  \sin \left( 1 \right) \cdot \cos {{\left( \Phi \right)}^2}} \right)} \right]}} =  3.837 \tag{7.67}\]
In NIST equations (7.59) and (7.62) the electron gfactor and electron magnetic moment define each other. Modern science has not yet found the physical cause of the gfactor. In the Aether Physics Model, gfactor quantifies by an expression that may discover its physical cause in Aether geometry.
As described in the section on magnetic moment, NIST appears to have erred on the value of the neutron magnetic moment and neutron gfactor, as well, due to an apparently incorrect view of subatomic structure. Essential equations for understanding a true origin of gfactor appear in this section. A more exhaustive analysis will demonstrate the principles in detail. The claim by NIST to have determined the gfactor to within .003 parts per million would seem to discredit equations (7.65) and (7.66), as these equations calculate to a value accurate only to the thousandths of the NIST values. However, if NIST is wrong about the neutron gfactor and neutron magnetic moment, it may be wrong about the accuracy of the gfactor as well.
The Aether Physics Model gfactor in subatomic particles has a proportional relationship to the mass and magnetic moment of other subatomic particles. For example:
\[\frac{{{g_p} \cdot {m_e} \cdot emag}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_p} \cdot pmag}} = 1 \tag{7.68}\]
This is true when using the Aether Physics Model value for the neutron gfactor:
\[\frac{{  3.831359 \cdot {m_e} \cdot emag}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_n} \cdot nmag}} = 1 \tag{7.69}\]
Now let’s see what happens when we substitute the magnetic moment values from the Standard Model. When comparing the electron to proton values we get unity:
\[\frac{{{g_p} \cdot {m_e} \cdot {\mu _e}}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_p} \cdot {\mu _p}}} = 1 \tag{7.70}\]
But when we compare the Standard Model values for the gfactors and magnetic moments between the neutron and electron we get:
\[\frac{{  3.82609 \cdot {m_e} \cdot {\mu _e}}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_n} \cdot {\mu _n}}} = 0.998627 \tag{7.71}\]
Even using the Aether Physics Model gfactor does not get unity, but it does get closer than the Standard Model gfactor:
\[\frac{{  3.831359 \cdot {m_e} \cdot emag}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_n} \cdot nmag}} = 1.000002 \tag{7.72}\]
This may be evidence in favor of the Aether Physics Model’s proportionally derived neutron gfactor.
To see how the gfactor relates to the subatomic particle geometry, we can look at a graph of the Compton function, which shows the geometry of the Aether paths taken by photons as viewed from the zaxis of time.
According to equation the electron gfactor is equal to:
\[{g_e} = \frac{2}{{\sin \left( {Phi} \right)}} \tag{7.73}\]
In the graph above, triangle side \(b\) is a unit length, equal to the radius of the sphere on which the cardioid path rests. As can be seen, side \(a\) is half the unit length and side \(c\) is the hypotenuse of right triangle \(\Delta abc\). \(\Delta abc\) is a special form of right triangle where side \(b\) is twice side \(a\), which we can call a \({Phi}\) triangle (it is not a Golden triangle).
The \({Phi}\) triangle is so named because in a unit triangle where \(b = 1\), then
\[c + a = Phi \tag{7.74}\]
and
\[c  a = phi \tag{7.75}\]
where \({Phi}\) is the golden ratio and \({phi}\) is its reciprocal. This is easily proved by substituting the Pythagorean expression for \(c\) and \(a\) in terms of unit length \(b\):
\[\sqrt {{b^2} + {{\left( {\frac{b}{2}} \right)}^2}} + \frac{b}{2} = Phi \tag{7.76}\]
Since \(b = 1\), we get:
\[\sqrt {1 + \frac{1}{4}} + \frac{1}{2} = Phi \tag{7.77}\]
\[1.118 + .5 = 1.618 = Phi \tag{7.78}\]
The value for \({phi}\) similarly reduces to:
\[1.118  .5 = 0.618 = phi \tag{7.79}\]
Therefore, the electron gfactor is equal to:
\[\frac{2}{{\sin \left( {c + a} \right)}} = {g_e} \tag{7.80}\]
And the proton gfactor is equal to:
\[\frac{{2\left( {c + a} \right)}}{{\sin \left( {c  a} \right)}} = {g_p} \tag{7.81}\]
Does the sine of \({c + a}\) or \({c  a}\) have a real meaning? While it presents interesting possibilities regarding similarities in the gfactor equation structure and the Compton function structure, which pertains particularly to photons, we draw no conclusions at this time with regard to the \(Phi\) based gfactor equations and Aether. It may be possible to link the two, but the work remains unfinished. A linking of the gfactor equation with Aether would greatly assist the understanding of magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio.
Gyromagnetic Ratio
The gyromagnetic ratio of the electron expresses in quantum measurements with single dimension charge as:
\[{\gamma _e} = \frac{e}{{{m_e}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_e}}}{2} \tag{7.82}\]
Converted to distributed dimensions of charge the electron gyromagnetic ratio expresses as:
\[egmr = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{{m_e}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_e}}}{2} \tag{7.83}\]
The analysis of gyromagnetic ratio is that the interaction of electrostatic charge of the Aether per mass of the subatomic particle times the offset of spin for a halfspin subatomic particle (as quantified by the gfactor), causes the subatomic particle to precess.
Similarly, quantum measurements apply to the proton and neutron gyromagnetic ratios.
\[pgmr = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{{m_p}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_p}}}{2} \tag{7.84}\]
\[ngmr = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{{m_n}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_n}}}{2} \tag{7.85}\]
where the neutron gfactor is the Aether Physics Model neutron gfactor and not the NIST neutron gfactor.
The gyromagnetic ratio of any subatomic particle is then a function of its electrostatic charge to mass ratio and spin position offset, or its precession.
Aether Pressure and Density
The velocity of a wave in any medium is equal to the square root of the pressure divided by the mass density of the medium. Since we already know the velocity of photons through the Aether, we can derive the pressure and mass density of the Aether.
\[{c^2} = \frac{{pres}}{{masd}} \tag{7.86}\]
Using quantum measurements the pressure is equal to:
\[pres = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} = 5.732 \times {10^{21}}\frac{{kg}}{{m \cdot se{c^2}}} \tag{7.87}\]
while the mass density is:
\[masd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}} = 6.377 \times {10^4}\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}} \tag{7.88}\]
However, the mass density in equation (7.88) is for the electron. The mass density and pressure for the Aether is:
\[\begin{array}{l} masd = \frac{{{m_a}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}} = 2.288 \times {10^{50}}\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}} \\ pres = \frac{{{m_a}\cdot{F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} = 2.056 \times {10^{67}}\frac{{kg}}{{m\cdot se{c^2}}} \\ \end{array} \tag{7.89}\]
At first, it seems improbable that such a mass density could exist. However, the mass associated with the Aether that acts gravitationally is reciprocal to physical mass and refers to the maximum mass the Aether can contain; therefore, it is the ability of the Aether to produce mass density. Frequency is the reciprocal of time and relates to time but is not the same thing, and the same holds true for the reciprocal of mass. Reciprocal mass defines poorly in the Standard Model, if at all.
[1] Tesla Coil  An aircore transformer that is used as a source of highfrequency power, as for xray tubes. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company. The Tesla coil is named after Nikola Tesla, a Serbian born US citizen who also invented the polyphase electric motor.
[2] "INTERFERENCE. The variation of wave amplitude with distance or time, caused by the superposition of two or more waves." Van Nostrond Company, Inc., Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1968) 887.
[3] Stefan Schmidt and Harald Walach, "Electrodermal Activity (Eda)  StateoftheArt Measurement and Techniques for Parapsychological Purposes," The Journal of Parapsychology 64.2 (2000): 139
[4] Fowler, C.M. Losses in magnetic flux compression generators: Part 2, Radiation losses (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA), Report number LA9956MSPt.2, 1988 Jun 01)
[5] Experiments have shown that a quantum conductance does exist in multiwalled carbon nanotubes. In one experiment the quantum conductance was shown to be, “The conductance of arcproducedMWNTs is one unit of the conductance quantum G0 = 2e2/h = (12.9 kilohms)1.” This value differs from the theoretical value by a factor of 2.725. Frank, Stefan, Poncharal, Philippe, Wang, Z. L., Heer, Walt A. deCarbon Nanotube Quantum ResistorsScience 1998 280: 17441746
[6] C. F. Tweney and L. E. C. Hughes, eds., Chambers's Technical Dictionary (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: W.& R. Chambers, 1958) 629.
[7] Max Planck, Where Is Science Going?, trans. James Murphy, 1st ed. (New York: Norton, 1932) 267.
[9] James G. Gilson, Fine Structure Constant, The fine structure constant, a 20th century mystery, http://www.maths.qmul.ac.uk/~jgg/page5.html
[10] NIST – Introduction to the constants for nonexperts 19401960 http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/historical3.html