An accurate definition of “dimension” is essential to physics. Dimension is the most elementary characteristic of physical matter and non-material Aether existence. From the dimensions of length, frequency, mass, charge, and spherical geometry come Aether, primary angular momentum, and all other dimension units.

The physical structure of the Universe that we recognize originates from Aether units and primary angular momentum. Other units make up the Universe, such as velocity, magnetic flux, resistance, potential, flow, pressure, etc. We may not be aware of it, but each of these units is a reality in itself. Units are not just abstract concepts but a significant foundation of the physical world. Understanding each type of physical existence as clearly as possible is important. To do this, we must understand the type of existence that precedes the level we examine.

Dimension is an unfamiliar concept, yet like our heartbeat, it undergirds our existence. We are accustomed to thinking that reality is the physical world we perceive. However, if the world we perceive is real, then the molecules and atoms that make up the world must be more real, having pre-existed the more complex structures. In addition, the subatomic particles that make up the atoms must be more real. Moreover, as we proceed to the most fundamental existence of dimension, we must approach the Source of reality even closer.

Likewise, as we progress in structure from dimensions to the reality we perceive, the structures themselves become more complex and less like their Source while founded on the previous levels all the same. For these reasons, the terminology must be clear as we pursue an understanding of reality at the dimension level.

## Definition of Dimension

#### Dimension - (Common Definition)

In physics, dimensions is an expression of the character of a derived quantity in relation to fundamental quantities, without regard for its numerical value. In any system of measurement, such as the metric system, certain quantities are considered fundamental, and all others are considered to be derived from them. Systems in which length \(L\), time \(T\), and mass \(M\) are taken as fundamental quantities are called absolute systems. In an absolute system force is a derived quantity whose dimensions are defined by Newton's second law of motion as \(ML/{T^2}\), in terms of the fundamental quantities. Pressure (force per unit area) then has dimensions \(ML/{T^2}\); work or energy (force times distance) has dimensions \(M{L^2}/{T^2}\); and power (energy per unit time) has dimensions \(M{L^2}/{T^3}\). Additional fundamental quantities are also defined, such as electric charge and luminous intensity. The expression of any particular quantity in terms of fundamental quantities is known as dimensional analysis and often provides physical insight into the results of a mathematical calculation[1].

#### Dimension – (Aether Physics Model Definition)

According to the Aether Physics Model, the dimensions of discrete natural units (quanta) are length, frequency, mass, charge, and spherical geometry. Dimension is the fundamental attribute of measurement, but is not itself measurable. Absolute dimension is a quality of reality seemingly arising from the ultimate Source of all existence. When quantity is associated with dimension, then the two together form a measurement.

Through the lack of a coherent understanding of dimensions and units, it has become standard practice to view measurements as units. For example, the kilogram defines a unit of mass[2]. It would be far more coherent if the kilogram were defined as a *mass measurement*, with the definition of “unit” reserved for compound dimensions (units are defined in Chapter 6). It is not so much that the choice of words is important but that the concepts of measurements and units are quite different. Using the same word to define two different concepts (homonyms), which often appear in the same sentence or paragraph, easily leads to confusion.

There are fewer dimensions at the quantum level than in the macro world. Like force, matter, and environment, dimensions increase in complexity as the orders of reality become more complex. Color, flavor, and texture are examples of complex dimensions as perceived at the level of human beings.

At the quantum level, the physical world follows a very simple and easy-to-understand set of rules. It is much easier to understand quantum physics through the Aether Physics Model than the physics of auto mechanics or bread making because the rules are so precise and the dimensions are so few. However, the key to understanding the quantum level of existence lies in more precise and simple definitions of the terms “dimension,” “measurement,” and “unit.”

The MKS measurement system has four commonly known fundamental dimensions: mass, charge, length, and frequency. In our macro frame of reference, we prefer to speak of frequency regarding its reciprocal of time. Also, there is a fifth type of dimension at the quantum level, spherical geometry, as explained shortly.

It is from the fundamental dimensions that units are constructed. The unit of area is equal to the length dimension squared. The unit of volume is equal to the length dimension cubed. The volume then has three dimensions of length.

\begin{equation}{\lambda _C}^3 = volm \end{equation}

However, there are also three dimensions in a unit of momentum (mass times length times frequency).

\begin{equation}{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q} = momt \end{equation}

So it is more accurate to call “3D” objects “volumetric” than three-dimensional. Technically, an object with three dimensions of length is three dimensional, but three-dimensions need not mean “three dimensions of length.”

### Misconceptions of Mass

What happens to mass in a weightless environment devoid of noticeable gravitational effects? Does mass change to zero? No. When the mass is near a large planet, does mass become greater? No. When an object with mass is accelerated to near the speed of light, does mass increase? No.

Nothing ever happens to mass. There is no "thing" to happen to. Mass is merely a dimension. It has no material existence, although it is one of the defining qualities of material objects.

There is mass in resistance. There is mass in potential. There is mass in energy. There is mass in angular momentum. It is all the same mass but manifested differently. It might help to realize that there is time in units too. There is time in resistance, there is time in the potential unit, there is time in energy, and there is time in angular momentum. You can perceive time as change but cannot isolate time from a unit. Similarly, you can perceive mass as inertia and length as distance, but you cannot separate the dimensions of mass and length from units. In the same way, you cannot remove the bricks from a brick building without also removing the building.

Once we stop thinking of mass as equal to matter and realize that mass is neither physical nor something convertible, it becomes easier to see what mass really is and how mass “behaves.” How it behaves is different from the “is-ness” of mass. You cannot “put your hands” on mass. You cannot see mass. You cannot truly weigh mass (but you can weigh matter that has mass). You cannot make mass turn into energy.

The whole issue of converting energy from mass clearly reveals itself when we realize the indestructible and unchangeable nature of dimensions. You cannot convert mass, length, time, or charge. They are absolutes. Mass is always mass. Once again, and it will be repeated often, mass (inertia) is only a dimension, and a dimension is a measurement.

## Nature of Dimensions

What causes a dimension to come into existence? Why would such absolute dimensions as mass, charge, length, frequency, or curved geometry exist? Contemplating the nature and origin of dimensions requires an ability to “see beyond” non-material and material existence. Dimensions are truly miracles of physics.

The esotericism continues when we contemplate the interaction of dimensions. Why should mass times length times frequency equal a unit of momentum?

\begin{equation}M \cdot L \cdot F = {\rm{Momentum}} \end{equation}

The interaction of dimensions to form units is merely an empirical observation; there is no known explanation for why dimensions should produce units.

Non-material units such as force have dimensions, as does the primary angular momentum that ultimately composes physical matter. There must be something about the reality of absolute dimensions, which pre-exists physical matter and non-material Aether existence. Science has traditionally ignored the source of absolute dimension, taking the origin of dimensions for granted. Some scientists are even so bold as to state that humans created dimensions to understand physics emphatically. Suppose we are to understand the Source of our existence. In that case, we must understand the foundation of our existence as it is and not pretend that material reality has no metaphysical foundation.

Contemplating the level of reality where physical matter and non-material Aether appear as units of dimensions and directing our awareness toward a more primary existence, we might experience a sense of floating. Nothing is left to observe, yet logic tells us that some unnamed knowledge of a greater reality exists. From this unnamed knowledge emerged dimensions, units, atoms, molecules, and ultimately the world we experience. Additionally, as we bring our awareness back to our present situation, we realize that everything we experience develops from that unnamed knowledge. At a fundamental level, we can realize a link between the knowledge of greater reality and our current situation.

There is nothing wrong or harmful about science admitting the existence of God or our relationship with God, especially when that is what the data and theory present. The closer one approaches the most fundamental levels of existence; the closer one approaches the Source of all Creation.

If, in our mind, we look toward the Source of dimensions, we drift toward a simpler and more unified existence. However, if in our mind, we look from the various manifestations of dimensions toward the units constructed from dimensions, the atoms constructed from units, the molecules constructed from atoms, and their macro structures, we find complexity.

Through dimensions, we fracture our perception of existence into myriad pieces, rearranging reality in a way that seemingly adds to the depth of our experience. On the other hand, because there are so many different pieces to comprehend, and our mind is only capable of one focus at a time, the world becomes shallower in our perception. The more detail we identify, the less we can see at a given time. This is not to say that there is something inherently wrong about studying the complex world. The purpose of acknowledging a single, non-material source for physical existence in science is to realize that it is also okay to study the path to a simpler reality.

Dimensions also have a reciprocal quality. For example, the reciprocal of time is frequency. Time and frequency are related but are also two distinct manifestations of a given dimension.

## Linear and Distributed Dimensions

There is another important observation concerning the primary state of existence along with dimensions. There is both a linear and distributed aspect. For example, length can be linear (a line) and distributed (a surface). Similarly, other dimensions and their reciprocals have both linear and distributed aspects.

However, it would appear that mass is specifically a linear dimension, and the charge is specifically a distributed dimension. There is a constant mass-to-magnetic charge ratio for all existence, which indicates that mass and magnetic charge are two aspects of the same thing. Mass is the linear view of this “thing,” and the charge is the distributed view. This is easy to visualize using the analogy of a sheet of paper. The charge would be akin to the view of the paper looking at its surface, and mass would be akin to the view of the paper looking at its edge.

Furthermore, dimensions govern by math, which has linear and distributed aspects. Addition is a linear operator in the positive direction, while subtraction is a linear operator in the negative direction. Multiplication is distributed addition, and division is distributed subtraction.

## Length and Reciprocal Length

Length is the dimension that measures distance when given a quantity. Because we think about length often as we walk, drive, and generally function in the world, it is easy for most people to understand. The reciprocal of length is the measurement of repeating curved lengths. We call the repeating curved lengths a wave number. The wave number is different from the wavelength. A wavelength is a distance between two consecutive common features of a wave (peak to peak or trough to trough, for example). The wave number is the reciprocal of the wavelength.

Just as frequency is cycles per time, wave number is cycles per length. A bicycle wheel with a certain radius appears as having a certain wave number for a given distance. Change the wheel's radius (amplitude), and the wave number will change accordingly. In general, if the wave number increases, then the amplitude decreases, although this is not a strict rule since other factors can affect the amplitude of a wave. The unit of wave number in the MKS system of units is cycles per meter.

### Single Dimension Length

When the dimension of length denotes a quantity, we have a distance measurement. The single dimension of length represents a line. Although a ruler generally has four edges plus a top and bottom totaling about six edges having length, we are only concerned with a single edge of the ruler, which is a graduated line. To clarify the concept of length as dimension, we could say that a measurement with length dimension measures distance. It would be better to avoid saying that we are “measuring length.”

Because volume-time, as we perceive it, is a direct result of the Aether and half-spin matter, length and time are perceived as inseparable. Since length and time in the Aether are perceived as inseparable, the speed of photons is constant. The speed of photons is equal to the quantum distance times the quantum frequency. At the quantum level, length can be expressed in terms of frequency (reciprocal time) just as frequency can be expressed in terms of length (usually called “wavelength”).

### Distributed Dimension Length

Length in two dimensions is distributed. Specifically, the lengths are at right angles to each other. We normally call distributed length an area. The physical manifestation of an area is a surface. A plane is a special case of a distributed area that occurs on a flat surface. However, distributed areas can also occur on curved surfaces such as toroids and spheres. Even though a surface curves, the length dimensions are still at right angles.

### Three Dimensional Length

We often refer to three dimensions of length as “three-dimensional.” As with distributed length, all three length dimensions are at right angles. We call these three right-angled length dimensions a volume. The physical manifestation of a volume is space or a solid.

Three length dimensions can also be two length dimensions at a right angle over a curved surface, with the third length dimension extending to another curved surface. In other words, we would normally think of the third dimension of length as extending inward to the center of the sphere or toroid (as in a solid). Still, at quantum levels, the third length dimension extends outward from the surface and between two identical toroids. For example, the double cardioid unit appears to be two adjacent cardioids separated by a distance. An instance of this double cardioid geometry manifests in the binding mechanics between subatomic particles.

Quantum matter has only two length dimensions; it only has surface characteristics. There is no solid quantum matter. Distance between surfaces provides the third dimension of length resulting in the appearance of “solid matter” as we perceive it at the macro level of existence.

## Time and Reciprocal Time Dimensions

When the dimension of time denotes a quantity, it becomes a measurement of intervals. We are accustomed to viewing time as the normal manifestation of the time dimension, with frequency as its reciprocal. At the quantum level, it appears to be just the opposite.

We perceive time as normal and frequency as reciprocal because subatomic particles move only in the forward direction of time. In reality, the subatomic particles are acting like “time diodes.” What we really see is a pulsed forward motion of time, not unlike a pulsed DC produced by a rectified AC. Since all subatomic matter pulses to the same rhythm in forward time, time appears linear to our perception. More precisely, our brain's hippocampus creates, stores, and recalls memories and creates a mental timeline. The concept of a linear timeline is then projected back onto the physical world in the present moment. In other words, a linear timeline is an imaginary concept and not a physical reality.

While visualizing forward and backward time, it is possible to see how time and volume curve so that distributed time appears spherical and volume appears as a loxodrome over the surface of spherically distributed frequency. Once again, this geometry can only be seen from beyond the material world (such as through visualization in meditation). When the material world is viewed from within the material world, i.e., from the body’s senses, we view from the half-spin perspective and tend to see only three dimensions of volume and one dimension of pulsed, linear time (normally called 4D reality or "space-time").

Usually, frequency represents as a sine wave drawn on a flat surface (such as the surface of paper or a computer screen). This is just an artifact of the representation of frequency as a line. The frequency at the quantum level is not the up-and-down line we see in a wave's cross-section on a fluid's surface. Quantum frequency is strictly an artifact of the temporal dimension, not the length dimension.

Think of it this way. The length has two directions. Length extends in one direction, and if the point of reference turns 180 degrees, length has a second direction. Similarly, frequency has two directions. There is time toward the future and time toward the past. However, frequency, unlike length, is dynamic. Therefore, frequency is circular in that it constantly moves with a certain spin toward the future and then curves around toward the past, and curves around toward the future, etc. In reality, there is no future or past, only the present. Nevertheless, there is the illusion of moving toward the future because our physical world arises from a physical matter that cannot “see” the backward time direction.

This in no way prevents the forward time direction from exhibiting apparent changes within the context of forward time occurring in the present moment. A swinging pendulum alternates between two directions. This alternation of direction manifests as a variable velocity. The variable velocity results from the apparent changing time dimension within the pendulum's velocity. It is not the result of the quantum time dimension of the subatomic particles from which the pendulum constructs.

So although frequency can be represented by a line on a surface (such as a graph) for systems occurring within the forward-pulsed, linear time dimension, the frequency of forward and backward time cannot be accurately depicted on paper. Even so, to convey the concept of forward and backward time, we will attempt it in our drawings.

### Single Dimension Time

Single dimension time is linear time. We quantify linear time with clocks, calendars, and similar devices (devices based on cycles, nonetheless). Duration is associated with growth and decay and determines the boundaries of birth and death. For example, a tree begins life at a specific time, duration marks its growth and decay and dies at a specific time. All physical objects (and the concepts about physical objects) appear to come into existence at a specific moment, to have a period of growth and decay and then cease to exist at a specific moment. The entire process of birth, growth, decay, and death occurs only in our memories as we play the memories back through our minds.

In the physical world, we record "memories" as words in books, pictures in a camera, data on a hard drive, and audio on tapes, among many devices for recording memories. Whether the memories are created in our brain or physical media, the physical matter being recorded physically exists only in the present moment.

Regarding measurements of time, it would enhance our understanding to speak rather of “interval,” “duration,” “moment,” and similar references to time measurement, reserving “time” as a term for “time as dimension” when possible. However, this is impractical considering the brain's need for creating timelines.

### Frequency Dimension

The reciprocal of time is frequency. Single dimension frequency curves. We measure frequency as cycles per time. When frequency manifests in a graph, it usually depicts it as a circle or a sine wave. The continuous sine wave depiction (like a snake) is merely an artifact of convenience to show the various cycles without overlapping them. In reality, quantum frequency cycles forward and then cycles backward in a circular “path.”

It is helpful to realize that there are various qualities for which frequency is measured. For example, a radio wave’s frequency measures alternating electromagnetic potentials. A sound wave’s frequency is the measurement of alternating molecular pressures. These examples of frequency are not frequencies of forward and backward time but of increasing and decreasing potentials and pressures.

At the quantum level, length and frequency are not separate. Each is an aspect of the same quantum velocity. Length in its first two dimensions curves. The first dimension of curved length comes from the ligamen circulatus. The second curved length comes from the direction in the ligamen circulatus and moves about the spherical resonance of frequency squared. Together the two curves produce the small and large radius of the subatomic particle, as shown in the image below.

As noted in the discussion of single dimension length, quantum length and quantum frequency (reciprocal time) are different perspectives of the same entity. Length and frequency unite, as evidenced by the constant speed of photons and the Aether unit geometry. At the quantum level, length expresses in terms of frequency, and frequency expresses in terms of length.

The reason for the constant speed of photons originates in the forward time / backward time oscillation of the Aether unit and also in the quantum length associated with the Aether unit surface area of its double loxodrome structures. As the Aether unit pulses back and forth between forward time and backward time, subatomic particles see only the forward time direction. This limits the movement of subatomic particle angular momentum through the Aether fabric to the maximum velocity of the quantum length times the quantum frequency.

The sameness of length and frequency is due to motion (velocity) being a primary characteristic of existence from which the dimensions of length and frequency arise. In the Aether Physics Model, the speed of photons is as much a quality of the Aether as is the Aether’s conductance, permeability, and permittivity.

### Distributed Time

Distributed time appears to be a form of reciprocal resonance. This can be seen from the expression of inductance times capacitance:

\begin{equation}indc \cdot capc = tim{e^2} \end{equation}

where time is equal to the quantum time constant \(\left( {time = 8.093 \times {{10}^{ - 21}}sec} \right)\). Single-dimension time has a linear characteristic, just as all single dimensions do. Distributed time is the set of all time points generated by two perpendicular timelines. A real-world example of distributed time is the orbital period of planets, as in Johannes Kepler’s third law:[4]

\begin{equation}{T^2} = \frac{{4{\pi ^2}}}{{GM}}{a^3} \end{equation}

where \(T\) is time, \(G\) is the gravitational constant, \(M\) is the mass of a large body, and \(a\) is the semi-major axis of an elliptical orbit or radius of a circular orbit. Using quantum measurement analysis, we see that although empirically derived, the \({4{\pi ^2}}\) term is anomalous.

\begin{equation}{T_q}^2 = \frac{1}{{G \cdot {m_a}}}{\lambda _C}^3 \end{equation}

### Distributed Frequency

Distributed frequency is similarly structured. The equation for determining the resonance of a tank circuit where the potential is highest is:

\begin{equation}\frac{1}{{2\pi \sqrt {LC} }} = F \end{equation}

And this is the same as:

\begin{equation}{F^2} = \frac{1}{{4{\pi ^2}LC}} \end{equation}

Frequency squared is thus resonance. Again, the \(4\pi^{2}\) term is anomalous when viewing the equation with quantum measurement units.

\begin{equation}{{F_{q}}^{2}} = \frac{1}{{indc\cdot capc}} \end{equation}

At the quantum level, dynamic distributed frequency has two components, the forward/backward frequency dimension and the right/left spin-direction frequency dimension. As the LC follows the spin position path, it exists in forward, not only/backward time, and right/left spin. The combination of these two quantum frequencies produces quantum resonance.

Frequency squared appears in the double cardioid constant, rotating magnetic field constant, Newton gravitational constant, and many others. The double cardioid constant appears to be the quantum constant of “space-time.” Space-time supposedly represents three dimensions of the length and one dimension of time. However, the Aether Physics Model shows that there are actually three dimensions of the length and two dimensions of dynamic frequency. If frequency squared is truly a resonance, then five-dimensional “space-time” should really define as “space-resonance.” However, "space-time" is redundant since space is Aether and Aether already includes the temporal dimensions. Five-dimensional "space-resonance" should be called space, Aether, or volume-resonance.

Why hasn’t this observation been shown in resonance research if resonance were spherical? Perhaps it has. In the late 1800s, John Worrell Keely used the mechanical vibration of multiple tuning forks to create ultrasonic frequencies inside spherical containers. By finding the resonance of a given object, such as water, Keely demonstrated the disintegration of the object into its constituent atoms or molecules or perhaps generated Magnegas, as explained by Rugerro Santilli[5]. Furthermore, modern experiments with high-amplitude sound resonance show that the geometrical resonant cavities are spherical.

Another manifestation of frequency squared is the discovery of Fourier and Gabor transforms. By converting the time domain of a given data set into a frequency domain, very useful information obtains for analysis purposes. It seems odd that data has to convert from the time domain to the frequency domain to obtain this usefulness. It seems more likely that if we measured the data in the frequency domain, the secondary process of converting the data would not be necessary. Understanding the difference between frequency and resonance would considerably help in devising the proper measuring device. Acquiring data directly and in real-time in its proper frequency domain could revolutionize the oscilloscope and provide engineers with unprecedented monitoring equipment.

### Static Frequency

Just as length has two quantum structural dimensions and an implied third dimension between quantum structures, frequency has two dynamic dimensions and an implied third static dimension. The third dimension of frequency is the electrostatic charge.

In the Aether Physics Model, Aether units model with dipoles. The electrostatic charge dipole produces from the dynamic forward/backward time and right/left spin frequencies. The two-spin structure of the Aether is the underlying cause of the dipoles, creating both a positive and negative electrostatic charge.

## Mass and Reciprocal Mass Dimensions

Mass, given a quantity, is a measurement of inertia. A layperson might think that mass is a weight measurement, but weight depends on gravity's force.

Mass is one of the dimensions of primary angular momentum, which is the building block of physical matter. We are quite familiar with how the mass measurement of matter results in the sensation of weight near the surface of the Earth. However, mass is also a dimension in momentum, force, pressure, resistance, potential, magnetic flux, and several other units. It is especially important since physicists have incorrectly equated mass with energy for the past 100 years to understand the difference between mass as dimension, mass as measurement, and the various poetic uses of the word “mass.”

In Special Relativity Theory, mass converts to energy as an object approaches the speed of photons. If this were true, then instead of having infinite mass, as the theory proposes, a spaceship should be massless at the speed of photons. However, if the spaceship were massless at the speed of light, it would have no energy because the mass would be zero. I do not see how physicists could have ignored this simple contradiction for 100 years. Undoubtedly, the die-hard relativists will come out swinging with arguments that there is relativistic mass, which is different from rest mass, or some other such nonsense. Mass is ultimately only a dimension. Mass is not equal to matter. Mass does not rest, and mass does not move as an independent entity. There is no such physical “thing” as a mass that can be converted to energy, of which energy is merely a unit.

Mass could be construed as equal to energy only by playing tricks with words and violating equality rules.

The reciprocal of mass is easy to describe in an Aether theory. One definition of reciprocal mass could be mass as in the reciprocating action of a piston. Although with a piston, the mass is actually constant, and the velocity changes along with its direction.

The manifestation of reciprocal mass in the Aether unit is that reciprocal mass is the limit of the maximum amount of mass allowed by the Aether. Within the Newton gravitational constant, the mass associated with the Aether is reciprocal to normal mass and describes the Aether's limit of mass. We see the limit of mass also in the Schwarzschild radius as the maximum amount of mass per length, which is a length density constant. The length density constant is equal to:

\begin{equation}ldns_{0}=\frac{m_{a}}{\lambda_{C}} \end{equation}

The mass associated with the Aether is an enormous \(3.268 \times {10^{15}}kg\). So why do we not perceive such a large mass? Would not our space feel very dense and solid? Suppose we contemplate the apparent enormity of the Aether mass compared to the electron and proton masses. In that case, it becomes apparent that Aether mass must be reciprocal to subatomic particle mass. In the gravitational constant, the mass of the Aether is, in fact, reciprocal.

\begin{equation}G = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_a}}} \end{equation}

Then, how would we explain the mass of the Aether in Coulomb’s constant?

\begin{equation}{k_C} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{16\pi^{2}\cdot {{e_a}^2}} \end{equation}

Again, the maximum mass of the Aether per maximum magnetic charge of the Aether represents the maximum range of mass and magnetic charge allowed by the Aether. In Coulomb’s constant, the magnetic charge dimension is reciprocal to mass. The presence of the Aether mass in the numerator here describes the mass-to-magnetic charge ratio. The \(16\pi^{2}\) curvature constant in the denominator shows that Coulomb's constant is the magnetic constant without its geometry; that is, Coulomb's constant applies to the electrostatic charge of the Aether and the subatomic particles.

Whereas electrostatic charge has the same value with opposite polarities for the electron and the proton, magnetic charge in a subatomic particle is directly proportional to the subatomic particle's mass. This mass-to-charge ratio for the magnetic charge is the same for both the Aether unit and the subatomic particles.

### Single Dimension Mass

Mass is linear and exists only as a single dimension. In the case of subatomic particles, whenever two dimensions of mass are present in a unit, it is because the unit results from two separate subatomic particles interacting with each other.

Because mass is linear, it exists with just one length dimension when associated with matter. The matter at the subatomic level exists as primary angular momentum. Primary angular momentum equals a circular line of mass (ligamen circulatus) spinning a velocity perpendicular to the circle. The electron's angular momentum is the “quantum of action,” also known as Planck’s constant.

The effect of the spinning ligamen circulatus is to scan an area at the quantum frequency. However, there appears to be no direct correspondence between the mass and the length of the ligamen circulatus circumference. As will be seen in the section on electron radii (page 181), the ligamen circulatus circumference can shrink or grow as long as the spherical frequency radius of the Aether unit grows or shrinks in such a way as to conserve angular momentum. Regardless of what circumference the ligamen circulatus takes, the mass for that particular subatomic particle appears to remain constant.

It is often wondered why gravity is only an attractive force. If the APM concept of the photon is correct, and if it composes of electron angular momentum equally divided between the electron and positron spin positions, then we can attribute the lack of measurable photon mass to neutralized inertial spin parity. Just as reciprocal mass is the oscillation between positive and negative inertial mass, the left-hand spin of the electron portion of the photon inertia counters the right-hand spin of the positron portion of the photon inertia. Even as the positive proton charge neutralizes the negative electron charge when producing the neutron, the negative inertia portion of photon angular momentum neutralizes the positive inertia portion of angular momentum.

This would imply that matter and anti-matter would experience gravity as a repulsion rather than a mutual attraction. The electron would repel the positron, and we can assume that the proton would repel the anti-proton. We can further assume that the spin positions being only half-full allows for the co-existence of matter and anti-matter in the same Aether unit, as the matter and antimatter will not come into direct contact.

This would further imply that if the distribution of matter and anti-matter is equal throughout the Universe, then not only would anti-matter be annihilated by matter, but it would gravitate away to form an entirely separate anti-matter system. Evidence, which we might interpret as positrons gravitationally repelling from normal matter, appears at the Galactic Center[6]. Yet, because the gravitational force is considerably weaker than the electromagnetic and electrostatic forces, interstellar collisions between matter and anti-matter do frequently occur. Thus, a system tends to predominate in favor of either matter or antimatter. Only at intergalactic distances are we likely to observe predominantly antimatter systems.

## Charge Dimension and Reciprocal Charge

Charge, when given a quantity, is the measure of electricity. The Aether unit donates an elementary charge to the subatomic particle. In contrast, the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle is the product of the subatomic particle's angular momentum times the conductance of the Aether.

Since magnetic charge results from the ligamen circulatus spinning through Aether at the speed of photons (quantum length times quantum frequency), the magnetic charge will always be proportional to the subatomic particle mass. The elementary charge will always be a charge portion imparted by the Aether. Therefore the elementary charge of the electron, positron, proton, and anti-proton will always be the same magnitude.

Since the magnetic charge is the product of angular momentum times conductance, and conductance is a quality of the Aether, this may imply angular momentum can exist outside of the Aether. Indeed, the neutrino appears to be an example of angular momentum sandwiched between Aether units, in which a strong (magnetic) charge develops.

### Single Dimension Charge

There is no physical manifestation of a single dimension charge; however, due to the distributed and curved nature of the charge, when charges multiply, only the square root of each charge is used (single dimension of charge). For example, in the electrostatic law (Coulomb’s law):

\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{\sqrt {{e^2}} \cdot \sqrt {{e^2}} }}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\frac{{2\pi }}{\alpha } = forc \end{equation}

The lack of a single dimension manifestation of charge supports the concept of scan-derived charge. Mass exists as a single dimension. Nevertheless, the cause of distributed magnetic charge is the scanning of the ligamen circulatus (angular momentum) through the Aether.

The single-dimension charge used in Classical Mechanics is one of the reasons why the Standard Model cannot produce a Unified Force Theory. Using a single charge dimension in Classical Mechanics also causes the incorrect relationship between resistance and conductance and between capacitance and potential. We will explain the correct relationships of these units later.

### Distributed Dimension Charge

All charge is distributed[7]; that is, all charge distributes over a surface. There are two manifestations of distributed charge, namely, electrostatic charge associated with the elementary charge (solid angle of 1), and magnetic charge (solid angle of \(\frac{1}{{4\pi }}\)).

The Aether unit donates electrostatic charge to the subatomic particle as the ligamen circulatus spins through it. The solid angle geometry of the electrostatic charge comes from the spherically distributed frequency dimensions of the Aether unit (forward/backward time and right/left spin direction).

Magnetic charge and the angular momentum of the subatomic particle are the same entity but seen from different perspectives. As the linear ligamen circulatus of the subatomic particle spins through the Aether unit, it scans an area. The scanned area represents the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle. The toroidal geometry of the magnetic charge arises from the circular mass moving in a circular path around the spherical frequency dimensions of the Aether unit. Although the magnetic charge would look helical to “God’s eyes,” it looks like a cardioid when viewed through our half-spin-subatomic particle senses.

All charge dimensions are distributed. In some units, such as resistance, the charge appears as \(cou{l^4}\). When charge dimensions appear to the fourth power, the unit interacts with two subatomic particles.

## Geometry

The presentation of time and volume in terms of curvature implies that curved geometry is inherent to Aether. In the Aether Physics Model, the frequency-squared dimensions support the Aether's curved geometry. In this sense, curved geometry could interpret as a “fifth type of dimension.”

### Spherical Constant

\(4\pi\) appears in the quantum constants and is an essential quantity in quantum physics.\(4\pi \) will appear when the expression on one side of an equation has a steradian angle, and the expression on the other side has a solid angle of 1. The solid angle of 1 refers to a spherical charge, and the steradian angle \(\frac{1}{{4\pi }}\) refers to a toroidal charge. \(4\pi \) will also appear when referencing the geometrical constant of the unit. The geometrical constant applies to the angular momentum, and the solid angle applies to the charge. Both charge and angular momentum share curved geometry but manifest in distinct dimensions.

\(4\pi \) is a dimension within the Aether unit and appears when we look at the relationships among the constituent constants. \(4\pi \) appears with the permeability and permittivity constants, such as when expressing permeability in quantum measurements:

\begin{equation}{\mu _0} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}=\frac{perm}{4\pi} \end{equation}

It also appears as a dimension when expressing permittivity in terms of quantum measurements:

\begin{equation}{\varepsilon _0} = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}=4\pi\cdot ptty \end{equation}

As mentioned earlier, Charles Coulomb was unaware of the constant that bears his name when he discovered the force law for the electrostatic charge. Early physicists developed the cgs system of measurements through some fortunate events such that charge expresses entirely in length, frequency, and mass dimensions. Coulomb’s constant is equal to 1 in the cgs system of measurements. When we convert the permeability, permittivity, and conductance constants to cgs units, the importance of \(4\pi \) becomes clearer.

\begin{equation}{\mu _0} = \frac{{4\pi }}{{{c^2}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}{\varepsilon _0} = \frac{1}{{4\pi }} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{c}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \end{equation}

In cgs units, the \(rmfd\) constant converts to:

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = 16{\pi ^2} \end{equation}

In cgs units, permeability, permittivity, conductance, and rotating magnetic field (Aether unit) expresses solely in terms of the \({4\pi }\) spherical constant and the speed of photons, showing that Aether is a function of motion, much as the ancient philosophers taught[8].

Not only is the Aether a function of spherical geometry and the speed of photons, but the fact that charge expresses entirely in terms of mass, length, and frequency dimensions shows that charge is a derived dimension. The observation of derived magnetic charge supports the Aether Physics Model concept that magnetic charge equals angular momentum times Aether conductance.

### \(4\pi \) in Unified Charge Equation

The Unified Charge Equation notates as:

\begin{equation}{e^2} = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 8\pi \alpha \end{equation}

or

\begin{equation}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 8\pi \alpha }} = 1 \end{equation}

Elementary charge \({\left( {{e^2}} \right)}\) is spherical as it is donated to the subatomic particle from the spherically distributed frequency dimensions of Aether. Thus the elementary charge has a solid angle of \(1\). Magnetic charge \({\left( {{e_{emax}}^2} \right)}\) is always a steradian of spherical charge, regardless of the shape the electron angular momentum takes.

The magnetic charge has half-spin because the angular momentum that produces magnetic charge can only move in forward time. And since the elementary charge comes from a 1-spin Aether sphere, 2 must multiply the half-spin magnetic charge to equal spin to the elementary charge.

To convert magnetic charge steradian geometry to electrostatic spherical geometry, the magnetic charge must multiply by \({4\pi }\).

The fine structure constant \(\left( \alpha \right)\) is the proportion by which the magnetic charge must multiply to unite the elementary charge sphere and equivalent magnetic charge sphere. Therefore, it appears that the conservation of charge geometry is another conservation law of physics. (See page 204 for more details about spherical and steradian units).

### Distributed Spherical Constant

The biggest leap toward understanding Aether came when I enlisted the help of Tom Gutman to design MathCAD worksheets to represent the constant of \(16{\pi ^2}\). I could visualize a geometrical progression from \(2\pi \) to \(4\pi \), to \(4{\pi ^2}\), to \(16{\pi ^2}\) and wanted to know what \(16{\pi ^2}\) would look like.

After figuring out the geometry of \(16{\pi ^2}\), discovering the Aether and its equations was intuitively easy. The discoveries came so fast after that that I could not see an end to them, and still cannot.

The distributed spherical constant \(\left( {16{\pi ^2}} \right)\) appears in the quantum Aether unit of rotating magnetic field \(\left( \textit{rmfd} \right)\).

\begin{equation}4\pi \cdot 4\pi = 16{\pi ^2} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\textit{rmfd} = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \end{equation}

The full, 2-spin rotating magnetic field is not just a single magnetic field spinning in one direction. In the five-dimensional perspective, it is a bi-directional tubular loxodrome-shaped magnetic charge tracing first in a single time direction and then in the opposite direction down through its center. In the four-dimensional perspective, the rotating magnetic field would appear as a spinning tubular toroidal, or cardioid, shaped magnetic charge spinning in one time direction (forward time), as we could not see the backward time direction. Our inability to see the backward time direction does not negate its effect or presence.

There are three manifestations of the rotating magnetic field. There is the two-spin manifestation of the full Aether unit with the geometrical constant of \({16{\pi ^2}}\). There is the half-spin manifestation of a single subatomic particle. Then there is the one-spin manifestation of a rotating magnetic field, which applies when two subatomic particles bind together. One-spin rotating magnetic field has a geometrical surface constant equal to the toroidal subatomic particle \(\left( {4{\pi ^2}} \right)\) times \(2\), because there are two subatomic particles spinning oppositely in a binding:

\begin{equation}4{\pi ^2} \cdot 2 = 8{\pi ^2} \end{equation}

Therefore, the one-spin geometrical constant equals \(8{\pi ^2}\).

[1] "Dimension, in Physics," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[2] “Kilogram abbr. kg, fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris. Copies of this standard are deposited at bureaus of standards throughout the world, and other units of mass are defined in terms of it.” "Kilogram ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[3] “EBR-II is, by definition, a Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). It is cooled with molten sodium metal, its chain reaction is perpetuated with extremely energetic (fast) neutrons, and it was designed with the potential for breeding more fuel than it consumes.” Argonne National Laboratory – West EBR-II: Sixteen Years of Operation (Idaho Falls, ID, Argonne National Laboratory, May 1980) 1

[4] Added the meaning of time squared 9/18/5.

[5] Santilli, Rugerro http://www.magnegas.com/

[6] Dermer, C. D. and Skibo, J. G., Annihilation Fountain in the Galactic Center Region (The Astrophysical Journal, 487 :L57–L60, 1997 September 20)

[7] "Above all, Coulomb confirmed by very refined methods the fact already noticed by Gray, that electricity is only situated on the external surface of conductors; and he observed that this also is a consequence of the inverse square law, and can only be true if the latter holds exactly." Philipp Lenard, Great Men of Science: A History of Scientific Progress, trans. H. Stafford Hatfield (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1933) 157-8.

[8] "The history of science illustrates continuity nicely with Descartes's plenum, a space where aether particles are always in motion and there are no empty interstices. " Paul Ilie, The Age of Minerva, vol. 2 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995) 29