Secrets of the Aether

The history of the fluid Aether and time-dilation models offered by Lorentz and Einstein are skewed with a lack of understanding of what actually was taking place. Albert Einstein's Special Relativity theory, which provides the time-dilation interpretation of velocity-related effects, is mathematically based on the Lorentz transformations developed by Henri Poincare and Hendrik Lorentz. The Lorentz transformations were developed from the data of the Michelson, Morley, and Miller interferometer experiments. The data demonstrated that the Aether is not rigid, but is fluid in nature. A fluid Aether implies space is quantized.

The following are articles or portions of articles derived mainlyfrom the issues of Science published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Each section is according to the date of the publication. The footnotes provide references for locating the articles.

15 May 1925

Evidence against the validity of the relativity theory was unfolded before the meeting of the National Academy of Sciences by Professor Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, who, by a much refined and improved repetition of the so-called Michelson-Morley experiment, has shown that there is a definite and measurable motion of the earth through the ether.

Professor Miller has obtained on four occasions a small positive effect at Cleveland, namely, the equivalent of a velocity of about 2 kilometers per second at the altitude of the Case School of Applied Science, and about 3 kilometers per second on the level of the neighboring hills. Whereas at the altitude of the Mount Wilson Observatory in four consecutive experiments spread out over four years he obtained with increasing precision a positive result of 10 kilometers per second, his last result this April justifying him in asserting that the result is correct to within one half kilometer per second. ...

In the first glance then this definite result is entirely antagonistic to the Einstein relativity theory, which in fact could not be adapted to these results of Professor Miller by any conceivable modifications, unless the very fundamental principles of Einstein's theory were given up. This, however, is as much as to say that Professor Miller's results knock out the relativity theory radically. ...

Without entering into the mathematical details associated with this statement we may say only that Professor Miller's results as obtained in Cleveland and Mount Wilson are given immediately by the main property of such an ether, namely, to adhere almost completely to the surface of the earth, and therefore share almost entirely its translational motion over its surface and to have a gradually increasing velocity relative to it when we go higher and higher up.

In the third place, the result of the recent rotational terrestrial experiment at Clearing, Ill., near Chicago, which gave a full effect associated with the spinning motion of the earth, can be accounted for by making the natural assumption that our globe, being about perfectly spherical and having a purely gravitational grip upon the ether, does not appreciably drag it in its rotatory motion. Also the deflection of the light rays around the sun to the amount claimed by the Einsein formula can be easily accounted for by means of a compressible ether provided its dielectric constant is related to its density and pressure by a very simple formula published a few years ago in the Philosophical Magazine.[3]

The animosity and passion behind the proponents of Miller and Einstein figure prominently in this article. Aside from the animosities, the only difference between Einstein's theory and Miller's experiments are Einstein's postulates and his conclusion that time dilation is physically real, but that the Aether is not. Dayton Miller is defending the data that gave rise to the Poincare and Lorentz transformations, and Albert Einstein uses the Lorentz transformations as the foundation of his Special Relativity theory. 

If this argument is to be settled like scientists, then Miller would provide physical evidence for a physical Aether, and Einstein would provide physical evidence for a physical timeline such that physical matter could leave the present moment and appear independently of itself in a previous or future time frame. In order for Einstein's interpretation of the Lorentz transformations to be correct, the physical matter must simultaneously exist in all temporal frames. Throughout the entire Aether debate between Miller and Einstein, no physicist has ever required Albert Einstein to provide evidence for a physical timeline with the same hard work and careful detail that Dayton Miller gave to prove the existence of the Aether.

The irony is that nobody noticed that the variable Aether velocities at various altitudes were physical evidence in favor of Albert Einstein's General Relativity theory. This was in part the fault of Albert Einstein who insisted on presenting General Relativity theory as a time dilation theory and also a gravitational theory when the equations and coordinate system he used demonstrated Einstein's work to be an Aether density gradient theory. According to Einstein's calculations, the Aether is less dense near the surface of the Earth than it is at higher altitudes. 

Einstein's equations clearly reveal that the Aether density gradient results from only half the mass of a massive object. This implies that only the neutrons of the massive object contribute to the General Relativity effect, as exactly half the mass of normal matter composes of neutrons and the remainder of the mass is due to electrons and protons. Further, the neutrons must be formed from a bound electron and proton in such a way that the space of the electron and the space of the proton pinch to form just one unit of space. Not only is the equation's mass only half of the massive object, but only one physical object is involved in the General Relativity phenomena, yet gravity is a force between the full mass of two physical objects.

Miller's work demonstrates continuity with the Aether density gradient calculated by Einstein's General Relativity equations, which further validates the work of both of these physicists.

22 May 1925

New light on the question of the relation of matter to the ether of space comes from experiments by Professors A. A. Michelson and H. G. Gale, of the University of Chicago, reported to the National Academy of Sciences at its recent meeting.

The plan of it was based upon an ingenious idea suggested by Michelson in 1904 and recently urged by Dr. Ludwik Silberstein, of Rochester, as a test of the relativity theory. Suppose we had a big steel pipe running around the world on an east and west line and mirrors so arranged init that they would reflect a ray of light all the way around. Let us then send one ray east and the other west and match them up when they come back from their circuit of the earth to see if one took longer than the other. Now if the earth does not revolve, of course the ray going east will get back in just the same time as the ray going west. But if the earth is moving from west to east, the ray running east will take longer to return to the starting point than the ray running west because that point has moved eastward in the meantime.

They enclosed a certain area of th eearth's surface at Clearing, Ill., near Chicago, by a rectangle of air-tight water-pipe a foot in diameter. The pipes were laid level underground and the air was exhausted by means of a pump to about a fiftieth of an atmosphere so as to avoid interference with vision due to air currents. The light from a slit in front of an arc lamp at one corner was directed agains a glass plate coated with a think film of gold and set at an angle so that half the ray of light passed through it and so straight ahead along the pipe, while the other half was reflected at right angles and so sent around the rectangle in the opposite direction. At each of theother three corners a mirror was placed in the pipes so as to reflect the rays along the next side of the rectangle.

The two rays having traveled more than a mile by opposite routes were matched tto see whether their waves coincided or whether one had fallen behind the other owing to the earth's rotation. A shorter circuit was used to establish the zero point. The fringes, or alternate dark and bright lines, due to interference of waves were viewed through a seven foot telescope and measured with a micrometer.

Two hundred determinations were made on various days and by different observers, and the average gives a displacement of the interferometer fringes, due to the earth's rotation, of about one quarter of a fringe. The exact figure found in the experiments is 0.23 while the figures calculated in accordance with Einstein's theory is 0.24. This is remarkably close agreement, considering the difficulty of such an experiment, and proves that the ether is not appreciably dragged along with the Earth in its rotation. If the observations had shown no displacement of the fringes the experiment would have been contrary to the special relativity theory of Einstein, but the results obtained may also be interpreted in harmony with the older theory of a stagnant ether so are not decisive between them. 

Michelson's new experiments are incompatible with his experiments of 1881-87 from the standpoint of the old ether theory, but they may be reconciled by adopting the Einstein point of view.[8]

The above experiment was buried beneath the ground, which gives results consistent with the fluid Aether theory of Poincare and Lorentz, as no Aether is flowing across under the ground. Since the experiment is conducted within a body of matter, the Aether in that region appears stagnant since it is connected to matter all around it, and thus the result is consistent with Michelson's stagnant Aether concept. Since the Special Relativity theory is built upon the Lorentz transformations, Special Relativity will provide the same result as the fluid Aether theory. The fact that there was a fringe measurement is due to the Sagnac Effect and the different latitudes of the upper and lower sides of the square. The angular velocity at a higher latitude is lower than the angular velocity at a lower latitude. See this link for a detailed presentation of the Michelson-Gale experiment.

26 Jun 1925

Experiments performed by Dr. Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, at the Mount Wilson Observatory, California, do not disprove the theory of relativity, as many astronomers have claimed, says Dr. A. S. Eddington, professor of astronomy at the University of Cambridge, England, in a letter to Nature. ...

Professor Miller's exeriment was a repitition of one originally performed by Dro. Albert A. Michelson, now at the University of Chicago, and Professor Edward Morley, by which a beam of light was divided into two parts and reflected back and forth in directions at right angles to each other. They were then reunited and a series of light and dark bands resulted. From the position of these bands the physicist can tell which beam takes the longest time to return. When first performed in the basement of the Case School, Cleveland, in 1887, no effect was obtained, but when he repeated it last summer at Mt. Wilson, Professor Miller obtained a marked effect.

Professor Eddington disagrees with Dr. Silverstein's interpretation of the new experiment as indicating that the ether, by which light is supposed to be transmitted, is gliding over the earth with a speed which varies from about zero at sea level to about six miles per second at the altitude of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. "There is thus," sas the Cambridge astronomer, "a rapid rotational motion of this part of the ether."

In order to account for the astronomical facts, however, this motion must be the same at all levels. Just as a boat set to steer a straight course would be turned to one side if it entered a current of water moving at a different speed, a ray of light which is vertical a the level of Mt. Wilson would be inclined a small amount at sea level, and the direction in which it is inclined would vary according to the time of day or night. The amount of inclination would be about 7 seconds of arc, but astronomical observations capable of detecting a much smaller deflection have never revealed any such discordance of positions of stars as seen from sea level and mountain observations.

"The Michelson-Morley experiment," Professor Eddington concludes, "was originally performed because it was thought -- mistakenly, as we now realize -- that it would measure absolute ether drift.[4

There are several key points in this letter. First, it is correct that the Dayton Miller experiment does not disprove relativity theory. The Dayton Miller experiment provides evidence supporting the fluid Aether drift of Poincare and Lorentz, and since the Lorentz transformations are the mathematical foundation for Einstein's Special Relativity theory, the Miller experiment provides support for the mathematics of Special Relativity theory. Special Relativity theory has always shared the mathematics of the Aether experiments, but Special Relativity theory includes two postulates, which change the interpretation of the Aether drift to that of time dilation. 

The claim that no effect was obtained in the basement of the Case School in Cleveland is false. The Michelson and Morley experiment demonstrated the same magnitude of Aether drift as observed by Dayton Miller on Mt. Wilson. Again, the rigid Aether hypothesis was falsified, but the data supported a fluid Aether theory as quantified by Poincare and Lorentz, based upon the actual data of Michelson, Morley, and Miller.

Dr. Silverstein presented a hypothesis that the Aether flowed across the surface of the Earth, to which Dr. Eddington rebutted with a well-reasoned reply. However, Dr. Silverstein's hypothesis is not supported by all the now-available evidence. 

General Relativity theory demonstrates that there is an Aether density gradient caused by the interaction of physical matter with the surrounding space. This Aether density gradient is an Aether phenomenon separate from the fluid nature of the Aether through which physical bodies move. Aether as a general fluid gives way to physical objects moving through it, just as a baseball can move through a magnetic field. This is what Special Relativity calculates. However, physical objects composed of neutrons pinch the overall fabric of the Aether and stretch the Aether toward the physical object, which is what General Relativity calculates.

The straight path of light perpendicular to the Earth's surface experiences an Aether density gradient (space density gradient) as quantified by General Relativity theory. This gradient is not disturbed near the surface of the Earth as much at higher altitudes from the Earth's surface. At higher altitudes, there will be a higher resolution of determining the Earth's direction through the surrounding Aether. 

The Aether, being fluid, works similarly to the hydrodynamics of the ocean with regard to water molecules. Currents exist within the ocean, and some currents are so broad in volume that locally it is difficult to detect the current, but at larger scales, the current is more apparent. At larger scales, the Aether can have currents related to the Earth dragging through it, and currents due to the solar system moving as a unit through the galaxy, and currents at larger scales due to galaxies moving through the greater space.

This letter concludes with an unrelated, but accurate observation, that there is no absolute (rigid) Aether for the Earth to move through. Since Einstein accepted and built his Special Relativity theory from the Lorentz transformations, and the Lorentz transformations successfully quantified the fluid Aether drift, then Einstein was de facto in agreement with the concept of the fluid Aether.

It may help the reader to realize that for the Aether to be fluid, the Aether must be quantized. The quantum of the Aether is absolute, but the overall fabric of the Aether is fluid and capable of change, just like the ocean is composed of "quantum" water molecules.

31 Jul 1925

The Einstein theory of relativity must fail or at least require radical modifications, if the experiments performed at Mt. Wilson, in California, by Professor Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, are correct, in the opinion of Professor Albert Einstein himself, expressed in a communication from him to Science Service.

"If Dr. Miller's results should be confirmed," he says, "then the special relativity theory, and with the general theory in its present form, fails. Experiment is the supreme judge. Only the equivalence of inertia and weight remain, which would lead to an essentially different theory."

The Mt. Wilson experiments were intended to show the motion of the earth through the ether in space by which light and other radiations are supposed to be transmitted. When originally performed by Professor A. A. Michelson, now at the University of Chicago, and when repeated by Professor Miller at Cleveland, no appreciable result was obtained. When Professor Miller repeated it at Mt. Wilson, which is about a mile high, he obtained a marked effect, which seems to vary with the altitude.

According to Dr. Ludwik Silberstein, of the Eastman Kodak Company's Research Laboratory at Rochester, this indicated that the ether was dragged around by the earth at low altitudes, but drifted by at higher ones. According to Professor A. S. Eddington, of the University of Cambridge, England, such an effect would produce a difference in the position of stars as observed from sea level and mountain observatories, and no such difference in the position of stars as observed from sea level and mountain observatories, and no such difference has ever been observed. Dr. Silberstein answered this objection by the statement that the ether undergoes a peculiar kind of deformation, but Professor Einstein does not agree with him.

He says, "I can not share Dr. Silberstein's conception in case the experiments are correct. He means that with a theory of a deformible but fixed either the known phenomenon can be explained. This however is not so. A theory such as that is absolutely inconsistent with the positively proved astronomical aberrations. No theory exists outside of the theory of relativity and the similar Lorentz theory which, except for the Miller experiment, explains all the known phenomena up to date. Under those circumstance nothing remains but to await more complete publication of Miller's results. Then it is to be hoped that a correct decision will develop."[9]

Again we see the untruth being repeated that the original Michelson-Morley experiment produced no appreciable result, and yet the experimental results were accurate and represented the Aether density gradient Einstein had calculated for massive objects in his General Relativity theory. The rigid Aether theory of Michelson had been proved wrong, and in the process, Poincare and Lorentz discovered the experimentally derived results matched for a fluid Aether.

Albert Einstein himself is clearly setting up the dichotomy of either "my way or the highway." He has no remorse for using the Lorentz transformations, which were developed from the data of the fluid Aether theory, and yet he is determined to destroy the experiments for the fluid Aether theory that gave him the Lorentz transformations.

Albert Einstein speaks in this article with absolutes. He is still relatively young at the time of this article and is determined to win. We easily perceive his goal is not science, but to destroy the enemy or die a martyr. He does not want to be friends with the Aether proponents under any circumstance. He demands the experiments of Michelson, Morley, and Miller be closely scrutinized, but he never conducts an experiment of his own to prove the existence of a physical linear timeline to legitimize his time dilation interpretations.

As for the argument of light aberration being deflected by the Aether drift, this is based on the disproved concept of a rigid and particulate Aether. The Aether is not claimed by Miller to be composed of physical particles such as water molecules in the ocean. Modern Quantum Field Theory describes space in terms of quantum fields, such as magnetic fields. Moving the magnetic field of a magnet through a laser beam does not disturb the laser beam, just as the light from a star will not be disturbed by the seemingly endless Aether drifts it must travel through.

The article ends with Albert Einstein claiming that the Aether cannot have peculiar deformable properties even though that is exactly what his General Relativity theory quantifies; an Aether density gradient! And yes, it is true that General Relativity theory quantifies the Aether density gradient, but Miller wasn't making any such claim to equations in his work. Miller was simply presenting the physical experimental data that supported Albert Einstein's General Relativity theory. 

This is clearly a case of two excited individuals bent on making physics discoveries, and instead of learning the complete details the other scientist was presenting, they were defending their own egos from perceived attack instead.

13 Nov 1925

Measurements of the drift of the ether, supposed to pervade all space, which were carried on by Professor Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, during the last summer at Mt. Wilson Observatory, seem to prove that the ether exists and that the Einstein theory is not correct[1].

The possibility of experimental data not agreeing with the Einstein theory was tentatively reported by Professor Miller to the National Academy of Science last spring and an article by him on the subject has been printed in Science. The ether was found to drift more on the top of high Mt. Wilson while there was evidence that the ether clings to the earth closely in the cellar of Professor Miller's laboratory in Cleveland[1].

The writer of this article evidently did not understand the logic separating Albert Einstein's theory from the work of Dayton Miller. Dayton Miller was replicating the data of Albert Michelson and Edward Morley with great success. The measured Aether drift was less than originally predicted by Albert Michelson for a rigid Aether, but fully agreed with the fluid Aether as quantified by Henri Poincare and Hendrik Lorentz,

The successful Lorentz equations are the foundation of Albert Einstein's Special Relativity theory. Einstein's equations are based on the successful data of Miller et al. They both use the same math to arrive at the same solutions.

The only difference between Dayton Miller's data and Albert Einstein's Special Relativity theory is the two postulates added by Albert Einstein to change the interpretation of the data from that of an Aether drift to that of time dilation.

30 Apr 1926

The full text of Dayton C. Miller's numerous interferometer experiments is explained along with a detailed history of the Michelson-Morley experiments. The paper explains the great measures taken by Miller to eliminate errors due to temperature flux and other interferences. He took thousands of readings and averaged many consecutive readings to further eliminate procedural errors. 

The results of the Dayton Miller experiments fully support the Poincare and Lorentz fluid Aether transformation equation, which Albert Einstein adopted for his Special Relativity theory. The data and equations are fully consistent among all three parties. The key difference among the parties is that Albert Einstein introduced a postulate that claimed the Aether does not exist. It was just a postulate; a "what if" scenario. The consequence of Einstein's postulate is that if believed it changed the interpretation of the Aether drift data and equations into a time-dilation interpretation; the math remains unchanged in the fluid Aether drift model and the time-dilation model. 

The Aether as a fluid of quantum units of space is supported by the Michelson, Morley, and Miller experiments (which again gave rise to the Lorentz transformation). However, Albert Einstein and his followers have not provided physical evidence that physical matter exists simultaneously in all temporal reference frames in the past and future. In order for time-dilation to have physical meaning, it must be demonstrated that physical matter physically exits the present moment and physically enters a different temporal reference frame, as an independent entity, even if the entity exists as a duplicate of itself in the destination time frame.

5 Nov 1926

The failure of a tiny mirror, half an inch in diameter, to turn a certain amount when Dr. Carl T. Chase, of the Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics at Pasadena, was performing an experiment may prove to be strong evidence in support of Einstein's theory of relativity. It differs from results obtained by Dr. Dayton C. Miller, which have been interpreted by authorities on the subject as antagonistic to Einstein's ideas.

In Dr. Chase's experiment he repeated one performed by two English physicists about twenty years ago, which was repeated in Germany within the last two years. According to the older ideas, which relativity has changed, all space is filled with a hypothetical medium called the ether, which is stationary, while the planets, including the earth and other astronomical objects, move through it. If this were the case and a small condenser, similar to that used in radio sets, were on the earth, moving through the ether, and were hung freely so that it could turn, the motion through the ether would tend to twist it. In previous attempts no such rotation was found.[2]

Despite the explanation by Poincare and Lorentz that the Lorentz transformations were meant to quantify a fluid Aether, instead of a rigid Aether, physicists continued to repeat the mistake of claiming that the Aether was rigid. The rigid Aether was disproved by the Michelson and Morley experiment, which was later thoroughly confirmed by Dayton Miller, and the fluid Aether was fully quantified by Poincare and Lorentz. This point cannot be over-emphasized considering the difficulty physicist have in following the logic of these experiments.

17 Dec 1926

Dr. [Roy J.] Kennedy has repeated the [Michelson-Morley] experiment with an im-

proved form of apparatus, in which the beam of light, which is divided into two parts and then recombined, causing alternate light and dark "interference" bands, travels only about 13 feet, instead of more than 200 feet as in Miller's apparatus.

Dr. Kennedy's light path was so much shorter that there was much less chance of such error, and the entire apparatus was small enough to be completely enclosed in

a sealed metal case containing helium gas, which was at atmospheric pressure.[7]

Dr. Kennedy's experiment was fully enclosed in a metal container. For the same reason that the Aether is anchored to all massive bodies in General Relativity theory, the Aether inside a closed tube is also anchored to that tube. The space inside a closed surface is cut off from the fluid Aether outside of it, just as a sealed jar of water is cut off from a larger body it may be submerged in. This experiment has no value to the Aether drift versus time dilation argument.

MIDNIGHT balloon ascensions a mile and a half high made recently in Belgium may prove to be strong evidence in favor of Einstein's theory of relativity and contrary to the results obtained by Dr. Dayton C. Miller, of the Case School of Applied Science at Cleveland, working at the Mt. Wilson Observatory in California, which were supposed by some authorities to be fatal to the theory. These balloon experiments, just published in Berlin, were made by Professor A. Piccard and Dr. E. Stahel, of the University of Brussels.[7]

Also appearing on the same page as the 17 Dec 1926 article previously mentioned, is an article describing an interferometer experiment launched in a balloon. It is interesting that for all the criticisms of temperature and pressure differences across the interferometer platforms of Michelson, Morley, and Miller, this article could be published as evidence against the fluid Aether theory and in favor of Einstein's time dilation theory.

And again, the Aether drift experiments are the experimental basis for the Lorentz transformation, which is the foundation of Einstein's Special Relativity theory. Disproving the fluid Aether theory does not in any way support Special Relativity theory.

1 Nov 1929

SCIENCE still must answer the great and fundamental question: "Is there an ether?" And despite the many feats of the Einstein theories of relativity in explaining and predicting observed facts of physics, such as the way the planet Mercury moves in its orbit, they are seriously menaced by having one of their foundations  pulled out from under them.

For Professor Dayton C. Miller has reported to the Optical Society of America meeting at Ithaca that he has during the past year laboriously repeated the ether drift experiments that he has been making during the last nine years in a Cleveland laboratory and on high Mount Wilson in California.

Again he finds an observed effect in the light path of his apparatus such as would be produced by a relative motion of the earth and the ether of about ten kilometers (six miles) per second. This is the same result that Dr. Miller has obtained during the past few years. In 1925 his paper on this work won the annual prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. This continued ability to obtain the same results over a period of years, whether the apparatus is at normal level in Cleveland or on a California mountain, makes Dr. Miller's results all the more important.

Nor does Dr. Miller feel that his experiments repudiate the famous Michelson-Morley experiments on ether drift performed in 1887. Prevalent opinion holds that this historic test showed that there is no ether drift, that there is no something filling all space, and it was upon this interpretation that Professor Albert Einstein based his special theory of relativity when he enunciated it in 1905. But Dr. Miller, studying the results of his latest experiments performed this year on the campus of the Case School of Applied Science, only about 300 feet from the location of the original Michelson-Morley interferometer of 1887, finds that his results showing the solar system moving through space "fully agree with and confirm the original Michelson-Morley observations, although the present interpretation is different."

In the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment there was discovered a slight difference in the time that it took light to travel over two paths, one at right angles to the

other. But this was attributed to experimental errors, to those slight deviations that enter into all observations. Dr. Miller, by performing hundreds of experiments and by improving the details of the ether-drift interferometer, has by his results demonstrated that the observational differences of the original experiments and his many later tests are real and not due to error in the apparatus. Such refinements as shock-absorbing pads on the supporting piers and extreme precautions to eliminate temperature differences were taken in this year's experiments. The interferometer uses the interference of light waves to measure far more accurately than any mechanical means. Dr. Miller's instrument gives numerical results reliable to the hundredth part of a wave-length of light, although the length of the light path is 130,000,000 wave-lengths. He can detect a relative motion of earth and ether a twentieth that which he actually observed.

The discovered motion of six miles a second is not a mere earthly phenomenon, but a cosmic one. It is fixed with relation to sidereal time, that is, it is toward a fixed

place in space. The earth and its millions and the whole solar system is rushing, Dr. Miller declares, "toward the point having a right ascension of 17 hours."

How are the scientists to reconcile with their theories this well-tested motion that the ether-drift experiments demonstrate? Dr. Miller says: "It seems impossible at the present time to account for a cosmic effect of this small magnitude and it will be necessary to continue these experiments and to coordinate them with others before an acceptable theory can be propounded."[10]

Even this article, favorable to Dayton Miller, makes the mistake of pitting the data that gave us the Lorentz transformations against Einstein's General Relativity theory. General Relativity theory is a true Aether theory as far as concerns its calculations and in spite of Albert Einstein's attempt to frame General Relativity as time dilation and gravitational theories. 

The only valid point of contention between the fluid Aether theory and the relativity theories is the one postulate by Albert Einstein, which arbitrarily claims the Aether does not exist. Albert Einstein insists there is a physical timeline without offering physical evidence to support the claim and nobody appears interested in challenging that claim. 

Einstein's Special Relativity theory is founded on the same mathematics used to quantify the experimentally observed Aether drift. The numerical calculations will therefore be the same in both theories. The contention is with the interpretation of what the calculations mean. The General Relativity calculations are true genius on Albert Einstein's part. He should have received the Nobel prize in physics for the circular deflection angle equation for straight-path trajectories near massive objects, and for the orbital pedigree precession angle equation for straight-path trajectories as orbits around massive objects. If it were not for Einstein's insistence in interpreting his five-dimensional, Riemann results as time-dilation, he probably would have and his equations would be considered physics laws today.

As for Dayton Miller, he successfully measured the direction of the Earth's trajectory through space, which demonstrates that space has a physical structure. This too was worth a Nobel prize in physics. Dayton Miller and Albert Einstein's careers were meant to be harmonious with each other, but the argument that broke out was based on a general misinterpretation of each other's work and making them appear as adversaries.

27 Jun 1930

"Space will finally survive as the sole carrier of reality," according to a prediction made by Professor Albert Einstein in an address made before the Second World Power Conference which is being attended by engineers and scientists from many countries.

Professor Einstein was introduced to the audience of two thousand which assembled to hear the address, which was the first general feature of the conference program, by Dr. Oskar von Miller, president, as "the Newton of the present day."

He traced the evolution of man's ideas of the constitution of the universe from the days of the old Euclidean geometry which gave a motion of space based on the relations of bodies in connection with each other.

Descartes was the first to introduce space as the general container of the universe. The picture of space as seen by Newton did suffice to describe physical relations until Maxwell introduced his field theory of electromagnetic waves upon which the whole of modern electrical development has been based.

The fact that electromagnetism acts at a distance made the conception and notion of an ether necessary. But, Professor Einstein explained:

"By means of the relativity theory space loses its generality and its structure must be regarded as changeable. There is analogously to Reimann's geometry a mathematical space structure possible wherein metric continuity and direction are united in a four-dimensional reality."

Space was originally derived from physical bodies. This space has annihilated the ether and time. Professor Einstein is now engaged in the formulation of newly developed generalizations which promise to annihilate fields of force, corpuscles and material particles in such a way that the fundamental stuff of the universe will prove to be, not matter as previously supposed, but space itself.[5]

Considering that space in Poincare and Lorentz's fluid Aether hypothesis is a fluid of quantum Aether units, these comments by Einstein help us to see the weaknesses of Einstein's ideas. Einstein's mathematical concept of space results from the space density gradient results using five-dimensional Reimann mathematics. This physics of space can only exist if there is a physical basis for the calculations, which goes without saying in the science of "physics."

Einstein sees space as the sole source of reality, even preexisting fields of force, corpuscles (quanta such as photons and electrons), and material particles. This is the exact philosophy of an Aether theory. Einstein's plan is to replace the physical Aether with a mathematical Aether, as though he has the ability to achieve it. Then Einstein will be in a position to claim the title of discoverer of the mathematical, non-physical space, which we will no longer call "Aether." 

Contemplate for a moment the meaning of these words, "Space was originally derived from physical bodies. This space has annihilated the ether and time." These words represent Albert Einstein's perceptions and not physical science. Space (Aether) has always existed regardless of how humans first contemplated it. What does it mean that "space has annihilated the ether and time?" 

Einstein displays a contempt for the Aether, and yet he claims that space itself will prove to be the fundamental stuff of the Universe. "Stuff" is not a mathematical generalization, it must be physical stuff for it to be the foundation of physical existence.

24 Mar 1939

Professor Albert Einstein has entered the fifth dimension in his mathematical calculations seeking to link gravitation and electricity into one unified field theory, which would explain all physical happenings in one broad concept. Thus the man who puzzled millions of people when he introduced the fourth dimension in his famous theory of relativity has gone one step further. ...

In the latest volume of the Annals of Mathematics is a complex paper by Professor Einstein and Peter G. Bergmann, assistant at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, N. J., entitled "On a Generalization of Kaluza's Theory of Electricity."

Professor Theodor Kaluza, of the University of Göttingen, reports Professor Einstein's important paper, introduced the fifth dimension into conceptions relating gravitation and electricity but used this fifth dimension only as a mathematical idea without physical meaning. Professor Einstein's new approach ascribes a physical reality to this fifth dimension. But with this step the distinguished mathematician finds himself in a kind of space which is truly puzzling.

"There have been many attempts," report the Einstein paper, "to retain the essential formal results obtained by Kaluza without sacrificing the four dimensional character of the physical space. This show distinctly how vividly our physical intuition resists the introduction of the fifth dimension. But by considering and comparing all these attempts one must come to the conclusion that all these endeavors did not improve the situation. It seems impossible to formulate Kaluza's idea in a simple way without introducing the fifth dimension."

"We have, therefore to take the fifth dimension seriously although we are not encouraged to do so by plain experience," explains Professor Einstein. Thus reluctantly, he states that he is entering into still more complex mathematical theories than his previous one. 

... Ordinary space, as most people envision it, consists of the three dimensions of Euclidean space which we call height, breadth, and thickness, in speaking about an object like a box. To these Professor Einstein linked time as a fourth dimension in his relativity theories. 

The fifth dimension introduced now accounts for properties of the electro-magnetic field which previously have not appeared in relativity. Instead they were accounted for by other theories which had little apparent linkage with gravitation.[6]

As the years increased for Albert Einstein, and he attempted to complete his contribution to physics, it became apparent to him that a theory of everything could not be quantified in terms of his mathematical space-time concept. His space-time concept was essential to his time-dilation model.

His reluctance to part with space-time has its history with his mentor, Hermann Minkowski. Minkowsi was the leading proponent of the space-time concept. The whole intent of erasing the Aether from physics and replacing it with a physical timeline is rooted in Einstein's love and respect for his mentor. No amount of love for a mentor, however, is going to change the laws of physics as they exist in the Universe.

The need for the fifth dimension undoubtedly arose from Einstein's inability to transpose the Riemann-calculated General Relativity equations into four-dimensional Minkowski coordinates. Einstein managed for a while by bamboozling physicists into believing he could choose whatever coordinate system he liked, but he wasn't able to bamboozle the laws of physics, which are far more resolute. So later in life, in his desperation to understand the fifth dimension, he attempted to add the dimension of charge to his "space-time."

This did not go well either. Logically, if we are going to add charge to our dimensions, we also would have to add mass but then we would be working in six dimensions. The new fifth dimension must come from the set of spatial-temporal dimensions. It is simple to arrive at the correct fifth dimension merely by examining the dimensional structure of the key force constants such as the Newton gravitational force constant and the Coulomb electrostatic force constant.

\begin{equation}G=\frac{m^{3}}{kg\cdot sec^{2}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}k_{C}=\frac{kg\cdot m^{3}}{sec^{2}\cdot coul^{2}}\end{equation}

It is obvious that space quantifies in five dimensions as volume-resonance. The word "volume" is appropriate because space is a physical structure (Aether) (or a mathematical structure as Einstein would like to believe). The dimensions are not the same thing as space, although dimensions comprise space. Furthermore, time is not a product with volume, but rather appears in the denominator. When time is in the denominator, it is frequency. Frequency squared is resonance. 

The five-dimensional structure of space is volume-resonance, meaning that space has a dynamic structure due to resonance, as opposed to a static structure implied by an imaginary physical timeline. It is due to the dynamic structure of space that physical matter is enabled to experience change in the present moment. For more details on the structure of space see this page.

The bottom line regarding this article is that despite years of intense efforts, Albert Einstein was not satisfied that his four-dimensional model could be used to explain all of physics and to unite gravity with electromagnetism.

 

 

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