same substances, if dielectrics, may possess the analogous electrical property, and if magnetic, may have corresponding properties relating to the acquisition, retention, and loss of magnetic polarity.
(15) It appears therefore that certain phenomena in electricity and magnetism lead to the same conclusion as those of optics, namely, that there is an aethereal medium pervading all bodies, and modified only in degree by their presence; that the parts of this medium are capable of being set in motion by electric currents and magnets; that this motion is communicated from one part of the medium to another by forces arising from the connexions of those parts; that under the action of these forces there is a certain yielding depending on the elasticity of these connexions; and that therefore energy in two different forms may exist in the medium, the one form being the actual energy of motion of its parts, and the other being the potential energy stored up in the connexions, in virtue of their elasticity.
Maxwell has made it plain and clear that his equations depend upon an Aether, composed of quantum Aether units, which are joined to one another to produce an Aether fabric. He again emphasized that energy is stored half in the object and half in the medium. The objects can be onta (subatomic particles), atoms, or molecules, or any macro structures.
(16) Thus, then, we are led to the conception of a complicated mechanism capable of a vast variety of motion, but at the same time so connected that the motion of one part depends, according to definite relations, on the motion of other parts, these motions being communicated by forces arising from the relative displacement of connected parts, in virtue of their elasticity. Such a mechanism must be subject to the general laws of Dynamics, and we ought to be able to work out all the consequences of its motion, provided we know the form of the relation between the motions of the parts.
(17) We know that when an electric current is established in a conducting circuit, the neighboring part of the field is characterized by certain magnetic properties, and that if two circuits are in the field, the magnetic properties of the field due to the two currents are combined. Thus each part of the field is in connexion with both currents, and the two currents are put in connexion with each other in virtue of their connexion with magnetization of the field. The first result of this connexion that I propose to examine, is the induction of one current by another, and by the motion of conductors in the field.
The second result, which is deduced from this, is the mechanical action between conductors carrying currents. The phenomenon of the induction of currents has been deduced from their mechanical action by Helmholtz11and Thomson12. I have followed the reverse order, and deduced the mechanical action from the laws of induction. I have then described experimental methods of determining the quantities L, M, N, on which these phenomena depend.
When Maxwell deduced the mechanical action from the laws of induction, he extended an error prevalent in physics at that time, which continues through today. The error arose by incorrectly converting units from the cgs system of units to the MKS system of units.
Five units retained their expression in terms of distributed charge (conductance, inductance, capacitance, permeability, and permittivity). However, all other electrical related units were incorrectly notated with single dimension charge. For example, current in the cgs system of units was expressed as charge per time:
When converted to MKS, this should have been notated as:
However, current ended up being notated as:
However, when coul/sec is converted to cgs units it becomes:
This simple observation should have made people aware that charge should be notated as a distributed unit, but it didn't. Physics has been a mess ever since.
Current is just one of dozens of incorrectly converted units. In Maxwell's work, he worked backward from inductance and discovered a unit, which he interpreted as current squared:
Since Maxwell incorrectly interpreted the charge dimensions, he thought he was looking at current squared. But this unit is a unit of electric stroke. It is equal to charge times resonance (frequency squared). In other words, Maxwell's "current squared" is actually "electric stroke," or "resonating charge."
(18) I then apply the phenomena of induction and attraction of currents to the exploration of the electromagnetic field, and the laying down systems of lines of magnetic force which indicate its magnetic properties. By exploring the same field with a magnet, I show the distribution of its equipotential magnetic surfaces, cutting the lines of force at right angles.