Article Index

as those of Weber, which expresses the number of electrostatic units of electricity which are contained in one electromagnetic unit.

This velocity is so nearly that of light, that it seems we have a strong reason to conclude that light itself (including radiant heat, and other radiations if any) is an electromagnetic disturbance in the form of waves propagated through the electromagnetic field according to electromagnetic laws.

Maxwell, along with others who had not yet understood the quantum photon, considered light to have a velocity. It is not entirely correct. Photons have velocity, however, light is a structure of moving photons. It is similar to a river of water. Rivers do not move at a velocity; their water molecules do. This incorrect expression has survived to the present day and should be updated to reflect modern understanding. What we consider to be the speed of light is really the speed of photons.

c equals 2.998 space cross times 10 to the power of 8 fraction numerator m over denominator s e c end fraction

If so, the agreement between the elasticity of the medium as calculated from the rapid alternations of luminous vibrations, and as found by the slow processes of electrical experiments, shows how perfect and regular the elastic properties of the medium must be when not encumbered with any matter denser than air.

In Maxwell's day, the photon was not yet hypothesized. In the APM, the electron is quantified as Planck's constant. That is, Planck's constant is considered by modern science to be no more than a convenience constant, when in reality it is the quantification of the electron. The electron is primary angular momentum, which is encapsulated in an Aether unit.

The photon is equal to the electron (h) being ejected from an atom at the speed of photons. Using Quantum Measurements Units (QMU,) the photon quantifies as:

h times c equals p h t n

p h t n equals 1.986 cross times 10 to the power of minus 25 end exponent fraction numerator k g times m cubed over denominator s e c squared end fraction

The quantity referred to as light is equal to a stream of quantum photons. So if photons are generated from an atom at the fastest rate possible (quantum frequency Fq), we get the QMU for light:

p h t n times F subscript q equals l i g t

F subscript q equals 1.236 cross times 10 to the power of 20 H z

l i g t equals 2.454 cross times 10 to the power of minus 5 end exponent fraction numerator k g times m cubed over denominator s e c cubed end fraction

When atoms absorb photons, according to the APM they absorb parts of photon angular momentum until they fill an Aether unit spin position (valence electron position) and regenerate an electron (or positron). The process of absorption is quantified as light losing its photon velocity:

fraction numerator l i g t over denominator c end fraction equals e n r g

The above equation should be the proper way to quantify the photoelectric effect. Later, Maxwell's equations will be evaluated in terms of the APM and will utilize this quantification of the electron (h), photon (phtn) light (ligt), and energy (enrg).

If the same character of the elasticity is retained in dense transparent bodies, it appears that the square of the index of refraction is equal to the product of the specific dielectric capacity and the specific magnetic capacity. Conducting media are shown to absorb such radiations rapidly, and therefore to be generally opaque.

The conception of the propagation of transverse magnetic disturbances to the exclusion of normal ones is distinctly set forth by Professor Faraday13in his "Thoughts on Ray Vibrations."

It appears Maxwell is specifically stating that there are two distinct modes of propagation. There is transverse propagation, and then there is "normal" propagation. The normal propagation would be longitudinal, or scalar, propagation. Whereas longitudinal propagation occurs in two dimensions of length, longitudinal propagation occurs in only one dimension of length.

Later, the big debate between Tesla and Hertz (as Tesla saw it) was between transverse signal propagation (Hertz waves), and longitudinal signal propagation (Tesla waves). Because of later alterations of Maxwell's equations by Heaviside, the longitudinal propagation technique was lost only because the new math did not support it.

The electromagnetic theory of light, as proposed by him, is the same in substance as that which I have begun to develope in this paper, except that in 1846 there were no data to calculate the velocity of propagation.

Maxwell has clarified that he induced the speed of photons directly from empirical data and then included this velocity into his work.

(21) The general equations are then applied to the calculation of the coefficients of mutual induction of two circular currents and the coefficient of self-induction in a coil. The want of uniformity of the current in the different parts of the section of a wire at the commencement of the current is investigated, I believe for the first time, and the consequent correction of the coefficient of self-induction is found.

These results are applied to the calculation of the self-induction of the coil used in the experiments of the committee of the British Association on Standards of Electric Resistance, and the value compared with that deduced from the experiments.

1. Electrodynamische Maassbestimmungen. Leipzic Trans. vol.i.1849,and Taylor's Scientific Memoirs, vol.v. ?rt.xiv.

2. "Explicare tentatur quomodo fiat ut lucis planum polarizationis per vires elecricas vel magneticas decli??tor," - Halis Sanomum, 1858

3. "On the Possible Density of the Luminiferous Medium, and on the Mechanical Value of a Cubic Mile of Sunlight," Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1854), p. 57.

4. Experimental Researches, Series 19.

5. Comptes Rendus (1856, second half year, p.529, and 1857, first half year, p.1209).

6. Proceedings of the Royal Society, June 1856 and June 1861.

7. Faraday, Exp. Res. series XI.; Mossotti, Mem. della Soc. Italiana (Modena), vol. xxiv. part 2. p. 49.

8. Faraday, Exp. Res 1233-1250

9. Reports of British Association, 1859, p.248; and Report of Committee of Board of Trade on Submarine Cables, pp. 136 & 464.

10. As, for instance, the composition of glue, treacle, &c., of which small plastic figures are made, which after being distorted gradually recover their shape.

11. "Conservation of Force," Physical Society of Berlin, 1847; and Taylor's Scientific Memoirs, 1853, p. 114.

12. Reports of the British Association, 1848; Philosophical Magazine, Dec. 1851

13. Philosophical Magazine, May 1846, or Experimental Researches, iii. p. 447.