# Forward to Maxwell's Equations

Maxwell's equations form the backbone of modern electrodynamics theories. The 20 equations originally presented by Clerk Maxwell were altered and reduced to four equations by Oliver Heaviside. This may sound conspiratorial to some alternative science buffs, but there is a good reason for the rewrite. Maxwell's math and reasoning were seriously flawed in several instances.

However, Oliver Heaviside didn't catch the most crucial flaw, which is the dimension of charge is incorrectly notated in all systems of units except the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) system. The cgs system of units was not developed with knowledge of the dimension of charge, but it was implied because charge as a dimension is a fact of nature, not an invention of science.

When the Meter-Kilogram-Second (MKS) system of units was developed, the dimension of charge was added. As such, the notation of the MKS system should really be the Meter-Coulomb-Kilogram-Second (MCKS) system of units. But more importantly, when the coulomb was added it should have been notated as distributed dimensions relative to the mass dimension.

For example, instead of writing coul to notate charge, it should have been coul2. The evidence for this was right in front of everyone all along. When the unit of charge in the MKS system (coul) is converted to the cgs system, it results in the square root of gm·cm/sec2. Since when do we measure the square root of a gram? Instead of going backward and forcing the cgs units to be expressed in terms of square roots, they should have squared the MKS unit of charge to be coul2.

The reason why charge is squared is because charge is a distributed quantity. It always exists over a surface and not in a volume, line, or point.

The reader is advised to be cautious before confusing the distributed nature of charge with the volumetric nature of electron density. If a volume is filled with electrons, then there is a three dimensional distribution of electrons, which happens to posses the property of charge. But the property of charge applies directly to the individual surfaces of the electrons. The charge distribution of charged electrons is a different situation from volumetric electrons, as they are different scales of existence. The difference between the property of charge and volumetric electrons is similar to the difference between the atom and the molecule. The molecule composes from atoms. Atoms and molecules are not two different things, they are two different scales of the same existence.

What this means is that Maxwell did not have the right unit structures for properly developing the laws of electrodynamics. By chance, many of the laws are correct, because the errors cancel out, such as with Ohm's law. But not all Maxwell's equations were as lucky.

Also, when carefully reviewing Maxwell's paper, it is apparent he fudged his way through. His logic, and even some founding equations, were flat wrong.

Why hasn't this been noticed before, you might ask? Have you ever read Maxwell's paper? It is not something students read in high school, and almost no electrical engineering students read it in college, either. In fact, Maxwell's paper is not even in most college libraries. Apparently, Maxwell's errors were noted a long time ago, and because scientists did not have the proper understanding of charge, they were not able to correct the errors, themselves. So they buried the paper, rewrote the equations, and tried to make Maxwell look like a folk hero (which he really was).

So that is the purpose of this web site, examining Maxwell's actual foundation paper and fixing the errors in terms of distributed charge and the two types of charges, as revealed in the Aether Physics Model. More information about Maxwell the man will be added later.

- Category: Maxwell's Equations