Special Relativity theory was developed by Albert Einstein. At the root of Special Relativity theory is the belief that neither space nor time are absolute, but that the speed of photons is absolute for all reference frames.
These beliefs in the non-absolute nature of space and time are at odds with the precise physical measurements of Quantum Mechanics. In Quantum Mechanics, values and dimensions for the subatomic particles, and their behaviors, are measured to very high degrees of accuracy. These precise measurements apply to the dimensions of mass, charge, length, and time. Since subatomic particles physically occupy space, and have precisely measured temporal attributes, the space and time observations of physical matter tend to be absolute.
Therein lies the conflict between Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity theory; Quantum Mechanics implies that space and time are absolute, and Special Relativity theory postulates that space and time are relative. So which way is it?
Special Relativity theory bases on the work of Hendrik Lorentz. Hendrik Lorentz's transforms are based on the mathematics of Waldermar Voigt and the physical measurements of the Albert Michelson and Edward Morley Aether drift experiments. The Michelson Morley experiments were later replicated by Dayton Miller, who also worked with Edward Morley.
The Aether drift expeiment was hypothesized by Michelson to show the effects on photons traveling through the Aether while the Earth was also traveling through the Aether. If the Aether were a rigid lattice then light would show a preferred drift when the Earth moved through this Aether. The results of the experiments actually showed a much smaller drift than what was expected, but there was a drift. Lorentz then analyzed the actual Aether drift data and determined that the data fit in the case where the Aether was fluid, and was able to drag along with the Earth, as the Earth plowed through the Aether. The calculation of this fluid Aether drift is what became known as the Lorentz transformations.
Albert Einstein then came along, claimed the original theory of Michelson a failure, and ignored the new interpretation of the Aether by Lorentz. Einstein claimed that he could take the Lorentz equations and reinterpret these equations in terms of time dilation, rather than an Aether drift. To do this, Einstein had to postulate that the Aether did not exist, and he also had to postulate that time was not absolute:
"According to this theory [Special Relativity] there is no such thing as a 'specially favoured' (unique) co-ordinate system to occasion the introduction of the æther-idea, and hence there can be no æther-drift, nor any experiment with which to demonstrate it.” Source: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Author: Albert Einstein, 1879–1955 First published: 1920 page 63
“Now before the advent of the theory of relativity it had always tacitly been assumed in physics that the statement of time had an absolute significance, i.e. that it is independent of the state of motion of the body of reference. But we have just seen that this assumption is incompatible with the most natural definition of simultaneity; if we discard this assumption, then the conflict between the law of the propagation of light in vacuo and the principle of relativity (developed in Section VII) disappears.” Source: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Author: Albert Einstein, 1879–1955 First published: 1920 page 32
Using what Einstein considered to be logic, he further had to postulate that the speed of photons is the same for all reference frames.
Experience has led to the conviction that, on the one hand, the principle of relativity holds true, and that on the other hand the velocity of transmission of light in vacuo has to be considered equal to a constant c. By uniting these two postulates we obtained the law of transformation for the rectangular co-ordinates x, y, z and the time t of the events which constitute the processes of nature. In this connection we did not obtain the Galilei transformation, but, differing from classical mechanics, the Lorentz transformation. Source: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Author: Albert Einstein, 1879–1955 First published: 1920 page 50
Albert Einstein wrote his narrative in such a way as to make it look like it was he who was deriving the Lorentz transformation from his Special Relativity theory, when in fact, Einstein was deriving his Special Relativity theory from Lorentz's quntification of the fluid Aether drift.
The results of the last three sections show that the apparent incompatibility of the law of propagation of light with the principle of relativity (Section VII) has been derived by means of a consideration which borrowed two unjustifiable hypotheses from classical mechanics; these are as follows:
(1) The time-interval (time) between two events is independent of the condition of motion of the body of reference.
(2) The space-interval (distance) between two points of a rigid body is independent of the condition of motion of the body of reference.
If we drop these hypotheses, then the dilemma of Section VII disappears, because the theorem of the addition of velocities derived in Section VI
becomes invalid. The possibility presents itself that the law of the propagation of light in vacuo may be compatible with the principle of relativity,
and the question arises: How have we to modify the considerations of Section VI in order to remove the apparent disagreement between these two
fundamental results of experience? Source: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Author: Albert Einstein, 1879–1955 First published: 1920 pages 36-37
When we step back and see where Special Relativity theory is leading, we see that Albert Einstein is essentially trading Aether drift for time dilation. The problem with time dilation is that we are discussing physics where physical matter is observed and measured. If physical matter is dilating into a different time frame, as presented in the Minkowski coordinate system, then there has to be physical matter in each time frame in addition to the physical matter in the present time frame, otherwise, there would be no physical Universe for the physical matter to time dilate into.
If physical matter existed in each time frame, then Einstein (or someone) needs to explain how physical matter is replicated for each grain of time. Further, it would have to be realized that in each time frame all the clocks are static and read the exact same Universal time code; nothing moves in a single frame of time. This further means that time somehow is causing the consciousness of all living things to move in unison through all the time frames, and each time frame is a single use, static, physical Universe. Who in physics has quantified how time causes consciousness to move among time frames?
Now let us say that someone managed to apply Albert Einstein's Special Relativity theory to create a time machine, and traveled to the past. The traveler from the present would completely disappear, and there would be extra physical matter in some other time frame. Are there exceptions built into the conservation laws of physics for accomadating this sudden change of conditions? And what about the Second Law of Thermodynamics which requires all physical matter to experience entropy by advancing through time? how does time travel agree with entropy?
In a Minkowski world, each time frame has its own physical Universe in each frame (grain) of time. Each time frame is static, which means that all space for that particluar time frame is absolute. The "relativity" part becomes apparent because there are different observers, which means that each observer has his/her own physical Universe that applies special to them. Now that would truly be special if it were true.
The audacity of Albert Einstein questioning the reality of absolute space and absolute time is staggering. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformations were already successfully developed and applied to the absolute space and absolute time of the Aether. The Aether drift had actually been measured, although it was not the measurement that was predicted to exist prior to the experiments. Albert Einstein gives us no proof for a physical timeline such that physical matter could dilate into time. Einstein took his equations from already developed physics, and by changing fundamental rules, developed his theory based on thought experiments.
With regard to Special Relativity theory, the denial of the existence of the Aether was essential for Einstein to maintain his appearance of authority. To this end, he went out of his way to pressure other physicists to bury any evidence that might demonstrate the physical reality of the Aether. "It is also noted in an article by Robert S. Shankland, Science, New Series, Vol. 176, No. 4035 (May 12, 1972), 652-653 that at the strong encouragement of Albert Einstein, the Miller data was re-examined posthumously and judged to be questionable due to the claim that Miller’s results correlated with the temperature gradient across the interferometer table. For all of Miller’s extensive experience, it seems highly suspect that Miller did not notice what should have been an obvious flaw in the results, were it true."