## Quantum Mechanics of the Quantum Space

Quantum Mechanics should be defined as the study of the limits of quantum space (Aether). Everything about the limits of the physical Universe and its boundaries is quantifiable in terms of the quantum Aether unit.

## The Singularity

When seen as pieces of a large puzzle, it turns out that all the physical constants originate from a Singularity, represented by the dimensionless number 1. This is not the same singularity as described by the Big Bang theory, but more like the Singularity described by ancient religions. Singularity is a concept beyond conception. It represents a state where there are no dualities, no space, no time, and no matter. And yet, the Singularity is complete and whole. The understanding of the Singularity is taught in the Heart Sutra of Buddhism as Gate, Gate, Paragate, Para Sam gate Bodhi svaha; meaning “beyond the beyond the beyond and beyond that.” It is beyond dualistic conception.

From this Singularity came duality in the form of two splits. There is the duality of Gforce and resonating dark matter and the duality of magnetic and electrostatic charge. These two forms of duality originating from the Singularity represent mathematically:

\begin{equation}\label{dualgforce} 1=\frac{m_{a}\cdot\lambda_{C}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{Gforce} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{dualcharge}1=\frac{e^{2}}{8\pi a \cdot {e_{a}}^{2}}\end{equation}

We can construct the physical Universe from these two splits in the Singularity. Within these dualistic separations of the Singularity, we have the mass, charge, length, frequency, and geometry that create the fabric of space, the physical matter within that space, and the mechanics for how the matter and space grow into complexity and interact with itself.

In equation (\ref{dualgforce}), we have vibrating strings of mass as a natural result of the Gforce coming into existence. The vibrating strings of mass are like sperm cells waiting to impregnate the Aether to form subatomic particles as the basis of physical matter. The Gforce is a reciprocating force behaving as a great Will with unlimited potential to create.

Whereas the physical force we are accustomed to arises as a push or a pull from the outside of an object to be pushed or pulled, the Gforce is a force that originates from within like a beating heart within a body, except that it is the beating heart that creates the Aether.

The two types of charges manifest from equation (\ref{dualcharge}). The electrostatic charge is reciprocal to the magnetic charge. Neither form of charge can exist without the other, as they complement each other and give rise to each other's existence through the principle of duality. The electrostatic charge has one spin, spherical geometry. The magnetic charge has half-spin steradian geometry. The splitting of the Singularity to produce the two types of charges creates a fine structure: the balance between electrostatic charge and magnetic charge.

## The Quantum Mechanics Limits of Existence

Within the vibrating strings of mass, the Gforce, and the two types of charges, we see the limits of the physical Universe. The mass associated with the Aether \(m_{a}\) is the maximum mass within an Aether unit or any group of Aether units. The mass of the Aether is due to the mass of the Gforce. The magnetic charge associated with the Aether \({e_{a}}^{2}\) is the maximum magnetic charge that can exist within an Aether unit or any group of Aether units.

The mass-to-magnetic charge ratio of the Aether mass to the Aether magnetic charge establishes a constant mass-to-charge ratio that must always be maintained by all physical structures created and maintained by the Gforce.

\begin{equation}mchg=\frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}\end{equation}

The quantum length associated with the vibrating strings of mass and the Gforce equals the Compton wavelength \(\lambda_{C}\). All physical reality is based on the quantum length. As the length becomes more complex as in an area and in a volume, the quantum area then becomes \({\lambda_{C}}^{2}\) and the quantum volume then becomes \({\lambda_{C}}^{3}\)

The quantum resonance \({F_{q}}^{2}\) is an oscillation between forward time and backward time, and right spin torque and left spin torque. Thus the vibration of the strings of mass is not spatial but is a temporal vibration. Our concept of linear time is developed in our brain; in the physical Universe, the temporal state is a vibration of time itself.

In the physical Universe, physical matter is the effect of the dualistic splits. Physical matter, or anything having a physical nature, is not the cause of the dualistic splits. The temporal oscillation, an oscillation between forward time and backward time, results in the temporal state of the present moment. In quantum resonance, nothing moves toward the future or moves toward the past. The present moment is, therefore, both a constant and a limit of the physical Universe.

Taken together, the mass of the Aether, the quantum length, and the quantum resonance have a reciprocal manifestation in the Gforce. The Gforce is very real, and the Gforce is the driver of the physical Universe, but the Gforce is not visible to our complex form as humans. Historically, many have used reason to deduce the Gforce's existence, and have resorted to describing the Gforce in terms of spirit, the Will of God, the Supreme Creator, and many other expressions. Regardless of the extent one wishes to use their mind to understand Gforce, the Gforce figures prominently in quantum physics.

## The Quantum Mechanics of Length Density

Further investigating the limits of the physical Universe, the maximum amount of mass per length (\(\frac{m_{a}}{\lambda_{C}}\)) is the maximum length density that any physical object can obtain before it collapses. Such collapses are observed within the physical Universe as black holes.

## The Energy Limit

The \(E=mc^{2}\) formula, where \(m\) equals \(m_{e}\), limits the maximum energy available for any electromagnetic process in a given space. And so, other energy processes can be compared to the energy limit of \(E=mc^{2}\).

For example, although a given photon is produced within a quantum moment at a quantum frequency at the subatomic level, the production of a sequence of photons can be produced at any frequency below the quantum frequency limit up at the atomic level. By comparing the atomic frequency value to the subatomic frequency limit, we can calculate relative effects in cases where two atomic structures have different temperatures, velocities, momenta, and other differing inertial behaviors.

The same energy limit would be expected for nuclear processes involving the protons and neutrons, but where the mass \(m\) would be \(m_{p}\) or \(m_{n}\).

## The Curl Limit

As Albert Einstein discovered, space can be curved. In the Aether Physics Model, the curvature of space is measured by the curl unit. The range for curl in the Aether Physics Model is from 0 curl to 1 curl, where the numerical part of the curl unit is given in radians.

A black hole forms when the length density limit is reached for physical objects and when the curl limit of Aether is reached.

## The Quantum Mechanics of Photons

A single photon emits from an atom when an electron jumps its orbital position from one level to a level further from the atomic nucleus. The jumped electron produces a photon into space, and space provides the speed \(c\) for the photon. We can quantify this as:

\begin{equation}phtn=h\cdot c\end{equation}

where \(h\) is the Planck constant and \(c\) is the speed of photons.

Atoms do not produce just a single photon due to the energy atoms constantly receive from the environment from incoming photons. Yet each atomic element produces photons at frequencies unique to the atomic element. We know this due to the science of spectroscopy, which identifies elements by the frequency of the light they produce. The light of an atom quantifies as photon times frequency:

\begin{equation}ligt=phtn\cdot freq\end{equation}

We can see from Planck’s constant that it can be factored as the mass of the electron times the Compton wavelength squared times the quantum frequency:

\begin{equation}h=m_{e}\cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{2}\cdot F_{q}\end{equation}

The quantum frequency is equal to:

\begin{equation}F_{q}=\frac{c}{\lambda_{C}}\end{equation}

We also know that an electron has two distinct radii. There is the classical electron radius \(r_{e}\) and the Bohr electron radius \(\alpha_{0}\).

\begin{equation}r_{e}=\frac{\lambda_{C}\cdot \alpha}{2\pi}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}\alpha_{0}=\frac{\lambda_{C}}{2\pi\alpha}\end{equation}

where \(\alpha\) is the fine structure of the electron.

From this, we can deduce that the electron’s length dimensions are in the geometry of a toroid where the area of the toroid is equal to:

\begin{equation}{\lambda_{C}}^{2}=2\pi(\frac{\lambda_{C}\cdot \alpha}{2\pi})\cdot 2\pi(\frac{\lambda_{C}}{2\pi\alpha})\end{equation}

In the electron, the toroidal geometry is confined to a space quantum. In the photon, the toroidal geometry is released. It expands into space, with the classical radius becoming increasingly smaller. In contrast, the Bohr radius becomes increasingly larger, and all the while, the surface area of the toroid is conserved at the value of \({\lambda_{C}}^{2}\).

Thus each quantum photon expands through space and spreads out its angular momentum.

The photon geometry is equal to the electron at a distance of one quantum length from the emitting atom. At two quantum lengths from the emitting atom, the classical radius of the photon is half the electron classical radius, and the Bohr radius of the photon is twice the electron Bohr radius. The ratios are one-fourth and four at two quantum lengths from the emitting atom. Thus the photon dissipates according to an inverse square law (irradiance) as it moves away from the emitting atom.

As the photons spread out, the atom continues to produce more photons at the frequency of the particular atomic element, producing light. As the light arrives at a distant atom of any element, the empty valence position absorbs the light to fill the empty valence position with angular momentum. Light absorption causes the light being absorbed to lose its velocity of c. The amount of energy any valence position can absorb from light is always equal to the energy of a single electron, which is:

\begin{equation}enrg=m_{e}\cdot c^{2}\end{equation}

In terms of light, the energy absorbed is equal to:

\begin{equation}enrg=\frac{ligt}{c}\end{equation}

In terms of angular momentum, the energy absorbed is equal to:

\begin{equation}enrg=angm\cdot freq\end{equation}

The mainstream explanation for the transfer of energy from an emitting atom to a receiving atom states that photons are energy packets when they are emitted, then travel as energy packets through space, and then are received as energy packets at the receiving atom. This is nonsense.

First, a single photon cannot have inherent frequency, nor do atoms produce packets preloaded with inherent frequency. Atoms produce one photon at a time, and the photons are produced in succession *at* a frequency.

Second, if photons were energy packets moving through space, that would violate energy conservation, as light would not lose any energy while traveling (hence, there would be no inverse square law).

And third, when a receiving atom fills a valence position, the energy is precisely equal to the mass of the electron times the speed of photons squared. Mainstream physicists claim the energy of the photon arriving at the receiving atom is:

\begin{equation}E=hf\end{equation}

where \(h\) is the Planck constant and \(f\) is the inherent frequency packaged into the photon at the emitting atom. Suppose the energy received at the valence electron is always equal to the mass of the electron times the speed of photons squared, and the frequency of the photon is variable according to the emitting atom. In that case, the value of h must also be variable and cannot be Planck’s constant.

Light dissipation is a function of the distance between the emitter and the receiver due to the inverse square law caused by the expansion of photons as they emit from an emitter. This inverse square law does not compare to the speed of photons or the frequency at which photons are emitted; each is a separate function in light mechanics.