This first chapter lays the groundwork for exploring an effective paradigm for the quantum structure of space and matter. While various mathematical frameworks describe physical reality, only those founded on purely real number operations can furnish actual quantities without ambiguity or contradiction. By establishing a self-consistent theory using solely real variables and basic algebraic structures, this foundation circumvents many issues plaguing contemporary formalism associated with negative probabilities, probabilistic interpretations, or illusory wave functions.

This investigation concentrates on advancing the rational description of Nature through unambiguous constructs rooted in observable physical phenomena. Realistically comprehensible equations reflect concrete experiences—a principle overlooked during the past century’s relentless pursuit of abstraction. The resulting formulation provides insights, explanatory power, clarity of expression, generality, and rigor lacking in today’s orthodox models. Moreover, this alternative approach resolves inconsistencies and conflicts among seemingly disparate areas.

Remember, genuine progress entails challenging longstanding assumptions originating from human ignorance or limited perspective. Our evolving knowledge base obliges scientists to reevaluate beliefs formed under less informed circumstances. As such, adherence to outdated traditions detracts from engendering a holistic cosmic worldview truly deserving of our species’ lofty aspirations toward understanding universal dynamics.

By eschewing mystification and arbitrary postulates alienating researchers from intuitive apprehension, this treatise aims to foster an accessible account of the universe embodying intellectual integrity, inclusiveness, humility, and profundity. It promotes a shared appreciation for our ever-unfolding cosmos transcending divisive dogmas, ideologies, or societal paradigms. Ultimately, recognizing universal patterns democratizes the beauty and logic immanent in Nature's architectonic lattice, granting everyone the potential to glean her secrets. Henceforth, strive for wisdom, seek simplicity, embrace verifiable truth, and follow unfettered reason.

Let's explore together how nature's underlying principles offer an unequivocal descriptive mechanism for describing and analyzing the quantum manifestation of space itself. With foundational concepts thus established, Chapter 1 acknowledges a wealth of valuable literature—including historical works contributing seminal ideas—that helped guide our investigations. Some suggestions encompass material spanning classical field theory, relativity, gravitation, quantum mechanics, and nuclear physics. These supplemental readings supply worthwhile perspectives, alternative derivations, and novel insights.

#### Supplemental Readings and References

These supplemental readings supply worthwhile perspectives, alternative derivations, novel insights, or use complementary treatments not always directly covered within the main body. Incorporating this broader range enables readers to fully grasp or deepen their understanding according to individual interests or background preparation. While the present study endeavors to provide self-contained exposition, delving into certain related topics via recommended works offers a more expansive analysis or historical context.

To aid directed exploration or stimulate further inquiry, references cited within the narrative appear enumerated within each respective Notable Works subsection below, following the format: Author(s) (Publication Year), Book/Article Title (pages if applicable). For brevity and consistency, specific page numbers will usually apply only when essential for context or proof.

Since older works remain vital components of any coherent educational experience, classic texts or seminal contributions to particular subjects have also been integrated alongside modern writings. Many such pieces might initially seem intimidating to novices owing to differing terminology, notation conventions, or sophisticated subject matter. Nevertheless, perseverance and concerted effort often yield immense dividends when struggling through these esteemed sources. Not every listed item warrants exhaustive examination but rather serves as points of departure or reference should one desire amplified exposure.

As discoveries, improvements, refinements, or fresh revelations periodically arise, this compendium cannot hope to remain perfectly current forever. Consequently, periodic updates might occur in successive iterations, extensions, or revisions adapting to ongoing scientific evolution. To remain abreast of developments or future publications, visit the author’s informational blog at https://aetherwizard.com.

*The Aether Physics Model is a discrete model of the quantum structure.* While this book will show alternative explanations of certain Standard Model concepts of quantum structure, it is a tribute to the genius of the thousands of physicists and engineers contributing to the Standard Model theories and data. The Aether Physics Model depends on the empirically derived data that made the Standard Model useful.

#### Standard Model - Definition

A model of fundamental forces and particles that explains their behavior and interactions in terms of symmetries and the destruction of symmetries.[1]

The Standard Model of Particle Physics, generally called the “Standard Model,” is the name given to the current theory of fundamental particles and their interaction. This theory includes:

- Strong interactions due to the color charges[2] of quarks and gluons.
- A combined theory of weak and electromagnetic interaction, known as electroweak theory, introduces W and Z bosons as the carrier particles of weak processes and photons as mediators to electromagnetic interactions.[3]

The Standard Model includes (or excludes) many other theories concerning particle structure and behavior, depending on which authority is consulted. In general, at least as far as this book is concerned, the Standard Model includes all accepted modern theories contributing to the understanding of particle behavior insofar as particles are labeled photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, muons, pi mesons, quarks, tau, and there are numerous others. Moreover, since the “mass equivalence to energy” paradigm is often a part of the explanation of Standard Model theory, the Standard Model may be interpreted to include Einstein’s Special Relativity theory.

*The Standard Model is a collection of interpretations concerning quantum physical observations, while the Aether Physics Model is sometimes a very different interpretation of the same data.* Therefore, we will refute some of the paradigms of the Standard Model and replace them with different paradigms from the Aether Physics Model.

The Standard Model process often predicts subatomic behavior based on macro object characteristics (billiard ball particles with momentum, mass equals matter, fuel equals energy, force equals mass times acceleration, etc.). The Aether Physics Model begins with quantum constants, looks for fundamental patterns, and then mathematically and dimensionally develops the theory of subatomic structure while allowing for new paradigms (primary angular momentum, non-material existence as the ultimate source of physical existence, geometric structure of charge, Unified Force Theory, etc.).

This book is a foundational introduction to the Aether Physics Model, which, including a completed Unified Force Theory, already explains many previously unanswered physics questions. Nevertheless, at least a few unfinished concepts are also presented in this book. The Aether Physics Model is so fruitful in revealing the world's true nature that it will require decades to complete it in every aspect. So in some cases, the reader receives as much of the theory as has been so far developed, with occasional suggestions for further development of a specific new physics concept. There is no claim that the Aether Physics Model is complete or that this book provides all the answers a physicist could ask.

The reader will not want to throw away their Standard Model texts and rely solely on the Aether Physics Model, at least not yet. Much work remains to bring the Aether Physics Model to par with the Standard Model. However, as part of our ongoing research and the fruitfulness of the Aether Physics Model, this edition contains an effective paradigm for the quantum structure of space and matter.

*The promise of the Aether Physics Model is this: once completed, it will provide a solid foundation for understanding the structure of the Universe in which we exist.*

It is important to note that the Standard Model is also incomplete. And while the Standard Model may presently provide numerical answers to problems not currently addressed by the Aether Physics Model (half-life of atoms, for example), the Aether Physics Model already provides key solutions to physics not presently solved by the Standard Model (a Unified Force Theory, for example).* It will likely require many physicists and engineers to complete the Aether Physics Model, just as it took many physicists many years to develop the Standard Model. *

The foremost difference between the Standard and Aether Physics Models is the systems used to analyze the data. The Standard Model often removes all dimensions from the data and treats the data as numerical entities. This allows physicists to intentionally or inadvertently stretch the rules of reality, invent unfounded rules, convert one physical order of reality into another, or skip over poorly understood natural physical structures. In the Aether Physics Model, the data collects in its dimensional and geometric form, processes in its dimensional and geometric form, and the equations materialize in dimensional and geometric form. There is no room for misinterpretation of the physical structures or the data since we always account for the dimensions and geometry.

Also, by keeping the dimensions and geometry with the data and the equations, the physicist is forced to give up old concepts of quantum structure when the dimensionally and geometrically analyzed processes don’t allow for the maintenance of old conceptual structures. For example, the Aether unit and its geometry influence the physicist’s understanding of other empirical constants since the dimensions and geometry remain present.

One cannot convert the truth of the Aether’s existence to non-existence “just because,” as Albert Einstein did by presenting his Special Relativity postulates. If the measurements and data show that the Aether unit exists, then the Aether unit exists whether or not modern physicists and engineers are clever enough to detect it directly.

## Not Just for Physicists

This Aether Physics Model appeals to a wide range of readers. Unlike the Standard Model of particle physics, nearly all the key equations in the Aether Physics Model flow with a basic understanding of algebra. The Aether Physics Model has a potential audience of philosophical and religious communities and the scientific community. Scientists, philosophers, and others will have an opportunity to explore this remarkably coherent, mathematically derived, and empirically based theory of quantum structure that unifies all of physical existence and certain aspects of consciousness.

There is an absolute truth regarding the nature of the physical world, and as will be seen in these pages, the physical world appears to have a non-material origin. The physical world precisely quantifies because the underlying dimensions and geometry that make up the physical world measurements are real. In addition, since the dimensions and geometry are real, the origins of the dimensions and geometry must be real. Nevertheless, as physicists progress in reductionism, they eventually run out of physical things to observe. Therefore, just as it is appropriate to look for the physics itself, it is appropriate to look for the physical world's origin, even if it is non-material.

Interspersed with the physics in this book are metaphysical hypotheses. As is the case for all metaphysics, whether of science, religion, or philosophy, it is up to the reader to evaluate whether the metaphysical concepts have any meaning. Ultimately, suppose some part of us belongs to this Universe, and it appears it does since we interact with it. In that case, the quest for the metaphysical origin of the Universe might also be a quest for the metaphysical origin of our true existence. In addition to clarifying quantum structure, the Aether Physics Model is also an effective paradigm for exploring the metaphysical meaning of the physical Universe.

Just as we will see, physical existence never becomes a definite reality. However, as we follow the progression from the level of dimensions toward the level of human existence, we also will understand how the “self” appears to share this inability to find definite reality. Our identity appears to materialize from our complex perception of the physical world. Perhaps as we explore the experience of our mind as it relates to each level of physical existence, we might find the courage to familiarize ourselves with the non-material origin of our existence and experience a true and complete metaphysical experience.

## Scope of the APM

The Aether Physics Model is a science that connects well to ontological philosophy. The ontology of the APM is perfect in that it reveals absolute knowledge at the quantum level, is based on empirical data, and appeals to common sense. The APM is a creation theory that shows a logical evolution of non-material but real dimensions into complex forms of physical existence.

Conversely, one could also look at the Aether Physics Model as a perfect reductionism of physical structures. Each physical form ultimately manifests as a collection of molecules consisting of atoms. The atoms construct from units of angular momentum, and these units are composed of quantum measurements, which at the finest level of physical perception, arise from dimensions. Undoubtedly, the dimensions arise from a yet more primary, albeit non-material, Source. This book focuses on the range of physical existence from dimensions to molecules. This book also explains how consciousness interfaces with physical existence.

The reader should question whether reductionism should proceed as in Zeno’s paradox, whereby mere mathematical division reduces systems. However, what would be the physical principle for mathematically dividing something into infinity if this were the case? A human being is an entity. If we reduce the entity, it builds from bodily organs and parts such as the heart, liver, skeleton, and skin. We do not say that humans build from smaller humans. Similarly, the organs are built from cells with a level of existence very different from the organs. Moreover, the cells build from molecules, a more basic order of reality than the cells. The atoms that make up the molecules are in a more simplified order of existence than the molecules. The subatomic particles are yet a simpler order of existence than the atoms. Moreover, the dimensions that make up the units of subatomic particles are a still more fundamental order of existence.

So one must question whether the Standard Model interpretation of “particles” is accurate since atoms are the smallest particles of physical matter. Molecules are systems of particles, and electrons, protons, and neutrons are subsystems of particles. By labeling everything a particle, the Standard Model completely ignores the various observable taxonomies of existence.

Many structural concepts from the Standard Model sub-theories, such as wave-particle duality[4], color forces[5], flavors[6], up and down characteristics[7], and the equivalence of energy and mass[8], have no meaning within the Aether Physics Model. These concepts and others fade behind a single structural theory of angular momentum and Aether units, revealing a fresh paradigm for understanding physical structures, which is self-consistent throughout.

#### Note

The foundation for the Aether Physics Model is the same empirical data used by the Standard Model. However, we must understand the Aether Physics Model within its unique context and not necessarily within the context of Standard Model concepts. As an effective paradigm for the quantum structure of space and matter, the Aether Physics Model necessarily provides unique insights.

Most modern physics laws also carry over to the Aether Physics Model. Ohm’s law, the force laws, conservation laws, and nearly all other physics laws operate the same in both models, although the units' dimensions may differ where charges are concerned.

The Aether Physics Model (APM) begins as an ontological[9] structural model based on empirical data. The ontology of the APM begins with the proper understanding of dimension and measurement and with the understanding that space[10] is equally as important as the matter that resides within it. In turn, space-time (or rather just space) is just one aspect of the Aether unit. Aether implies more qualities to space than merely the dimensions of length and time. In addition to length and time, the Aether also includes the dimensions of mass and charge. And as odd as it may initially sound, the charge has solid angle geometry. Space-time is actually volume-time; even then, it should be volume-resonance, as will be discussed later.

The Standard Model of Particle Physics describes electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, and even things like gluons and quarks as “particles.” In the Aether Physics Model, these “particles” are not solid or pieces of something solid. The basic form of physical existence is termed “primary angular momentum” when discussing subatomic mechanical structure. Whatever processes it was, those first thrust subatomic particles into existence, the Aether maintains the subatomic particle spin and, accordingly, the structure of all physical matter. Though it may sound counterintuitive at first, physical matter, as we know it, is actually a trace of the Aether. In other words, physical shape actually comes from non-material Aether and is not an inherent property of matter.

*Furthermore, matter does not move in space since matter is contained within Aether. Rather, space moves relative to itself.* The matter is carried through space like dust in the wind, and algae are carried in ocean currents. Aether has a fluid characteristic such that one region of space can flow past another region, like the Gulf Stream can flow past the Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean. Strictly speaking, neither time travel nor space travel is possible. Only the rearranging of the Aether is possible, and hence, certain relativistic-like effects seem to occur.

The Aether Physics Model distinguishes between stable matter and collision effects. Electrons and protons are two stable forms of matter and their anti-particles, the positron, and anti-proton. Neutrons are composite particles of a proton and electron, and they remain stable as long as the bound pair remains in an atomic nucleus. However, the muon, tau, quarks, and other extremely short-lived “observed particles” are merely collision or “unbinding” effects. The collision effects offer some insights into the processes of physics but are of little more use for quantum structural science than crash tests are for automobile manufacturers. Although particle accelerators are useful technology, one has to question just how many we need. It would be far more productive to focus our scientific inquiry on the physical structures of stable matter than to focus too much on collision effects.

The "speed of light" is a misnomer of the Standard Model. The Aether Physics Model explains light as the condition of photons emitted through space at frequencies. The "speed" is about the photons, so throughout this book, we speak of the speed of photons and not the speed of light.

## A New Dimensional Analysis

The Aether Physics Model effectively uses quantum measurement analysis, similar to dimensional analysis[12]. Calculus equations are not necessary for understanding the essential paradigm underlying quantum structure. Therefore, the Aether Physics Model is easier to comprehend than the Standard Model concepts of quantum structure.

The APM is inherently discrete because the Aether Physics Model is fully compatible with Classical Mechanics (logically modeled physical processes). Theoretically, if a computer could compute faster than the speed of photons, a computer model of the entire Universe could develop from the Aether Physics Model.

Just as the Standard Model improperly classifies all forms of existence as particles, it also has an ambiguous lexicon in other areas. To better use quantum measurement analysis, APM offers specific definitions for “unit,” “measurement,” “dimension,” and “constant.” Regardless of the variant definitions for these terms in our present culture, this book will use these words as defined in the following pages.

There are two different uses of the term “unit” common in physics, namely "units of measurement" and "units of dimensions." The differences between the two uses are significant when we examine the structure of equations.

#### Unit Definitions

1. Unit of Measurement - any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange; “the kilogram is the MKS unit of mass”; “a unit of frequency is the Hertz.”

2. Unit of Dimensions - an individual, group, structure, or other entity regarded as a structural or functional constituent of a whole; “a velocity is a unit equal to the dimensions of length per time”; “the dimensions of charge divided by time equal the unit of current.”

In the case of the “unit of measurement,” it would be far more logical if we simply called it measurement and not unit. For example, we should call the kilogram the MKS “measurement” of mass, not its “unit” of mass. The term “unit” best defines, concerning physics, a specific arrangement of dimensions. This clarification would eliminate a lot of confusion.

## Systems of Measurement

There are three generally accepted systems of measurement used in physics; cgs measurement, MKS measurement, and SI measurement. The Aether Physics Model utilizes a new system of measurement based on quantum measurements.

The SI definition here quotes verbatim from its original source (unlike the MKS definition just below) because the SI system is an unnatural measurement system consisting of units (the Ampere) as basic measurements. It is largely the SI system of measurements and generally the lack of clear definitions for “measurement,” “dimension,” and “unit” that perpetuate confusing terminology in our present systems of measurement.

Here is a brief overview of the various systems of measurement:

#### CGS Measurements

A system of measurement based on the metric system, having the centimeter of length, the gram of mass, and the second of time as its fundamental units. Some cgs units are the dyne of force and the erg of work or energy. The measurements of the cgs system are generally much smaller than the comparable measurements of the MKS system.[13]

#### MKS Measurements

A system of measurement based on the metric system and having the meter of length, the kilogram of mass, and the second of time as its fundamental measurements. Some MKS units include the newton of force, the joule of work or energy, and the watt of power. The measurements of the MKS system are generally much larger and of a more practical size than the comparable measurements of the cgs system. The MKS system provides the basis for the International System of Measurements (SI)[14] and the new Aether Physics Model quantum measurements. The MKS measurement system further adds to the cgs system of units a dimension of charge, which measures as Coulombs.

#### SI Measurements

The International System of Units officially called the Système International d'Unites, or SI is a system of units adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1960). It is based on the metric system. The basic units of length, mass, and time are those of the MKS system of metric units: the meter, kilogram, and second. Other basic units are the ampere of electric current, the kelvin of temperature (a degree of temperature measured on the Kelvin temperature scale), the candela, or candle, of luminous intensity, and the mole, used to measure the amount of a substance present. All other units are derived from these basic units[15].

Current Definitions of SI Measurements by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are as follows:

The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

The kilogram is the unit of measure for mass, equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram[16].

The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom[17].

The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce a force equal to \(2\times 10^{-7}\) newton per meter of length between these conductors. The Kelvin, a unit of measurement for thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.

The mole is the amount of substance of a system, which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012kg of carbon 12; its symbol is “mol.” When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.

In a given direction, the candela is the luminous intensity of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency \(540\times 10^{12} Hz\), with a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.

**Quantum Measurements:** Because the MKS system of measurements is most practical for everyday observations, it frequently occurs as the basic system of measurements throughout this book unless otherwise stated. As mentioned, the Aether Physics Model produces yet another system of measurements, devised so that all measurements are based on the quantum length, frequency, quantum masses, and quantum charges.

#### Quantum Measurements in Aether Physics Model

The quantum length is the Compton wavelength[18] and is equal to \(2.426310238\times 10^{-12}m\)[19]. The symbol for the quantum length is lambda sub-C (\({\lambda_{C}}\)).

Some \(5\times 10^{9}\) years ago, electrons arrived by different routes at a common location, a given atom of iron in the core of the earth. This iron atom does not collapse. The Pauli principle of exclusion keeps the electrons from all falling into the K-orbit. The Pauli principle would not apply if the electrons were not identical or nearly so. From this circumstance it would appear possible to draw an important conclusion. With each electron is associated a standard length, its Compton wavelength, \(\frac{\hbar}{mc}\). If these lengths had started different, or changed by different amounts along the different routes and if the resulting difference in properties were as great as one part in \(\sim (5\times 10^{9}yr)\times (3\times 10^{7}\frac{sec}{yr})\times (5\times 10^{18}\frac{rev}{sec})\sim10^{36}\), by now this difference would have shown up, the varied electrons would have fallen into the K-orbit, and the earth would have collapsed, contrary to observation.[20]

Because nearly all human-scale energy interactions at the subatomic level occur via the electron, the quantum mass is usually the mass of the electron and is equal to \(9.1093826\times 10^{-31}kg\)[21]. The symbol for the quantum mass is m sub-e (\({m_{e}}\)). When transactions occur with the proton, neutron, or Aether, the symbol for the quantum mass is m sub-p, m sub-n, or m sub-a respectively (\({m_{p}}\), \({m_{n}}\), \({m_{a}}\)). Consult the Constants and Units page for the mass values of the proton, neutron, and Aether.

The quantum frequency, symbol F sub-q (\({F_{q}}\)), is equal to the speed of photons divided by the quantum length and is \(1.23558998\times 10^{20}Hz\). The reciprocal of the quantum frequency is the quantum time (symbol T sub-q, \({T_{q}}\)).

The quantum charges are the electrostatic charge (elementary charge squared) and magnetic charge. The electrostatic charge notates as \({e^{2}}\) and is equal to \(2.566969633\times 10^{-38}coul^{2}\). The magnetic charges calculate from subatomic particle angular momentum and are equal to angular momentum times the conductance constant of the Aether. The values are available on the Constants and Units page and are written as \({e_{emax}}^{2}\), \({e_{pmax}}^{2}\), \({e_{nmax}}^{2}\), and \({e_{a}}^{2}\) for the electron, proton, neutron, and Aether, respectively.

Units such as temperature and light intensity are based on dimensions. For example, the unit for temperature is equivalent to the Sievert in the MKS system, and one degree Kelvin is equal to 286.966 Sievert.

Because this new system rests on the Compton wavelength (quantum length), the mass of the subatomic particle, and quantum frequency, we could refer to it as the system of quantum measurements, which as a paradigm, is more effective at quantifying quantum structure.

## Units of Dimensions

The Aether Physics Model distinguishes between units of measurement and units of dimensions. Nearly all of the units of dimensions in the Aether Physics Model are four-letter variables that suggest their unit function. For example, the current is denoted as \(curr\), the potential is \(potn\), and the resistance is \(resn\).

Ohm’s law written in Aether Physics Model units of dimensions is:

\begin{equation}potn = curr \cdot resn \end{equation}

Quantum measurements and quantum units can also serve as quantum constants. (The units from other measurement systems are also constants but not necessarily quantum constants). Two common quantum constants already widely used are quantum velocity and quantum angular momentum. The quantum velocity is the speed of photons and notates as the variable \(c\). The quantum electron angular momentum is the Planck constant[22] and notates as \(h\).

Units of dimension build from quantum measurements. For example, the unit of potential (potn) is a unit of dimension made up of quantum measurement:

\begin{equation}potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}} \end{equation}

In the case of velocity, when the APM unit of dimension for velocity is used (velc) it can also be substituted with \(c\).

\begin{equation}velc = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q} = c \end{equation}

In the APM, all quantum units have a quantum measurement representation.

## Quantum Constants

As previously mentioned, all Aether Physics Model's quantum measurements and quantum units are also constants. Most essential constants in the Aether Physics Model already exist in Classical physics[23].

Coulomb’s constant \({k_{C}}\), the gravitational constant \(G\), the speed of photons \(c\), the permeability of free space \({\mu_{0}}\), the permittivity of free space \({\epsilon_{0}}\), Planck’s constant \(h\), fine structure constant of the electron \(\alpha\), and the Compton wavelength \({\lambda_{C}}\) retain the same values, dimensions, and nomenclature as in the Standard Model. The values and dimensions for each of these constants appear in the Appendix.

Based on the known constants of the Standard Model, new constants are identified, their purpose defined, and their utility revealed (page 120). New constants and quantum units also appear in the Appendix.

One important new constant from the Aether Physics Model is the conductance of the Aether (page 161), which is essential for calculating and understanding the nature of the magnetic charge.

The Aether Physics Model provides many important new constants, equations, and understandings. Taken as a whole, these physics additions result in a new foundational paradigm differing significantly from several Standard Model paradigms.

We remind the reader that the Aether Physics Model, presented in this book, is no more complete than the Standard Model. However, the Aether Physics Model's value lies in the fact that its paradigm begins with a firm foundation of quantum structural existence and develops in complexity toward the macro structural existence with which we are familiar. The APM also quantifies the metaphysical pre-existence of the physical world and the nature of consciousness. Conversely, the Standard Model successfully discovered subatomic existence but incorrectly concluded that collision effects and forces were elementary particles.

Therefore, we move forward with the understanding that the Aether Physics Model is a fresh beginning based on a logical framework derived from empirical data. We pursue the Aether Physics Model, not because it answers all our questions but because it leads us to answers regarding quantum structure more readily than the Standard Model with its discontinuous sub-models.

[1] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[2] Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), quantum field theory that describes the properties of the strong interactions between quarks and between protons and neutrons in the framework of quantum theory. Quarks possess a distinctive property called color that governs their binding together to form other elementary particles. Analogous to electric charge in charged particles, color is of three varieties, arbitrarily designated as red, blue, and yellow, and—analogous to positive and negative charges—three anticolor varieties. Just as positively and negatively charged particles form electrically neutral atoms, colored quarks form particles with no net color. Quarks interact by emitting and absorbing massless particles called gluons, each of which carries a color-anticolor pair. Eight kinds of gluons are required to transmit the strong force between quarks, e.g., a blue quark might interact with a yellow quark by exchanging a blue-antiyellow gluon. "Quantum Chromodynamics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[3] W and Z Particles; elementary particles that mediate, or carry, the fundamental force associated with weak interactions. The discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) in Geneva, Switzerland, in the early 1980s was an important confirmation of electroweak theory, which unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces. The W and Z particles are quite massive for elementary particles; they are roughly 100 times as massive as the proton. "W and Z Particles," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[4] "Light," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[5] "Quarks possess a distinctive property called color that governs their binding together to form other elementary particles" "Quantum Chromodynamics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[6] "This particle, a meson, was made of a fourth flavor of quark, called charm. (Since then two more flavors have been added to the menu: bottom, in 1976, and top, in 1995. Each of these six quarks has a corresponding 'antiquark,' bringing the total to 12)." Alex R. Dzierba, Curtis A. Meyer and Eric S. Swanson, "The Search for QCD Exotics," American Scientist Sept. 2000: 406

[7] "The quarks found in ordinary matter are the up and down quarks, from which protons and neutrons are made. A proton, for instance, consists of two up quarks and a down quark, and a neutron consists of two down quarks and an up quark." "Elementary Particles," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[8] "According to the law of mass - energy equivalence, developed by Albert Einstein as part of his theory of relativity, a quantity of matter of mass m possesses an intrinsic rest mass energy E given by E = mc^{2}, where c is the speed of light." "Matter," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[9] Definition: Ontological - “Of or relating to essence or the nature of being.”

[10] Definition: Space-time – “The four-dimensional continuum of one temporal and three spatial coordinates in which any event or physical object is located.” Space-resonance is the five-dimensional continuum of two temporal and three spatial coordinates. "Space-time" is redundant; space already inolves time. When discussing the four dimensional continuum, it is more appropriate to say "volume-time" rather than "space-time."

[12] "The expression of any particular quantity in terms of fundamental quantities is known as dimensional analysis and often provides physical insight into the results of a mathematical calculation." "Dimension, in Physics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[13] Paraphrased from "Cgs System ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[14] Paraphrased from "Mks System ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[15] "International System of Units ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[16] "fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris." "Kilogram," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[17] "1 sec is 1/31,556,925.9747 of the length of the tropical year for 1900. In 1967 the second was redefined to be 9,192,631,770 periods of vibration of the radiation emitted at a specific wavelength by an atom of cesium -133." "Second," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[18] "The Compton wavelength of any particle is given by the relationship, λ0 = h / m0 c, where λ0 is the Compton wavelength, h is Planck's constant, m0 is the rest mass of the particle, and c is the velocity of light." Van Nostrond Company, Inc., Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1968) 395.

[19] http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?ecomwl|search_for=compton+wavelength

[20] Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler, Princeton University Press; Oct 3, 2017 - p. 398-399: https://archive.org/details/GravitationMisnerThorneWheeler/page/n421

[21] http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?me|search_for=mass+electron

[22] "The first direct measurement of the quantum of action was obtained by J. Franck and G. Hertz by liberating quantities of light through electronic impulses." Where Is Science Going? James Murphy, Max Planck (New York, W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1932) 59-60

[23] "Classical physics includes the traditional branches and topics that were recognized and fairly well developed before the beginning of the 20th century; mechanics, sound, light, heat, and electricity and magnetism." "Physics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.