Quantum Mechanics should be defined as the study of the limits of quantum space (Aether). Everything about the limits of the physical Universe and its boundaries is quantifiable in terms of the quantum Aether unit.

## The Singularity

It turns out that all the physical constants, when seen as pieces of a large puzzle, originate from a Singularity, which represents by the dimensionless number 1. This is not the same singularity as described by Big Bang theory, but more like the Singularity described by ancient religions. The Singularity is a concept beyond conception. It represents a state where there are no dualities, no space, no time, and no matter. And yet, the Singularity is complete and whole. The understanding of the Singularity is taught in the Heart Sutra of Buddhism as Gate, Gate, Paragate, Para Sam gate Bodhi svaha; meaning, “beyond the beyond the beyond and beyond that.” It is beyond dualistic conception.

From this Singularity came duality in the form of two splits. There is the duality of Gforce and resonating dark matter, and the duality of magnetic and electrostatic charge. These two forms of duality originating from the Singularity represent mathematically as:

$$\label{dualgforce} 1=\frac{m_{a}\cdot\lambda_{C}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{Gforce}$$

$$\label{dualcharge}1=\frac{e^{2}}{8\pi a \cdot {e_{a}}^{2}}$$

From these two splits in the Singularity we can construct the physical Universe. Within these dualistic separations of the Singularity we have the mass, charge, length, frequency, and geometry that creates the fabric of space, the physical matter within that space, and the mechanics for how the matter and space grows into complexity and interacts with itself.

In equation (\ref{dualgforce}) we have vibrating strings of mass as a natural result of the Gforce coming into existence. The vibrating strings of mass are like sperm cells waiting to impregnate the Aether to form subatomic particles as the basis of physical matter. The Gforce is a reciprocating force behaving as a great Will with unlimited potential to create.

Whereas the physical force we are accustomed to arises as a push or a pull from outside of an object to be pushed or pulled, the Gforce is a force that originates from within like a beating heart within a body, except that it is the beating heart that creates the Aether.

The two types of charges manifest from equation (\ref{dualcharge}). The electrostatic charge is reciprocal to the magnetic charge. Neither form of charge can exist without the other, as they complement each other and give rise to each other's existence through the principal of duality. The electrostatic charge has one spin, spherical geometry. The magnetic charge has half spin, steradian geometry. The splitting of the Singularity to produce the two types of charges creates the fine structure, which is the balance between electrostatic charge and magnetic charge.

## The Limits of Existence

Within the vibrating strings of mass, the Gforce, and the two types of charges we see the limits of the physical Universe. The mass associated with the Aether $$m_{a}$$ is the maximum mass that can exist within an Aether unit, or any group of Aether units. The mass of the Aether is due to the mass of the Gforce. The magnetic charge associated with the Aether $${e_{a}}^{2}$$ is the maximum magnetic charge that can exist within an Aether unit or any group of Aether units.

The mass to magnetic charge ratio of the Aether mass to the Aether magnetic charge establishes a constant mass to charge ratio that must always be maintained by all physical structures created and maintained by the Gforce.

$$mchg=\frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}$$

The quantum length associated with the vibrating strings of mass and the Gforce is equal to the Compton wavelength $$\lambda_{C}$$. All physical reality bases on the quantum length. As the length becomes more complex as in an area and in a volume, the quantum area then becomes $${\lambda_{C}}^{2}$$ and the quantum volume then becomes $${\lambda_{C}}^{3}$$

The quantum resonance $${F_{q}}^{2}$$ is an oscillation between forward time and backward time, and right spin torque and left spin torque. Thus the vibration of the strings of mass is not a spatial vibration, but is a temporal vibration. Our concept of linear time is developed in our brain; in the physical Universe, the temporal state is a vibration of time, itself.

In the physical Universe, physical matter is the effect of the dualistic splits. Physical matter, or anything having a physical nature, is not the cause of the dualistic splits. The temporal oscillation, being an oscillation between forward time and backward time, results in the temporal state of the present moment. In quantum resonance, nothing moves toward the future or moves toward the past. The present moment is therefore both a constant, and a limit, of the physical Universe.

Taken together, the mass of the Aether, the quantum length, and the quantum resonance have a reciprocal manifestation in the Gforce. The Gforce is very real, and the Gforce is the driver of the physical Universe, but the Gforce is not visible to our complex form as humans. Historically, many have used reason to deduce the Gforce's existence, and have resorted to describing the Gforce in terms of spirit, Will of God, Supreme Creator, and many other expressions. Regardless of the extent one wishes to use their mind to understand Gforce, the Gforce figures prominently in quantum physics.

## The Length Density Limit

Further investigating the limits of the physical Universe, the maximum amount of mass per length ($$\frac{m_{a}}{\lambda_{C}}$$) is the maximum length density that any physical object can obtain before it collapses. Such collapses are observed within the physical Universe as black holes.

## The Energy Limit

The $$E=mc^{2}$$ formula, specifically where $$m$$ is equal to $$m_{e}$$, is a limit for the maximum energy available for any electromagnetic process in a given space. And so other energy processes can be compared to the energy limit of $$E=mc^{2}$$.

For example, although a given photon is produced within a quantum moment at a quantum frequency at the subatomic level, the production of a sequence of photons can be produced at any frequency below the quantum frequency limit up at the atomic level. By comparing the atomic frequency value to the subatomic frequency limit, we can calculate relative effects in cases where two atomic structures have different temperatures, different velocities, different momenta, and other differing inertial behaviors.

The same energy limit would be expected for nuclear processes involving the protons and neutrons, but where the mass $$m$$ would be $$m_{p}$$ or $$m_{n}$$.

## The Curl Limit

As Albert Einstein discovered, space can be curved. In the Aether Physics Model, the curvature of space is measured by the unit of curl. The range for curl in the Aether Physics Model is from 0 curl to 1 curl, where the numerical part of the curl unit is given in radians.

Just as when the length density limit is reached for physical objects, when the curl limit of Aether is reached a black hole forms.

## The Physics of Photons

A single photon emits from an atom when an electron jumps its orbital position from one level to a level further from the atomic nucleus. The jumped electron produces a photon into space, and space provides the speed $$c$$ for the photon. We can quantify this as:

$$phtn=h\cdot c$$

where $$h$$ is the Planck constant and $$c$$ is the speed of photons.

Atoms do not produce just a single photon due to the amount of energy atoms constantly receive from the environment from incoming photons. Yet each atomic element produces photons at frequencies unique to the atomic element. We know this due to the science of spectroscopy, which identifies elements by the frequency of the light they produce. The light of an atom quantifies as photon times frequency:

$$ligt=phtn\cdot freq$$

We can see from Planck’s constant that it can be factored as the mass of the electron times the Compton wavelength squared times the quantum frequency:

$$h=m_{e}\cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{2}\cdot F_{q}$$

The quantum frequency is equal to:

$$F_{q}=\frac{c}{\lambda_{C}}$$

We also know that an electron has two distinct radii. There are the classical electron radius $$r_{e}$$ and the Bohr electron radius $$\alpha_{0}$$.

$$r_{e}=\frac{\lambda_{C}\cdot \alpha}{2\pi}$$

$$\alpha_{0}=\frac{\lambda_{C}}{2\pi\alpha}$$

where $$\alpha$$ is the fine structure of the electron.

From this we can deduce that the electron’s length dimensions are in the geometry of a toroid where the area of the toroid is equal to:

$${\lambda_{C}}^{2}=2\pi(\frac{\lambda_{C}\cdot \alpha}{2\pi})\cdot 2\pi(\frac{\lambda_{C}}{2\pi\alpha})$$

In the electron, the toroidal geometry is confined to a quantum of space. In the photon, the toroidal geometry is released and expands into space with the classical radius becoming increasingly smaller while the Bohr radius becomes increasingly larger, and all the while the surface area of the toroid is conserved at the value of $${\lambda_{C}}^{2}$$.

Thus each quantum photon is expanding through space and is spreading out its angular momentum.

At a distance of one quantum length from the emitting atom, the photon geometry is equal to the electron geometry. At two quantum lengths from the emitting atom the classical radius of the photon is half the electron classical radius, and the Bohr radius of the photon is twice the electron Bohr radius. At two quantum lengths from the emitting atom the ratios are one fourth and four. Thus the photon dissipates according to an inverse square law (irradiance) as it moves away from the emitting atom.

As the photons are spreading out, the atom continues to produce more photons at the frequency of the particular atomic element, and this produces light. As the light arrives at a distant atom of any element, the empty valence position in that element absorbs the light to fill the empty valence position with angular momentum. The absorption of light causes the light being absorbed to lose its velocity of c. The amount of energy any valence position can absorb from light is always equal to the energy of a single electron, which is:

$$enrg=m_{e}\cdot c^{2}$$

In terms of light, the energy absorbed is equal to:

$$enrg=\frac{ligt}{c}$$

In terms of angular momentum, the energy absorbed is equal to:

$$enrg=angm\cdot freq$$

The mainstream explanation for the transfer of energy from an emitting atom to a receiving atom states that photons are energy packets when they are emitted, then travel as energy packets through space, and then are received as energy packets at the receiving atom. This is nonsense.

First, a single photon cannot have inherent frequency, and neither do atoms produce packets preloaded with inherent frequency. Atoms produce one photon at a time, and the photons are produced in succession at a frequency.

Second, if photons were energy packets moving through space, then that would be a violation of the conservation of energy, as light would not lose any energy while traveling (and hence there would be no inverse square law).

And third, when a receiving atom fills a valence position, the energy is precisely equal to the mass of the electron times the speed of photons squared. Mainstream physicists claim the energy of the photon arriving at the receiving atom is:

$$E=hf$$

where $$h$$ is the Planck constant and $$f$$ is the inherent frequency packaged into the photon at the emitting atom. If the energy received at the valence electron is always equal to the mass of the electron times the speed of photons squared, and the frequency of the photon is variable according to the emitting atom, then the value of h must also be variable and cannot be Planck’s constant.

To answer your question directly, the dissipation of light is a function of the distance between the emitter and the receiver due to the inverse square law caused by the expansion of photons as they emit from an emitter. This inverse square law is not something that compares to the speed of photons, or to the frequency at which photons are emitted; each is a separate function in the mechanics of light.

### Kinetic Energy

The following explanation of kinetic energy is not necessarily in agreement with the Standard Model. We present it in order to bring the understanding of kinetic energy into agreement with the Aether Physics Model.

There is not really such a "thing" as energy. Energy is a unit equal to the application of force across distance, or angular momentum at a frequency. Force and angular momentum are the active components of kinetic and potential energy. Force ultimately arises from the Gforce, and angular momentum ultimately arises from dark matter.

When we understand that energy is just a unit of convenience, one can think of all processes in the physical Universe as energy transactions. Although one can choose to see only that portion of a transaction that is of interest, in physics we should account for the total transaction. With regard to kinetic energy, it is not actually a unit. Kinetic energy is the positive phase of an energy transaction.

According to Newtonian physics, kinetic energy is:

The energy possessed by a body because of its motion, equal to one-half the mass of the body times the square of its speed.[8]

The kinetic energy equation thus notates as:

$$\label{Ek}{E_k} = \frac{{m{v^2}}}{2}$$

If $${E_k}$$ is a unit of energy, then equation (\ref{Ek}) is not a true equation because the two sides do not equal each other. The left side would have twice the value of the right side. Kinetic energy is therefore not a unit, but rather a component of an equation removed from its true context. A proper equation using kinetic energy is:

$$\frac{E}{2} = \frac{{m{v^2}}}{2}$$

or

$$E=E_{k}+E_{p}$$

where $${E_{k}}$$ is kinetic energy and $${E_{p}}$$ is potential energy.

Thus, kinetic energy is just half the energy transaction.

Comprehending kinetic energy is easy when compared to a financial transaction. An employee earns a paycheck. The employer pays the employee. Let us say the paycheck is \$300. The total change in wealth between the employer and employee at the moment the check is handed over is \$600 (the employer is \$300 poorer and the employee is \$300 richer.) However, despite the total change of wealth being \$600, only \$300 changes hands. The \$300 paycheck is tangible to the employer before paying the employee, but becomes intangible to the employer after giving it away. Likewise, the employee’s earned wages were intangible before getting paid, but tangible after receipt of the check. Symbolically, the paycheck is kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is tangible, as it is the work done. The employee’s accrued wages could be symbolic of potential energy. The potential energy is intangible, being unusable. In the transaction, the total change in wealth is symbolic of total energy. The fact that the employer’s wealth decreases by \$300 and the employee’s wealth increases by \$300, thus the economy has a net gain of zero dollars, is indicative of the conservation of energy law. According to the standard explanation of kinetic energy, it has no direction, being a scalar quantity. Nevertheless, since dimensions comprise all units, and since dimensions have a more primary nature than units, the units must obtain their characteristics from the dimensions. A falling object has direction toward the ground, which sees a falling body directed toward it. From the perspective of the ground, it could be as though the ground were moving toward the falling object. Length and frequency have direction, nullifying the arbitrary statement that “kinetic energy has no direction.” Since length and frequency dimensions do have direction, velocity, and ultimately energy, they must also have direction. Since half-spin subatomic particles only see the forward direction of quantum frequency, then all quantum frequency must yield positive time. But the length dimensions can be both positive and negative and thus yield both positive and negative distance. In the financial analogy, the employer’s wealth is decreasing during the transaction while the employee’s wealth is increasing. This is true even though the paycheck remains the same value throughout the transaction and moves unidirectionally from employer to employee. The paycheck is merely an instrument of exchange. The employer and employee are the real parties to the transaction. Similarly, kinetic energy is always associated with moving objects, such as electrons, photons, or the swinging balls of Newton's cradle. The kinetic energy of the object is merely the instrument of the energy exchange between the objects. As in the financial transaction, the total change of energy state is equal to twice the kinetic energy. One might ask, “What does the employee care about the employer’s wealth decreasing by \$300?” After all, the employee earned the paycheck and the employer has marketable goods available to sell at a profit.

The significance of tracking the wealth of both the employer and employee is the monitoring of the conservation of cash. The conservation of cash is important to the economy in which the transaction takes place. If employers wrote checks for \$300 but employees cashed the checks and received \$450 per check, then the banks processing the checks would ultimately collapse. Maintaining the conservation of energy in our physics transactions is just as important, not because the Universe would collapse, but because the Universe will not allow it to be otherwise.

Despite the common assumption that an object on Earth falls toward the ground while the ground remains stationary, there is an acceleration midpoint between the object and the ground. The acceleration midpoint is the point on a line segment, between two objects, where they will collide.

The acceleration midpoint commonly vanishes from equations, because it is so close to the ground. It vanishes due to the relative magnitudes of the mass of the Earth and the mass of an object. However, this acceleration midpoint occurs when the falling object has the mass of, say, the Moon. The mass of a very small object merely indicates a different scale. The Earth moves a very tiny distance toward the falling object while the falling object moves practically all the distance toward the Earth.

Let us assume an object with mass of 1kg hangs a distance of 10m above the Earth. The gravitational acceleration constant of the Earth is $$g = 9.8066\frac{m}{{se{c^2}}}$$. The potential energy stored in the Earth’s gravitational field in relation to the object is then:

$$1kg \cdot 10m \cdot g = 98.066 joule$$

The mass of the Earth is $$5.98 \times {10^{24}}kg$$. Since the falling object travels nearly all the distance, we can calculate the distance that the Earth will traverse as:

$$\frac{1kg\cdot10m}{5.98\times{{10}^{24}}kg}=1.672\times{10^{-24}}m$$

However, the distance traveled by the Earth to the acceleration midpoint is a negative length compared to the distance traveled by the falling object. This would make the total potential energy of the Earth with respect to the falling object equal to:

$${5.98\times{10^{24}}kg}\cdot{-1.672\times{10^{-24}}m}\cdot g =-98.052joule$$

So not only does the object have a positive phase kinetic energy of about $$98joule$$, but the Earth also has a negative phase potential energy of about $$-98joule$$ at the time of impact. And since the energy is a vector quantity, the Earth’s negative phase potential energy is 180º out of phase with the falling object. Thus, at the moment of impact the positive kinetic energy of the falling object becomes negative (it decelerates to a stop) and the Earth negative phase potential energy becomes positive (and the friction caused by the Earth’s immovability generates $$98joule$$ of heat.) The total energy exchange of the system is equal to:

$$E = \frac{{{E_k}}}{2} + \frac{{{E_p}}}{2}$$

where $${{E_k}}$$ is the kinetic energy of the object and $${{E_p}}$$ is the potential energy of the Earth. The net energy gain of the system is equal to:

$$\frac{{{E_k}}}{2} - \frac{{{E_p}}}{2} = 0$$

which is the conservation of energy.

When the two objects collide, the energy phases reverse polarity. If the collision were perfectly elastic, the positive phase kinetic energy, made negative at the collision, would again reverse phase with a negative acceleration and negative kinetic energy. The result would be a positive phase kinetic energy with a change in direction of motion. Even the Earth experiences recoil, but due to its enormous mass compared to that of the falling object, it is on the scale of $${10^{ - 24}}m$$, which is considerably smaller than the quantum length. The recoil is extremely small, but it cannot erase from the physics.

In terms of the financial analogy, while the employer possesses the check, the funds the check represents have a positive value in the bank account. However, when the employer transfers the check to the employee, its value must subtract. Therefore, the check transaction reverses the polarity of the funds. If for some reason the employee refuses the check (perfectly elastic collision) then the check reverts to the employer and the value of the funds reverses once again, thus returning them to their positive value.

A good example of energy phase exchange is the swinging ball demonstration known as “Newton’s cradle." If one ball lifts and drops, it has positive kinetic energy in relation to the four stationary balls. The positive phase kinetic energy will change to negative phase kinetic energy and eventually transfer the positive phase kinetic energy to the ball at the opposite end, which will cause it to swing up and in the same direction as the first ball. Since the balls are all the same mass, the ball on the end would swing up to the same height as the first ball, assuming no frictional loss.

With all the balls at rest, the energy needed to raise the first ball and start it swinging will exactly equal the total energy lost due to friction as the balls eventually work back to the rest state.

$$E = \frac{{{E_k}}}{2} + \frac{{{E_f}}}{2}$$

where $${{E_f}}$$ is the energy lost to friction. In other words, the frictional loss is exactly equal to the kinetic energy that dissipates from the system.

As the ball lifts, the source of the lift stores energy in the gravitational field equal to the mass of the ball, times the height raised, times the gravitational acceleration force constant of the Earth.

$$\label{potnenrg} - \frac{E}{2} = m \cdot - h \cdot g$$

Equation (\ref{potnenrg}) is the correct form for the potential energy equation since the energy phase is negative with respect to kinetic energy. The height is negative because length has direction and the ball moves away from the Earth.

When the ball releases, it swings toward the next ball in line. Until impact, the energy stored in the gravitational field increasingly converts into the kinetic energy of the ball. At the moment of contact, the positive phase potential energy that was converted to motion now manifests as positive phase kinetic energy in the collision. Also at the moment of collision, the next ball in line sees an oncoming mass with a velocity, but a velocity of the opposite polarity, so it has a negative phase kinetic energy.

The moment the first swinging ball strikes the next ball in line, the first ball switches energy polarity with the next ball, which then collides with the middle ball while the first one comes to rest. Since the distance between the second and the middle ball is zero, the energy polarity instantaneously exchanges between them. The middle ball has the same exchange with the fourth ball, and the fourth ball has the same exchange with the ball on the opposite end, which, because it is the last ball, retains the positive energy, transferring it to the gravitational field as the ball moves up and away from the Earth.

As the positive kinetic energy exchanges from ball to ball, and as the end balls move through the air, the balls give up some of the positive phase kinetic energy in the form of friction, similar to a free falling ball striking the Earth in an inelastic collision, but spread out over time.

Eventually the rising ball on the end stores all its positive phase kinetic energy in the gravitational field as positive phase potential energy, thus giving up its motion. The ball comes to rest and, due to the Earth's gravitational force, the energy polarity reverses relative to the original motion as it begins moving in the opposite direction. When the ball swings back toward a collision, it transfers the negative phase kinetic energy along the succession of balls until the second half of the cycle is complete. Again, some of the negative phase kinetic energy is lost to friction.

The importance of the energy phase concept is especially apparent when we look at the Standard Model explanation of kinetic energy. In that model the kinetic energy of a falling object collides with the ground, which is assumed to have zero kinetic energy, which it does, but which is irrelevant. The ground has potential energy, and it is the potential energy that balances the kinetic energy of the falling object. In the Standard Model explanation, the net energy of the two is supposed to be equal to the kinetic energy of the falling object plus the energy converted to friction from the collision. So the equation for kinetic energy in the Standard Model expresses as:

$$\frac{{m{v^2}}}{2} + 0 = \frac{{m{v^2}}}{2} + \frac{{m{v^2}}}{2}$$[9]

or

$$\frac{{{E_k}}}{2} + 0 = \frac{{{E_k}}}{2} + \frac{{{E_f}}}{2}$$

and therefore it is assumed that:

$$\frac{{m{v^2}}}{2} = E$$

which is an unbalanced equation.

However, Newton’s cradle demonstrates the actual physics of collisions. Positive phase kinetic energy reverses phase with negative phase kinetic energy at the moment of collision, thus conserving energy. This presents a potential flaw in the way the Standard Model explains kinetic energy.

Another argument used by the Standard Model to incorrectly imply that the Earth has zero kinetic energy is to present the equation:

$$E_{k}=\frac{1}{2}\cdot\frac{time^2\cdot forc^2}{mass}$$

In the case of pushing the Earth for ten seconds and with a force of ten newtons, the Earth will develop only $$8.489\times 10^{-22}joule$$ of kinetic energy. Compare the same pushing for ten seconds at ten newtons to a $$1 kg$$ object, and the $$1 kg$$ object develops $$5000 joule$$ of kinetic energy.

The Standard Model interpretation of this scenario is that the Earth has near zero kinetic energy, but it is the potential energy the physicists should be looking at. Physicists correctly note the Earth has near zero kinetic energy, assume this means the potential energy is also near zero, and then irrationally eliminate the energy dimensions and the tiny kinetic energy value of the Earth. Thus the precision of physics is then replaced with an approximation based on human perception, and which has nothing to do with the potential energy required for balancing the kinetic energy of the impact.

Furthermore, in the case of pushing an object for a period of time with a given force, the reaction force of Newton's Third Law of Motion is ignored; that is, something is providing the force that is doing the pushing. In the case of an object impacting the Earth due to gravitational acceleration, Standard Model physicists again choose to ignore the reaction force of Newton's Third Law of Motion; the Earth is being worn down by the impact and thus giving up potential energy. The employee paycheck analysis above shows how to account for the full energy transaction.

The tiny amount of kinetic energy developed within the Earth is nothing more than a distraction that has no bearing on the transfer of potential energy from the Earth to the kinetic energy of the impacting object.

With regard to the "tiny kinetic energy" argument being nearly equal to zero, one might ask a Standard Model physicist, "at what value is kinetic energy considered to be meaningful if the Earth's kinetic energy is considered to be insignificant in physics?" One cannot make calculations and measurements disappear out of convenience (an approximation), or to make them disappear based upon human choice of perception.

In conclusion, physics equations invoking kinetic energy must account for both positive kinetic energy and negative potential energy phases in order to properly conserve energy.

### Eddy Current

Jean Bernard LeonFoucault investigated eddy current in the early 1800s. Eddy current is a unit that appeared as early as 1922[4]. For some reason though, scientists either ignored or lost its unit definition. Eddy current is an important unit and in Quantum Measurements Units is equal to magnetic flux squared.

$$\label{eddy1}eddy = mfl{x^2}$$

Eddy current also has other expressions and relates to Ohm’s law. According to the Aether Physics Model, eddy current is also equivalent to angular momentum times resistance:

$$\label{eddy2}eddy = angm \cdot resn$$

Equation (\ref{eddy2}) represents the measurement of electron-relaxation-times by eddy current damping. When the external magnetic field from a primary coil switches off it releases the induced magnetic field in a secondary coil. The electrons in the secondary coil quantified by their angular momentum are then relaxed[5]. Depending on the material of the secondary coil, the electrons will gyrate to a magnetic realignment. Due to the geometrical structure of the atoms and free electrons, the time it takes to gyrate back to stable magnetic realignment will vary from material to material. This unit of time times gyration toward magnetic realignment is the unit of resistance.

$$resn = time \cdot gyro$$

Eddy current is also equal to potential times inductance.

$$\label{eddy3}eddy = potn \cdot indc$$

Eddy current is equal to inductance divided by capacitance:

$$eddy = \frac{{indc}}{{capc}} = \frac{{{\mu _0}}}{{{\varepsilon _0}}}$$

Significantly, eddy current is equal to Aether per curl:

$$eddy = \frac{{A_{u}}}{{curl}}$$

Another observation of interest is the relationship of eddy current to magnetic field:

$$eddy = mfld\frac{{momt}}{{chrg}}$$

The eddy current is equal to the magnetic field times momentum per magnetic charge. Thus, the eddy current is dependent upon a moving magnetic field.

According to many experts, eddy current is a complete path electrical current that flows through the conductor as the magnetic flux changes.

According to a web site by Dr. James B. Calvert[6]:

"A magnet produces a pure magnetic field in its rest frame. Anything moving with respect to the magnet sees an electric field in addition to the magnetic field that is roughly proportional to the relative velocity. An electron free to move, as in copper, will be set into motion by the electric field it sees.  ...  This current is called the eddy current, since it flows in closed loops in a conducting plate like eddying water."

Dr. Calvert goes on to describe the physical eddy current within a copper tube. A neodymium-iron-boron (NIB) magnet drops through. "The magnetic field passes through the tube walls at top and bottom in opposite directions, producing eddy currents that are essentially rings about the tube, flowing in opposite directions at top and bottom, and moving with the falling magnet."

In an effort to test this theory, we dropped a NIB magnet down a copper tube. The magnet was 1" in diameter and nearly ¼" thick.

As the magnet dropped, it dropped at a much slower velocity than it would in free space, as Dr. Calvert explained it would.

The plane of the magnet was almost perfectly perpendicular to the length of the tube during its descent.

According to Dr. Calvert, the magnetic field of the magnet moving through the copper tube made the copper tube see an electric current. This electric current flowed along one direction near the top of the magnet and in the opposite direction near the bottom of the magnet.

To test the theory we slit a section of copper pipe along its length, thus preventing any current flow around the periphery of the tube.

Figure 3. Copper tube with slit along length.

We then dropped the magnet into the slit tube. If the eddy currents were propagating through the periphery of the tube, they would not form in this experiment and would drop straight through.

Figures 4 & 5 Magnet falling down slit tube.

But as shown in the photos on the left, the magnet still dropped through at a slow rate, although slightly faster than the rate of drop through the un-slit tube. In addition, the magnet did not fall perpendicular to the length of the tube. Instead, it fell with a noticeable tilt toward the slit.

The interpretation of this experiment is that the eddy current is a result of the angular momentum of the electrons (cut by the magnetic field) times the resistance of the electrons (cut by the magnetic field). Along the slit, there are no electrons and thus no eddy currents, and so the magnet tends to fall faster along this area. Nevertheless, the angular momentum in the atoms along the path of the magnetic field still contributes to eddy currents and thus this portion of the magnet tends to fall slower. This results in the tilt of the magnet as it falls.

We attached an HP 34970A data acquisition switch with a built in digital multimeter to test for resistance. Two terminals were soldered mid-length, one on each side of the slit as in the image to the right. We cleaned the terminals to assure a good contact.

The magnet dropped down the tube while measuring resistance at the terminals. Several tests ran with each test producing the same graph, as shown below.

The spike at the beginning of the drop occurred at the beginning of each test. Apparently, resistance increases as the magnet approaches the test leads and then abruptly decreases just before passing. Then the resistance gradually returns to normal as the magnet moves away.

The preliminary conclusion is that eddy current is an actual unit of electrical behavior. The current produced is within each atom and not within the macro structure of the atoms (copper tube in this case), at least not under normal conditions. The properties of angular momentum and resistance are capable of interacting to produce a combined effect that we call eddy currents.

This, of course, is not the standard explanation for eddy current. The normal explanation is that the magnet generates a potential on the leads, and thus the ohmmeter, expecting no potential, is “fooled” into seeing less (or more) resistance. This is, of course, true, as measurement does show an increase in potential at the edges of the pipe as the magnet passes by. However, the induced potential reacting to the inductance of the copper is also a way of seeing eddy current, as in equation (\ref{eddy3}).

The difference between the understandings of eddy current presented here and the standard interpretation of eddy current is the standard interpretation considers resistance a characteristic of a material, rather than an effect of electricity. According to the APM, the eddy current develops because subatomic particles interact with the fabric of Aether units in which they reside.

## More Example Calculations

We will repeat the slit tube experiment for eddy current above, but with 1½” pipe and 1½” magnet. The length of the pipe is 11.875” (30.162cm) and the magnet is .375” thick with a .5” diameter hole. The data screen below represents the resistance of the pipe at the terminal while the magnet drops through the slit tube.

The markers are the green vertical lines in the graph and are set at precisely the moment before the magnet drops and immediately after the magnet stops moving. The connections from the HP34970A DAQ unit are simple 2-wire setup since we are only looking for a general picture of the action.

The resistance at the maximum is $$880.21m\Omega$$ and at minimum is $$- 162.63m\Omega$$ with a reference resistance of $$358.79m\Omega$$. Therefore, at first we see that the change in resistance is exactly $$521.42m\Omega$$ both above and below the reference resistance. The interval from the beginning of the magnet drop to the maximum resistance was $$897.4msec$$. The interval from the minimum resistance to the moment the magnet stopped moving was $$915.8msec$$. Between the maximum and minimum moments, $$100.8msec$$ elapsed.

The magnet fell $$30.162cm$$ in $$1.914sec$$. The velocity of the magnet was $$15.759\frac{{cm}}{{sec}}$$. Between the moments the magnet started falling and the maximum resistance, the magnet traveled $$14.142cm$$.

$$15.759\frac{{cm}}{{sec}} \cdot 897.4msec = 14.142cm$$

The mean resistance from the moment the magnet started falling to the maximum resistance was $$620m\Omega$$, so we can calculate the average drag during that interval. First, we need to convert the unit of $$\Omega$$ to the unit of $$resn$$ by applying the charge conversion factor to the different charge dimensions. Since resistance has charge to the fourth in APM units and charge squared in MKS units, the charge conversion factor must be squared:

$$\frac{620m\Omega}{ccf^2} = 2.402\times 10^{-5}resn$$

The total averaged electrons dragged at any moment along the magnet’s fall are:

$$2.402\times 10^{-5}resn \cdot 14.142cm = 1.4 \times {10^{6}}drag$$

Since the magnetic charge is directly proportional to the angular momentum of the electron (Planck’s constant), then magnetic charge is also a constant of the electron. The magnetic charge represents as $${e_{emax}}^2$$ or as its variable “$$chrg$$,” so the averaged magnetic field in the first $$897msec$$ of fall is:

$$1.4 \times {10^{6}}drag \cdot chrg = 1.4 \times {10^{6}}mfld$$

The $$mfld$$ unit is the Aether unit, but without accounting for its rotation. Therefore, the unit of $$mfld$$ is equal to a unit of Aether. As the magnet falls from the start position to the point of maximum resistance, at any given moment along the fall it involves the action of an average $$1.4 \times {10^{6}}$$ dragging electrons and $$1.4 \times {10^{6}}$$ Aether units.

Assuming an average magnetic field during the $$14.142cm$$ of fall, the average magnetic flux would be:

$$\frac{{1.4 \times {{10}^{6}}mfld}}{{14.142cm}} = 2.402\times 10^{-5}mflx$$

Converting $$mflx$$ to $$weber$$:

$$2.402\times 10^{-5}mflx \cdot ccf = 9.934\times 10^{-20}weber$$

Of course, a test of the accuracy of this exercise would be the magnet’s magnetic flux measurement, which is not available at the time of this writing.

[4] A Course in Electrical Engineering Volume II - Alternating Currents, McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947 pg 259

[5] Arthur F. Kip Fundamentals of Electricity and Magnetism (McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Toronto, London, Sidney, 1969) 316

[6] Dr. James B. Calvert, Associate Professor Emeritus of Engineering, University of Denver Registered Professional Engineer, State of Colorado No.12317 http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/eddy.htm

[7] John  Backus, The Acoustical Foundations of Music (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1977) p 59

[8] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[9] Edward R. McCliment, Physics (Orlando, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1984) 150

The text of Secrets of the Aether, by David W. Thomson III, is available on these pages. Use the Search box to search the entire book.

Secrets of the Aether is written in a textbook format. The earlier chapters build a foundation of understanding for the subsequent chapters. As a new foundation for physics, it is very helpful, even for physicists familiar with the Standard Model, to proceed from the first chapter.

## Introduction

We take your right to privacy seriously and want you to feel comfortable using our web site. This Privacy Policy deals with personally identifiable information (referred to as "Data" below) that may be collected by us on our site. This Policy does not apply to other entities that we do not own or control or persons that are not our employees, agents or within our control. Please take time to read our Terms of Use.