##### Simple and Symmetrical

For over 100 years, physicists have been searching for a Unified Force Theory in order to unify what the Standard Model calls the electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear, and gravitational forces. Because the Standard Model prefers to view the interaction of the forces in terms of “fields,” this sought after theory is often called the “unified field theory.” The Aether Physics Model reinterprets the nature of the three electrical forces and labels them the electrostatic force, proportion of electric force (or weak interaction), and magnetic (strong) force, respectively, and unifies the electric forces with the gravitational force.

In order to understand the nature of the fundamental forces, it is necessary to understand the structures that manifest them. The Aether Physics Model sees all stable quantum matter (subatomic particles) as primary angular momentum encapsulated by Aether.

There are two types of charges, the electrostatic charge, and the magnetic charge. The electrostatic charge has a spherical solid angle, which it inherits from the spherical distributed frequency dimensions of Aether. The magnetic charge has steradian solid angle, which derives from the interaction of primary angular momentum with the conductance of the Aether.

Understanding how distributed charge angles are independent of distributed length geometry is essential to understanding the two types of charges. While the distributed charge relationship between charge solid angle of 1 and charge steradian solid angle $$\left( {\frac{1}{{4\pi }}} \right)$$ is $${4\pi }$$, the surface area relationship between the sphere surface constant and toroid surface constant $$\left( {4\pi } \right)$$ is $$\frac{1}{\pi }$$. The two geometries do not have a direct relationship to each other, as one applies to solid angle charges and the other to distributed length (surface area).

Further, a toroid can become spherical in nature when its minor radius becomes very large and its major radius becomes very small. In such cases, even though the surface geometry is still that of a toroid, the steradian magnetic charge will behave as though it has spherical solid angle.

The spherical electrostatic charge and the toroidal strong charge have a precise proportion, which is the “weak interaction,” or “charge ratio,” of the subatomic particle. Technically, the weak interaction is not an actual force and so there are only three fundamental forces.

The electrostatic charge is the “carrier” of the electrostatic force and the strong charge is the “carrier” of the magnetic (strong) force. The magnetic charge is also directly proportional to the mass of the subatomic particle (via its angular momentum) and provides the link between the gravitational force and magnetic force. In the end, all three forces are actually manifestations of the one Gforce. The charges and mass could depict as three colored glass panes through which we view a light. The same light illuminates each pane of glass, even though each pane is a different color. There are no gluons, quarks, flavors, colors, or other imaginary particles invoked to unify the forces. The entire Unified Force Theory has a Newtonian mathematical foundation and the calculated relative strengths of the forces precisely verify through numerous experiments.

## Elementary Charge

The physical elementary charge activates directly from the Aether electrostatic charge as the subatomic particle spins in it. The elementary charge squared has spherical geometry and arises from distributed frequency (resonance of time and spin parity direction), which is in turn caused by the reciprocal (maximum) mass of the Gforce.

In the image at right, the Aether depicts as having two spheres, which arise as the oscillation of forward/backward time and right/left spin torque direction. Only one subatomic particle can exist in any given Aether unit at a given moment. In addition, each subatomic must take a very specific spin position, depending on its mass and direction of spin torque. As a subatomic particle spins in its particular Aether spin position, the angular momentum activates the electrostatic charge. For example, electron angular momentum occupies the blue spin position and thus picks up a negative electrostatic charge (elementary charge squared). A positron would take the yellow spin position and pick up positive electrostatic charge. All subatomic particles in our physical Universe spin only in the forward direction of time.

In the Standard Model of physics, charge expresses with a single dimension. However, since all charge always appears as distributed, the Aether Physics Model expresses all charge in distributed dimensions. The elementary charge has been measured and has a value of $$1.602 \times {10^{ - 19}}coul$$. The symbol for elementary charge is $$e$$.

Elementary charge in the Aether Physics Model expresses as $${e^2}$$ and we name it “electrostatic charge”. Thus the value for electrostatic charge in the Aether Physics Model is:

\begin{equation}{e^2} = 2.567 \times {10^{ - 38}}cou{l^2} \end{equation}

 In cgs units, $${e^2}$$ is equal to: $${e^2} = 2.307 \times {10^{ - 19}}\frac{{gm \cdot c{m^3}}}{{se{c^2}}}$$ The $$cm^{3}/sec^{2}$$ dimensions are similar to the Aether double cardioid unit.

Expressing all electrostatic charge as $${e^2}$$ does not change its relative value. All units involving charge adjust accordingly.

Changing elementary charge to distributed units is not an arbitrary decision. First, it reflects reality as observed by Charles Coulomb. Second, distributed charge implies from Aether geometry (as explained by angular momentum spinning in Aether conductance). And third, expressing all charge as distributed is the key to the Unified Force Theory. It is interesting to note that Charles Coulomb made the correct observation that all charge distributes, even though charge units did not express in distributed dimensions during his time. If he and his peers had expressed charge in distributed dimensions, they would have discovered the Unified Force Theory over 100 years ago.

## Magnetic Charge

Charles Coulomb came very close to discovering the magnetic charge:

I wished to use the same method to determine the attractive force between two balls charged with a different nature of electricity but by using this same balance to measure the attractive force, I found an experimental difficulty that did not occur when measuring the repulsive force. The experimental difficulty arises when the two balls are drawn near to each other. The attractive force which increases, as we have clearly seen, according to the inverse square law of distances, frequently increases at a greater rate than the torsional force, which increases only directly as the angle of twist…

Had Coulomb considered that there are two different types of charge, he would have noticed that the second charge is magnetic in nature (as opposed to the electrostatic charge). In addition, he would have been able to express the force law for this other type of charge in terms of a modified inverse square law of distances (as done in the Aether Physics Model).

Another near discovery of magnetic charge occurred when Arnold Sommerfeld and Peter Debye quantified magnetic charge as a magnetic quantum number. They asserted the magnetic quantum number was a component of angular momentum in the direction of the magnetic field, and which could only take values in multiples of Planck's constant.[1.5]

In a paper by Arnold Sommerfeld published in Science Vol. 113 in 1951, Sommerfeld commented:

It is to be hoped that once the connection between $$e$$ and $$h$$, established through the value $$\alpha$$, is theoretically clarified, it will lead to a more thorough understanding of the relations that seem to exist between the quantum charge ($$e$$) and the quantum of action ($$h$$).[1.75}]

As it is, modern physics recognizes only one type of charge, and consequently the magnetic force (strong force) poorly describes in terms of particles called gluons.

Before quantifying magnetic charge, we note that the conductance of the Aether derives from Coulomb’s constant and its relationship to the other known constants of the “vacuum”:

\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{{{k_C} \cdot {\varepsilon _0}}}{{c \cdot {\mu _0}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}Cd = 2.112 \times {10^{ - 4}}\frac{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}} \end{equation}

Scant literature exists describing the conductance of Aether (vacuum, free space, quantum foam) in modern physics. Conductance is the “measure of a material's ability to conduct electric charge.” Electrons do “conduct” through the Aether, as observed when electrons travel in the space between the Sun and Earth. Electrons also pass through Aether in a vacuum tube. The conductance constant is a specific measure of the Aether’s ability to conduct magnetic charge.

Planck’s constant is equal to:

\begin{equation}h = 6.626 \times {10^{ - 34}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec}} \end{equation}

Planck’s constant generally defines in modern physics as “The constant of proportionality relating the energy of a photon to the frequency of that photon.” The Standard Model has missed the fact that Planck’s constant is actually the mechanical quantification of the electron. Also, as described in the photon section of the Angular Momentum chapter, to speak of the energy of the photon in terms of Planck's constant negates the quantum nature of the photon.

Magnetic charge then calculates as:

\begin{equation}h \cdot Cd = {e_{emax}}^2 \end{equation}

\begin{equation}{e_{emax}}^2 = 1.400 \times {10^{ - 37}}cou{l^2} \end{equation}

where $${e_{emax}}^2$$ is the magnetic charge. The magnetic charge, like the electrostatic charge, is distributed.

Unlike electrostatic charge, each subatomic particle has a magnetic charge value proportional to its mass. This is because the magnetic charge is dependent on the angular momentum of the subatomic particle, and the Aether length and frequency dimensions are quantum measurements. Magnetic charge notates as $${e_{emax}}^2$$ for the electron, $${e_{pmax}}^2$$ for the proton, and $${e_{nmax}}^2$$ for the neutron.

## “Weak Interaction”

The proportion of electrostatic charge to magnetic charge is equal to $$8\pi$$ times the fine structure of the subatomic particle.

\begin{equation}\label{WIelec}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}} = 8\pi \alpha \end{equation}

The significance of this proportion is that it represents the "weak interaction" of the subatomic particle. Because each subatomic particle has its own magnetic charge, it will also have its own "weak interaction" constant.

\begin{equation}\label{WIprot}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}} = 8\pi p \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{WIneut}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}} = 8\pi n \end{equation}

Equations (\ref{WIelec}) through (\ref{WIneut}) represent the unified charge equations for each subatomic particle. Taken together these equations are the basis for a mathematically correct Unified Force Theory.

The Aether Physics Model shows that the weak interaction is merely the proportion of the electrostatic force to the magnetic force. When the relative strengths of distributed charge carriers are analyzed, we find electrostatic charge to be 10,000 times weaker than the magnetic charge. However, since the Standard Model views charge in single dimension, it appears as only 100 times weaker.

The unified charge equations dictate a general geometry for the subatomic particle.

## Charge Proportions The graphic above illustrates the two charges of the electron as their solid angles proportionally relate to each other. It is important to keep in mind that the graphic is only for conceptualizing the solid angles; it does not represent the true shape of an electron.

Electrostatic charge has the solid angle of 1 (tiny yellow sphere in center of light green sphere) while the strong charge has the solid angle of a steradian (projected as the dark green band). From Aether perspective, the actual electron shape would appear as in the blue loxodrome image at right.

The magnetic charge has a solid angle equal to $$\frac{1}{{4\pi }}$$ of the spherical electrostatic charge. What this means is that the distribution of the electrostatic charge is spherical, whereas the distribution of the magnetic charge is $$\frac{1}{{4\pi }}$$ of an equivalent magnetic charge, 1-spin sphere.

Again, the electrostatic charge has 1-spin due to its relation to the Aether spherical distributed frequency. The magnetic charge has ½ spin, due to the ½ spin of the angular momentum, so multiplying ½ spin by 2 converts ½ spin to 1-spin. Now multiplying the steradian solid angle of magnetic charge by $${4\pi }$$ converts the steradian solid angle of the magnetic charge to a solid angle sphere.

To keep track of the geometry of the charge, we could introduce a geometrical symbolism.

 $${\rm O} =$$Spherical geometry $$\Omega =$$½ spin steradian geometry   $$\Theta =$$1-spin steradian geometry

$\begin{array}{l} {e^2} = {\rm O} \\ {e_{emax}}^2 = \Omega \\ {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 2 = \Theta \\ {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 2 \cdot 4\pi = {\rm O} \\ \end{array}$

The proportion of the electron electrostatic charge sphere to the electron magnetic charge sphere is $$\alpha$$, the fine structure constant of the electron.

\begin{equation}\label{sphere1}\frac{{{e^2}{\rm O}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2{\rm O}}} = \alpha\end{equation}

Equation (\ref{sphere1}) is the same as equation (\ref{sphere2}).

\begin{equation}\label{sphere2}\frac{{{e^2}{\rm O}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2\Omega \cdot 2 \cdot 4\pi }} = \alpha \end{equation}

## Force Laws

There are three actual fundamental forces; the gravitational, electrostatic, and magnetic force. The weak interaction is not a force at all. The gravitational force is proportional to the magnetic force by way of the mass to magnetic charge ratio. The electrostatic force, weak interaction, and magnetic force all work together. The electrostatic force law works for electrostatic charge at a relatively long distance, but not at a very close distance. Also, the magnetic force law works for magnetic charge at a very close distance, but not at a relatively long distance. The two forces actually trade off, depending on the distance between the charged bodies.

After completing the nuclear binding energy equation, we can predict that it will include elements of both the electrostatic and magnetic force laws. It will also likely include the weak interaction as a term.

## Electrostatic Force Law

The Coulomb law is the law governing the force between electrostatic charges. Coulomb’s experiments with the torsion balance involved spherical surfaces and aimed to maximize electrostatic potential. As electrostatic charge applied to the spheres, the force between the spheres would increase. The charged spheres would then attract (if opposite charged) or repel (if like charged) and thus would move a specific distance. Experiment showed that the distance squared was inversely proportional to the amount of the electrostatic charges:

\begin{equation}\label{kClaw}{k_C}\frac{{e \cdot e}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}

In equation (\ref{kClaw}), where $${k_C}$$ is Coulomb’s electrostatic constant, $$e$$ represents the electrostatic charge, $$L$$ is the distance between the charges, and $$F$$ is the resultant force.

Coulomb noticed that the above law does not hold when the charges become very close to each other. The Aether Physics Model indicates the reason is because the magnetic charge begins to take over. The boundary between the electrostatic charge dominance and the magnetic charge dominance is gradual. The balance between these two forces results in the weak interaction.

## Gravitational Law

Since the gravitational force is experienced by all matter in the universe, from the largest galaxies down to the smallest particles, it is often called universal gravitation. Sir Isaac Newton was the first to fully recognize that the force holding any object to the earth is the same as the force holding the moon, the planets, and other heavenly bodies in their orbits. According to Newton's law of universal gravitation, the force between any two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The constant of proportionality in this law is known as the gravitational constant; it is usually represented by the symbol G and has the value $$6.672 \times {10^{ - 11}}\frac{{{m^3}}}{{kg \cdot se{c^2}}}$$ in the meter-kilogram-second (mks) system of units. Very accurate early measurements of the value of G were made by Henry Cavendish.

\begin{equation}\label{gravlaw}G\frac{{{M_1} \cdot {M_2}}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}

In equation (\ref{gravlaw}), $$G$$ is the Newton gravitational constant, $${{M_1}}$$ and $${{M_2}}$$ are two masses, $$L$$ is the distance between the masses, and $$F$$ is the force between the masses.

It is not necessary to elaborate further on the gravitational law since information is widely available concerning its nature.

## Magnetic Force Law

The magnetic force law is unknown to modern physics. According to the Standard Model, the strong force (magnetic force) is “In physics, the force that holds particles together in the atomic nucleus and the force that holds quarks together in elementary particles.” There is no practical equation for calculating the magnetic force in the Standard Model because there is no practical magnetic force carrier.

However, the magnetic force carrier in the Aether Physics Model is the magnetic charge. The magnetic charge quantifies as the angular momentum of the subatomic particle times the conductance of the Aether. Thus, the magnetic charge of the proton is equal to:

\begin{equation}{e_{pmax}}^2 = {h_p} \cdot Cd \end{equation}

The magnetic force of the proton calculates using the magnetic force law, which is similar to that of the electrostatic force law and the gravitational law. As in the case of the electrostatic law, the product of two magnetic charges calculates from a single dimension of each charge. Since the binding force causes the protons and neutrons to have large “minor radii” and small “major radii,” the subatomic particles may appear spherical. Thus, the Coulomb constant instead of the Aether unit constant is the force mediator.

\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{pmax}} \cdot {e_{pmax}}}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}

The magnetic force of the neutron is similarly calculated:

\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{nmax}} \cdot {e_{nmax}}}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}

The magnetic force law for free protons and free neutrons would probably integrate the Aether unit constant with the Coulomb constant. This is because free protons and free neutrons are more toroidal in shape. However, once they bind, their shape becomes more spherical.

Since the Aether is always acting upon magnetic charge, whether or not there is another subatomic particle present, the magnetic force per subatomic particle is actually the magnetic force of a single subatomic particle (magnetic potential). In other words, the Aether is acting on subatomic particles to produce force even when there is no other subatomic particle around to interact with the force. This must be so since the subatomic particles have no proximity system that can sense when another subatomic particle is nearby, and then react to it.

The total nuclear binding force is the sum of all force acting upon subatomic particles in an atomic nucleus. The total force acting upon a single neutron at one quantum length, even though there are no other neutrons or protons nearby, is:

\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 1.839 \times {10^3}forc \end{equation}

The total magnetic force for an atomic nucleus of deuterium, however, is:

\begin{equation}\label{SFdeut}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} + {k_C}\frac{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 3675forc = 124newton \end{equation}

Coulomb’s constant appears in equation (\ref{SFdeut}) due to the spherical structure of the resulting nucleus. The nuclear magnetic force equation then expresses as:

\begin{equation}\label{nukeforc}{k_C}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = F \end{equation}

where $$Z$$ is the number of protons and $$N$$ is the number of neutrons in the nucleus. The nuclear magnetic force equation quantifies nuclear binding force. We can modify (\ref{nukeforc}) to produce a nuclear binding energy equation, which predicts the nuclear binding energy for all isotopes. (page 236)

As shown in the section on particle radii, the free proton has a very small “minor radius” and a very large “major radius.” Thus, a single hydrogen atom is both very thin and very wide. However, as soon as protons and neutrons bind, the magnetic charge causes the subatomic particle major radius to contract. The major radius becomes much smaller and the small radius becomes much larger. This causes the geometry of the magnetic charge to change from toroidal to spherical in geometry.

###### In the “two toroids” graphic, both the blue object and green object are toroids. The green toroid has a minor radius that is larger than the major radius.

The two subatomic particles adjoining each other tend to squash into a single sphere as in the graphic of the deuterium atom below. Nuclear Highlights, Jefferson Labs

As long as the total surface area of the subatomic particle remains exactly one quantum length squared, the subatomic particle can assume any shape without violating conservation of angular momentum, mass, energy or any other known conservation law.

When subatomic particles are relatively far apart, the Coulomb electrostatic constant mediates the spherical geometry charge. When protons and neutrons are contacting, Coulomb’s constant still mediates spherical geometry charge. The change of shape from toroidal to spherical does not appear to occur to bound electrons within atoms, which have a mass of about 1836 times less than a proton or neutron.

## Relative Force Strengths

A comparison of the Unified Force Theory calculated force carrier strengths to the empirically derived force carrier strengths of the Standard Model follows. The Standard Model attempts to describe force carriers in terms of particles.

Each force is carried by an elementary particle. The electromagnetic force, for instance, is mediated by the photon, the basic quantum of electromagnetic radiation. The strong force is mediated by the gluon, the weak force by the W and Z particles, and gravity is thought to be mediated by the graviton.

To begin with, the Standard Model photon is not truly quantum. There is a different “sized” photon for each frequency of electromagnetic radiation. In addition, all force carriers in the Standard Model incorrectly express in terms of particles. If force carriers were truly particles, then binding energy would be equal to the force of the force carrier times the distance it travels. This is not the case. The concept of a force being a particle is meaningless.

In the Aether Physics Model, the force carriers are the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass. The so-called “weak force” is really just a proportion of electrostatic charge to magnetic charge. The true source of force in the Universe is the Gforce, which acts through Coulomb’s electrostatic constant, the magnetic charge constant (quantum Aether unit), and the Newton gravitational constant.

Here we will determine the relative strengths of Gforce as it acts on electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass. But since the Standard Model experiments that determine the relative strengths of the forces are expressed in single dimension charge, we will have to compare the square root of APM charges to the Standard Model charges in order to observe the relative strengths.

We will begin with the electrostatic charge equation (\ref{esquared}), taking it to be equal to 1 elementary charge in the Standard Model. The magnetic charges will now compare in terms of electrostatic charge. The proton and neutron magnetic charges are each nearly 100 times greater in magnitude than the elementary charge, as determined by the Standard Model. The electron magnetic charge is only 2.335 times stronger than the elementary charge, when we view the strength of single dimension charge. The Standard Model does not recognize the magnetic charge of the electron, but if it did, we would likely observe it in electron plasmas and superconduction.

\begin{equation}\label{esquared}\sqrt {{e^2}} = 1e \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\sqrt {{e_{pmax}}^2} = 100.058e \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\sqrt {{e_{nmax}}^2} = 100.127e \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\sqrt {{e_{emax}}^2} = 2.335e \end{equation}

 Unified Force Theory Relative Charge Strengths Standard Model Relative Force Carrier Strengths Elementary Charge $$1$$ $$1$$ Magnetic Charge Proton $$100.058$$ $$100$$ Neutron $$100.127$$ $$100$$ Electron $$2.335$$ (Magnetic nuclear force of electron not recognized) Weak Interaction Proton $$9.988 \times {10^{ - 5}}$$ $$10 \times {10^{ - 5}}$$ Neutron $$9.975 \times {10^{ - 5}}$$ $$10 \times {10^{ - 5}}$$ Electron $$0.183$$ (Weak interaction of electron not recognized)

The weak nuclear interaction calculates for the proton and neutron as:

\begin{equation}8\pi p = 9.988 \times {10^{ - 5}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}8\pi n = 9.975 \times {10^{ - 5}} \end{equation}

Since both results are already ratios comparing the electrostatic charge to strong charge, they remain just as they are. So in comparing the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and weak interaction, the Aether Physics Model makes a direct hit when it predicts the relative strengths of the force carriers as seen by the Standard Model. For a more detailed comparison of the relative strengths of the forces see our paper, Calculations of the Unified Force Theory:

https://www.aetherwizard.com/files/Calculations_UFT.pdf

### More on the Magnetic Force

The magnetic force compared to the electrostatic force between the protons is 1,581,000 times stronger. The magnetic force compared to gravitational force between the protons is in the order of $$10^{42}$$ times greater.

\begin{equation}\frac{{rfmd\frac{{{e_{pmax}} \cdot {e_{pmax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}}{{{k_C}\frac{{e \cdot e}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}} = 1.581 \times {10^6} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\frac{{rfmd\frac{{{e_{pmax}} \cdot {e_{pmax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}}{{G\frac{{{m_p} \cdot {m_p}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}} = 1.954 \times {10^{42}} \end{equation}

As in the case of the electron, the ratio of magnetic force between protons at one quantum distance, to the gravitational force between protons, is equal to the ratio of the mass associated with the Aether (maximum mass) to the mass of the proton:

\begin{equation}\frac{{{m_a}}}{{{m_p}}} = 1.954 \times {10^{42}} \end{equation}

At one quantum distance, the magnetic force clearly rules. From the above equations, it is possible to find the distances where the forces are relatively equal to each other. In the case of the proton magnetic force compared to the proton gravitational force, to equal the gravitational force between two protons at one quantum distance, two protons would have to be $$3.391 \times {10^9}m$$ apart to experience the same magnitude in the magnetic force. However, in order for the magnetic force to be in effect, the two protons would also have to be magnetically aligned with each other. The south pole of one proton must face the north pole of the other proton in order to effect a complete magnetic force attraction.

There is a popular myth that the magnetic force does not reach beyond a very short distance; however, this short reach is in appearance only. The magnetic force is so strong, that after a certain distance, an subatomic particle must contend with the magnetic force that carries by all other subatomic particles within force range. The effect is a type of magnetic suspension in space. Gravity would have a similar problem if it were both repulsive and attractive. However, since gravity is linear and always attractive (except to anti-matter), it penetrates uniformly through all magnetic charge and electrostatic charge.

However, when a group of subatomic particles has all or most of its magnetic charge magnetically aligned (such as in a crystal), then the magnetic force emerges more noticeably than the gravitational force and manifests as permanent magnetism. Most magnetic effects are due to electron magnetic alignment, but there are likely special cases (such as neutron stars) where the magnetism is due to the magnetic alignment of protons and/or neutrons.

### Casimir Effect

"The Casimir effect is a small attractive force which acts between two close parallel uncharged conducting plates. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field…," from "What is the Casimir Effect?" by Philip Gibbs

The equation for calculating the attractive Casimir force between two plates is shown below. We chose the area separated by a distance to be the quantum length and area for quantum measurement analysis purposes.

\begin{equation}\label{casimir}\begin{array}{l} L = {\lambda _C} \\ A = {\lambda _C}^2 \\ \frac{{\pi \cdot h \cdot c}}{{480 \cdot {L^4}}}A = 2.208 \times {10^{ - 4}}newton \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

The Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir developed the form of the above equation in 1948. In 1996, Steven Lamoreaux conducted an experiment that verified the Casimir effect equation to within 5%.

Looking at equation (\ref{casimir}), we see the $${h \cdot c}$$ in the numerator. In the Aether Physics Model, $${h \cdot c}$$ is equal to the unit of the photon.

"Casimir realised that between two plates, only those virtual photons whose wavelengths fit a whole number of times into the gap should be counted when calculating the vacuum energy," Gibbs said.

It is no error that the equation for the Casimir Effect contains the APM unit for the photon in the numerator. But as will be seen shortly, the so-called "virtual photons" are mathematically shown to be the result of the magnetic charge of the electron being acted upon by the magnetic force.

Using the Aether Physics Model, let us modify Casimir’s equation by replacing $${h \cdot c}$$ with the $$phtn$$ unit and express the force in units of $$forc$$.

\begin{equation}\frac{{\pi \cdot phtn \cdot A}}{{480 \cdot {L^4}}} = 6.545 \times {10^{ - 3}}forc \end{equation}

Because we have chosen the quantum distance for $$L$$ and the quantum distance squared for $$A$$, the numerical terms produce an identity.

\begin{equation}\frac{\pi }{{480}} = 6.545 \times {10^{ - 3}} \end{equation}

The numerical $$\pi$$ divided by $${480}$$ is too close to $$\frac{1}{{16{\pi ^2}}} = 6.333 \times {10^{ - 3}}$$ to ignore. Could it be that the Casimir equation was calculated or inferred incorrectly? Perhaps it should be:

\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn \cdot A}}{{16{\pi ^2} \cdot {L^4}}} = 6.33 \times {10^{ - 3}}forc \end{equation}

A comparison of the numerical term in the original Casimir equation to the assumed $${16{\pi ^2}}$$ numerical term gives:

\begin{equation}\frac{{6.545}}{{6.333}} = 1.033 \end{equation}

The Casimir value is just 3.3% greater than the $${16{\pi ^2}}$$ value. In 1996 Steven Lamoreaux empirically measured the Casimir Effect to within 5% of the Casimir equation. Therefore, the assumed $${16{\pi ^2}}$$ value could be correct.

What's the point of this exercise? $${16{\pi ^2}}$$ is the geometrical constant of the Aether in the Aether Physics Model. According to an article about the Casimir effect research of U. Mohideen and Anushree Roy, published in the Physical Review,

“...the most puzzling aspect of the theory is that the [Casimir] force depends on geometry: If the plates are replaced by hemispherical shells, the force is repulsive. Spherical surfaces somehow "enhance" the number of virtual photons."

The shape of $${16{\pi ^2}}$$ is a double loxodrome and it is equal to the spherical constant squared. As shown in the neutron equation for the neutrino (page 186), Aether folds according to its spherical geometry in order to trap the angular momentum known in the Standard Model as the anti-neutrino.

Of further interest is that $$\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}}$$ is equal to the magnetic charge of the electron times Coulomb's constant.

\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} = {k_C} \cdot {e_{emax}}^2 \end{equation}

So the Casimir equation can transpose as:

\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot A}}{{{L^4}}} = 6.333 \times {10^{ - 3}}forc \end{equation}

And so it appears that the Casimir effect is the result of the electron magnetic charge of the electrons in the metal plates affecting each other through a form of Coulomb's law. But Lamoreaux clearly states in his paper, “There was no evidence for a $$\frac{1}{{{a^2}}}$$ force in any of the data….”137 But even though the force is not an inverse square force, it does increase rapidly with the closer distances, as he writes, “The Casimir force is nonlinear and increases rapidly at distances less than $$0.5\mu m$$.” This is entirely consistent with the magnetic force law as it increases according to the inverse square law, but at a rate $${16{\pi ^2}}$$ times sharper than the electrostatic force.

Taking the area and lengths to be the quantum length, the adjusted Casimir equation transposes and simplifies as the Aether Physics Model magnetic force equation for the electron:

\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

So the success of the Casimir effect experiments is evidence of the existence of the magnetic charge of the electron, as well as the electron magnetic force law. The experiments also provide evidence to support the Aether Physics Model’s assertion that the photon is equal to the angular momentum of the electron times the speed of photons.

To calculate the force between two Casimir plates, measure the magnetic charge of each plate, divide by the distance between them squared, and multiply by the Aether constant. The magnetic charge is easy to calculate, because it is always proportional to the mass. In the Casimir effect experiment, the mass is that of the free electrons placed on each plate.

With the Casimir plates separated but externally shorted together, there was an apparent shockingly large potential of 430 mV; there are roughly 40 separate electrical connections in this loop and a potential this large is consistent with what is expected for the various metallic contacts. This potential was easily canceled by setting an applied voltage between the plates to give a minimum dV; this applied voltage was taken as “zero” in regard to the calibration.

The “apparent shockingly large potential of 430 mV” seemed anomalous because only 300mV had applied to the plates. Instead of interpreting the increased potential as an artifact of the Casimir effect, Lamoreaux sought to dismiss it as the result of various metallic contacts. Lamoreaux did not explain exactly what physical principle he thought it was that produced the increased potential. It seems he would have been careful enough to avoid thermoelectric effects, so it is unclear just what process he thought caused the extra 130mV of potential across shorted plates.

An alternative to the “40 separate electrical connections” explanation is that photons emerged from the Aether between the plates. The angular momentum for the photons would have come from between the Aether units (dark matter) as described in the neutrino section (page 186), thus there is conservation of angular momentum.

It may have been that the short between the plates provided a resistance load. That may have converted the photons into electrons via the photoelectric effect, in which case the electrons flowed in order to balance the opposite potentials of the plates. Coulomb, Charles Augustin Institut de France, Mémoires de l’ Académie des Sciences (1785) 569ff, 578ff [as published in Shamos, Morris H. Great Experiments in Physics; Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein (New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1987) 65]

[1.5] Sir Edmund Whittaker: A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) Vol. 2, 129

[1.75] Journal Article, A. Sommerfeld, F. Bopp; Fifty Years of Quantum Theory; Science (1951), Vol. 113. 85-92; 2926, doi:10.1126/science.113.2926.85, https://www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/science.113.2926.85

 Gluon, an elementary particle that mediates, or carries, the strong, or nuclear, force. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory of strong interactions, the interaction of quarks (to form protons, neutrons, and other elementary particles) is described in terms of gluons—so called because they “glue” the quarks together. Gluons are massless, travel at the speed of light, and possess a property called color. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003

 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

 The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?h|search_for=planck+constant

 The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

 Photo from http://www.wpcmath.com/arts/coulomb.gif

 "Gravitation ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

 The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

 Intrinsic Shape of the Deuteron, Jefferson Labs (Nuclear Highlights) http://www.jlab.org/highlights/nuclear/Nuclear.html

 "Elementary Particles ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

 The relative strengths of the forces differ widely from source to source. The values shown here are from tables the author grew up with, but no longer has reference to. Most sources today quantify the relative strength between the strong force and electrostatic force as being equal to the fine structure constant, which is totally baseless. Some sources also show the relative strength between all the forces in terms of the electron fine structure constant.

 The Physics and Relativity FAQ, as a collection, is © 1992--2002 by Scott Chase, Michael Weiss, Philip Gibbs, Chris Hillman, and Nathan Urban. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Quantum/casimir.html

 Lamoreaux, Steven K., Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6 mm Range (Physical Review Letters, VOLUME 78, NUMBER 1, 1996)

 The Force of Empty Space (Focus, Physical Review, 1998) http://focus.aps.org/story/v2/st28

 Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler Gravitation (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1973) 407

 http://jnaudin.free.fr/