Redefining units in terms of distributed charge and quantum measurements.

The Aether Physics Model constructs units with quantum measurements, as opposed to arbitrary or macro structure-based measurements such as meters, Earth revolutions, etc. Quantum measurements provide a whole number of units for a quantum process or structure.  For example, the primary angular momentum of one electron moving at the speed of photons determines the unit of one quantum photon. Thus, there is a discrete relationship between the activity of electrons and the production of photons.

Constructing units from quantum measurements provides for easy comprehension of quantum processes. Quantum physics, nanoscience, and chemistry would clearly benefit from this new system of units.

Quantum Units

There are essentially two stable forms of matter in our part of the Universe, the electron and the proton. The neutron is a composite subatomic particle produced when a proton binds with an electron. The photon comes into being when an atom absorbs excess primary angular momentum radiated from other atoms. (see Photon Mechanics, page 223).

Since almost all controllable physical processes occur through interactions between the electron and photon, the quantum measurements of the electron usually define the quantum units. As noted in Quantum Measurements on page 22, the electron quantum measurements are:

• Quantum Length: $${\lambda _C} = 2.426 \times {10^{ - 12}}m$$
• Quantum Frequency: $${F_q} = 1.236 \times {10^{20}}Hz$$
• Quantum Mass: $${m_e} = 9.109 \times {10^{ - 31}}kg$$
• Quantum Magnetic Charge: $${e_{emax}}^2 = 1.400 \times {10^{ - 37}}cou{l^2}$$
• Quantum Electrostatic Charge: $${e^2} = 2.567 \times {10^{ - 38}}cou{l^2}$$

The quantum length is equal to the Compton wavelength, the quantum frequency is equal to the speed of photons divided by the Compton wavelength, quantum mass is the mass of the electron as measured by NIST, the quantum magnetic charge is the calculated magnetic charge, and the electrostatic charge is the elementary charge (as measured by NIST) squared.

Converting Charge Dimensions

There are two important differences between quantum measurement units and standard units with regard to the charge dimensions. Charge dimensions always distribute (charge squared), and almost all charge dimensions express in terms of magnetic charge, as opposed to elementary charge.

Concerning distributed charge, the situation is somewhat complicated by the fact that five standard electrical units are already in the correct dimensions of distributed charge. These units are permeability, permittivity, inductance, capacitance, and conductance.

Inductance is equal to the permeability of the Aether divided by length, and similarly, capacitance is equal to permittivity of the Aether divided by length. (In the cgs system of units, units of length [cm] express inductance and capacitance).

So the units of inductance and capacitance already express in terms of distributed charge as follows:

$capc = 2.148 \times {10^{ - 23}}\frac{{se{c^2}cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}} \tag{6.1}$

$indc = 3.049 \times {10^{ - 18}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{cou{l^2}}} \tag{6.2}$

All other electrically related units from Classical physics incorrectly express with single dimension of charge. Further, the Standard Model has usually described the electrical units in terms of elementary charge. Since the Aether donates electrostatic charge to subatomic particles, elementary charge has nothing to do with the action of subatomic particles in nearly all cases (magnetic moment is an exception). In almost all cases, the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle is the active charge of the unit.

The magnetic charge is polar and behaves, in fact, like a tiny magnet. The strong nuclear force, permanent magnetism, electromagnetism, the Casimir effect, Van der Waals forces… each of these is the action of the magnetic charge in a different situation.

In the case of resistance, where the standard unit in Classical physics appears to have distributed charge, there is a double distributed charge in the quantum measurements system of units, because resistance is a measurement of the action of two opposing subatomic particles colliding with each other. Therefore, the magnetic charge is that of both subatomic particles experiencing the resistance.

The table below shows some units from Classical physics and the equivalent in the quantum measurement units.

 Aether Physics Model Classical Physics Resistance $$resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$R = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}$$ Potential $$potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$V = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot coul}}$$ Current $$curr = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$I = \frac{{coul}}{{sec}}$$ Magnetic Flux $$mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$ $$\lambda = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot coul}}$$ Conductance $$cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$G = \frac{{sec \cdot coul}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}$$

The usual rule for converting to quantum units from MKS units is to replace each dimension with its quantum measurement counterpart. When it comes to the charge dimension, replace each single dimension of charge with $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$. With the inductance, capacitance, conductance, permeability, and permittivity units, the exponent of the charge dimensions remains unchanged. The other exception is with magnetic moment; the charge involves both $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$ and $${e^2}$$.

Charge Conversion Factor

The single charge dimension units of the MKS and SI units convert to the distributed charge QMU units by the charge conversion factor. The charge conversion factor is calculated based on the NIST electrostatic charge to mass ratio and the Aether Physics Model mass to charge ratio. When QMU are based on the mass of the electron, the charge conversion factor is $$ccf_{e}$$:

$ccf_{e}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{e}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}} \tag{6.3}$

$ccf_{e}=8.736\times 10^{-19}coul \tag{6.3}$

For units where the charge dimension is in the denominator, the unit is divided by ccf:

$\frac{volt}{ccf_{e}}=1.957\times 10^{-6}potn \tag{6.3}$

For units where the charge dimension is in the numerator, the unit is mutiplied by ccf:

$amp\cdot ccf_{e}=0.051curr \tag{6.3}$

For example:

$1.957\times 10^{6}potn\cdot 0.051curr=1.01watt \tag{6.3}$

or:

$1.957\times 10^{6}potn\cdot 0.051curr=9.981\times 10^{-8}powr \tag{6.3}$

What the charge conversion factor tells us is that MKS and SI electrical units are based upon the electrostatic charge. As will be seen, the electrical physics of the physical world operates primarily based on the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle, and not the electrostatic charge. This alone nullifies much of what is taught in college courses with regard to electric field theory. This knowledge has further ramifications with regard to the Maxwell equations.

The charge conversion factor for the proton and neutron are respectively:

$ccf_{p}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{p}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}} \tag{6.3}$

$ccf_{p}=1.604\times 10^{-15}coul \tag{6.3}$

$ccf_{n}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{n}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}} \tag{6.3}$

$ccf_{n}=1.606\times 10^{-15}coul \tag{6.3}$

Changes Caused by Distributed Charge Units

Capacitance and Potential

Some equations and laws need adjustment due to the new Aether Physics Model system of quantum measurement units, which bases on distributed charge. For example, in the Standard Model, capacitance defines as charge divided by potential.

$C = \frac{Q}{V} \tag{6.18}$

However, in the Aether Physics Model all charge distributes, as Charles Coulomb pointed out. Capacitance already has distributed units of charge in its dimensions, but charge and potential do not. The effect is that when potential expresses in terms of distributed charge, Q disappears. Therefore, it would be a prediction of the Aether Physics Model that capacitance is equal to the reciprocal of potential.

For capacitance to be related to charge, the Aether Physics Model dictates that charge is equal to capacitance times energy.

$chrg = capc\cdot enrg \tag{6.19}$

The charge specified in equation (6.18) is elementary charge according to the MKS and SI systems of units. The charge specified in equation (6.19) is not elementary charge, rather it is magnetic charge.

B and H Fields

Another important change regards the fundamental electromagnetic theories. In modern electromagnetic theory, the $$B$$ field is magnetic flux density and the $$H$$ field is magnetic field intensity. We learn from Clerk Maxwell that absolute permeability is equal to the ratio of $$B/H$$ as:

${\mu _0} = \frac{B}{H} \tag{6.20}$

But since the units of both magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity should have distributed charge instead of single dimension charge:

$mfxd = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}} \tag{6.21}$

$mfdi = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}} \tag{6.22}$

The quantum measurement expression for equation (6.20) yields:

$4\pi \cdot {\mu _0} = \frac{{mfxd \cdot chrg}}{{mfdi}} \tag{6.23}$

which suggests that the actual ratio of magnetic flux density to magnetic field intensity does not equal permeability.

In the Aether Physics Model

$mfxd = \frac{A_{u}}{flow} \tag{6.21}$

where magnetic flux density is flow through the Aether, and

$mfdi = \frac{powr}{A_{u}} \tag{6.22}$

where magnetic field intensity is power applied to the Aether.

Magnetic Fields in Terms of Energy

Further, electromagnetic theory sees magnetic fields in terms of energy.

The total energy in any finite region of a magnetic field where the permeability is constant is the integral of the energy density over the volume or: $$W = \frac{1}{2}\int\limits_V {\mu {H^2}} dv$$

The fact that the basic relation underlying modern electromagnetic theory does not fit into the Aether Physics Model does not negate over 100 years of electromagnetic theory. However, if the Aether Physics Model is correct, all of electrodynamic theory needs reworking.

Instead of seeing magnetic fields in terms of energy, the Aether Physics Model sees them in terms of rotating magnetic field.  The Aether unit is itself the magnetic field. Energy relates to the Aether units according to the charge radius involved:

$enrg = \frac{A_{u}}{chgr} \tag{6.21}$

New Units

After clarifying the definitions of dimension, measurement, and unit, it becomes possible to develop a system of quantum measurements, which allows for further development of quantum measurement analysis.

Ideally, quantum measurement analysis would mirror the physical processes of the observed physical world. If this were true, we should be able to find a quantum measurement representation for every physical phenomenon. Conversely, we should be able to find a physical process that matches any combination of quantum measurements.

In this section, we identify various new units. The discovery of some units, like eddy current, actually occurred early in modern physics history and were either overlooked or discarded. Other units have appeared unnoticed in modern physics equations all along, such as the photon.

A fully developed treatment of quantum measurement analysis would require another publication entirely.  Below is a small sampling of the new units utilized in the Aether Physics Model. In most cases, the units could apply immediately to our understanding of physics. In other cases, such as in understanding resonance, we need to review our measuring techniques.

Units Grid

Sometimes the lack of something speaks volumes. In all of modern physics, nobody has made the effort to systematize all the known units. This is understandable since modern physics has the wrong dimensions for charge, which makes it difficult to find meaningful patterns in unit structure.

The following tables show several groups of units in both their obverse and inverse expressions. All of the known units are included. Many of the units presented remain absent in modern physics. Even with the addition of many new units, it is apparent that we have not even come close to identifying all the different manifestations of non-material existence. The unit of eddy current does not fit into the table structure. Also, there are at least two electromagnetic tables not included since they have no entries.

Some units have multiple expressions, but only one is given. We present merely a beginning of the topic in this chapter and the tables below.

Supportive Magnetic Field Units

Obverse Units

1. Rotating Magnetic Field
2. Aether Unit
3. Electron Flux

Magnetic Field

Magnetic Volume

$${A_u} = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
(also rmfd)
$$mfld = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$mvlm = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

Electric Potential

Magnetic Flux

Inductance

$$potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$indc = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

1. Electric Field Strength
2. Electromotive Force

1. Magnetic Momentum
2. Magnetic Rigidity

Permeability

$$elfs = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$magr = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$perm = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

1. Diverging Electric Field
2. Surface Tension Charge
3. Diverging Electric Field
4. Magnetic Resonance

Magnetic Flux Density

1. Magnetism
2. Mass to Charge Ratio

$$dvef = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
(also stnc or spcd)
$$mfxd = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$mchg = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

Inverse Units

IMFU1  IMFU2

Permittivity

$$IMFU1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$  $$IMFU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$ptty = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$
Reluctance

Conductance

Capacitance

$$rlct = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$

$$cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$
(also Cd)

$$capc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$

Curl

Conductance Momentum

IMFU9
$$curl = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$  $$cmom = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IMFU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$

Exposure

Conductance Density

IMFU12
$$expr = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$  $$cden = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IMFU12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$

Opposing Magnetic Units

Obverse Units

Friction

Drag

Vorticular Opposition

$$fric = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$drag = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$ $$vopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$

Rub

Resistance

Angular Opposition

$$rub = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$aopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$

Plow

Skid

Linear Opposition

$$plow = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$skid = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$lopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$

Hold

Stop

Magnetic Opposition

$$hold = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$stop = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$  $$mopp = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$$

Inverse Units

IOMU1  IOMU2  IOMU3
$$IOMU1 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$IOMU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IOMU3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$
$$IOMU4 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$admt = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$rlct = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IOMU7  IOMU8  IOMU9
$$IOMU7 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$IOMU8 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IOMU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$
IOMU10  IOMU11  IOMU12
$$IOMU10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$IOMU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IOMU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e}}}$$

Electric Units A

Obverse Units

OEUA1  OEUA2  OEUA3  OEUA4
$$OEUA1 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OEUA2 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUA3 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$OEUA4 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$
OEUA5  OEUA6  OEUA7  OEUA8
$$OEUA5 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$6OEUA = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUA7 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$OEUA8 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$
OEUA9  OEUA10  OEUA11  OEUA12
$$OEUA9 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OEUA10 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUA11 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$OEUA12 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$
OEUA  OEUA  OEUA  OEUA
$$OEUA13 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OEUA14 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUA15 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$OEUA16 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

Inverse Units

IEUA1

IEUA2  IEUA3  Charge Volume
$$IEUA1= {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$IEUA2 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2$$  $$IEUA3 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}$$  $$chvm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3$$

Ball Lightning

Plasma

Magnetic Moment

Surface Charge

$$ball = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$plsm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$magm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$   $$sfch = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2$$
IEUA9

Charge Acceleration

Charge Velocity

Charge Length

(Charge Displacement)

$$IEUA9 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3$$   $$chac = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2$$ $$chvl = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}$$  $$chgl = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}$$

IEUA13

Charge Resonance
(Electric Coupling)

Current

Charge
$$IEUA13 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$chrs = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$
(also ecup)
$$curr = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$   $$chrg = {e_{emax}}^2$$

Electric Units B

Obverse Units

OEUB1 OEUB2 OEUB3

Specific Charge

$$OEUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OEUB2 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUB3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$spch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEUB5 OEUB6 OEUB7

Charge Distribution

$$OEUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OEUB6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$chds = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEUB9 OEUB10 OEUB11

$$OEUB9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OEUB10 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OEUB11 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$chgr = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

Inverse Units

IEUB1

IEUB2 IEUB3  Charge Density
$$IEUB1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$IEUB2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$IEUB3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$  $$chgd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$

IEUB5

IEUB6

Current Density  Electric Flux Density
$$IEUB5 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$IEUB6 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$cdns = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$efxd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IEUB9

IEUB10

Magnetic Field Intensity  IEUB12
$$IEUB9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$  $$IEUB10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$  $$mfdi = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$IEUB12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$

Electric Field Units

Obverse Units

OEFU1  Varying Electric Field

Electric Field

Specific Charge

$$OEFU1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$vefd = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$efld = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$spch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEFU5  Charge Temperature  Charge Sweep  OEFU8
$$OEFU5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chgt = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chgs = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$OEFU8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEFU9  Charge Acceleration  Charge Velocity

$$OEFU9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chga = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chgv = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chgr = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$
OEFU13  Charge Resonance  Charge Frequency  Charge
$$OEFU13 = \frac{{{F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$crsn = \frac{{{F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chgf = \frac{{{F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$  $$chrg = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$$

Inverse Units

IEFU1

IEFU2 IEFU3 Charge Density
$$IEFU1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$IEFU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$chgd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$

IEFU5

IEFU6 IEFU7 Electric Flux Density
$$IEFU5 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$IEFU6 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$IEFU7 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$efxd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IEFU9 IEFU10 IEFU11 IEFU12
$$IEFU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IEFU10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IEFU12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$

IEFU13

IEFU14 IEFU15 Charge
$$IEFU13 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}^3}}$$  $$IEFU14 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}^2}}$$ $$IEFU15 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}}}$$   $$chrg = {e_{emax}}^2$$

Inertial Units A

Obverse Units

Light

Photon

Rotation

Vortex

$$ligt = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$phtn = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2$$  $$rota = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}$$  $$vrtx = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3$$

Power

Energy

Angular Momentum

Moment of Inertia

$$powr = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$enrg = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$  $$angm = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$
(also h)
$$minr = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2$$

1. Shock Frequency
2. Light Intensity

Force

Momentum

Torque

$$lint = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$forc = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2$$  $$momt = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}$$  $$torq = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}$$

Surface Tension

Intensity

Mass

$$irrd = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3$$  $$sten = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2$$  $$ints = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}$$  $$mass = {m_e}$$

Inverse Units

IIUA1  IIUA2 IIUA3 IIUA4
$$IIUA1 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$IIUA2 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA3 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUA4 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}$$
IIUA5  IIUA6 IIUA7 IIUA8
$$IIUA5 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA6 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA7 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IIUA8 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}$$
IIUA9  IIUA10 IIUA11 IIUA12
$$IIUA9 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA10 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA11 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$IIUA12 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}$$
IIUA13 IIUA14 IIUA15 IIUA16
$$IIUA13 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUA14 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUA15 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IIUA16 = \frac{1}{{{m_e}}}$$

Inertial Units B

Obverse Units

OIUB1 OIUB2 OIUB3

Mass Density

$$OIUB1 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$  $$OIUB2 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$  $$OIUB3 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$  $$masd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$
OIUB5

Force Density fdns

Angfular Momentum Density

Surface Density

$$OIUB5 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$fdns = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$amdn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$sfcd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$
OIUB9

Pressure

Viscosity

1. Rebound
2. Length Density

$$OIUB9 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$ $$pres = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$  $$visc = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$  $$rbnd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$
(also ldns)

Inverse Units

IIUB1

IIUB2 IIUB3  Specific Volume
$$IIUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUB2 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUB3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$spcv = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUB5 IIUB6  IIUB7 IIUB8
$$IIUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUB6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IIUB8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUB9 IIUB10 IIUB11 IIUB12
$$IIUB9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$IIUB10 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$IIUB11 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}$$  $$IIUB12 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e}}}$$

Inertial Units C

Obverse Units

OIUC1  OIUC2  OIUC3
$$OIUC1 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$  $$OIUC2 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$  $$OIUC3 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$
OIUC4 OIUC5 OIUC6
$$OIUC4 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OIUC5 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OIUC6 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$
OIUC7  OIUC8  OIUC9
$$OIUC7 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}$$ $$OIUC8 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$OIUC9 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$

Inverse Units

IIUC1  Gravity IIUC3
$$IIUC1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$grav = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUC4 IIUC5 IIUC6
$$IIUC4 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}$$
IIUC7 IIUC8  IIUC9
$$IIUC7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}$$ $$IIUC9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}$$

Length/Frequency Units A

Obverse Units

Volume-Resonance

Flow

Volume

$$dtrd = {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2$$  $$flow = {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}$$ $$volm = {\lambda _C}^3$$

1. Temperature

1. Sweep
2. Angular Velocity

Area

$$temp = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2$$
(also rdtn)

$$swep = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}$$   $$area = {\lambda _C}^2$$

Acceleration

Velocity

Line

$$accl = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2$$   $$velc = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}$$  $$line = {\lambda _C}$$

Resonance

Frequency

$$rson = {F_q}^2$$  $$freq = {F_q}$$

Inverse Units

ILFUA1 ILFUA2 ILFUA3
$$ILFUA1 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$ILFUA2 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$ILFUA3 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$
ILFUA4 ILFUA5 ILFUA6
$$ILFUA4 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$ILFUA5 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$ILFUA6 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$

ILFUA7

ILFUA8 Wave Number
$$ILFUA7 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}$$ $$ILFUA8 = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}$$ $$wavn = \frac{1}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$
Orbit

Time

$$orbt = \frac{1}{{{F_q}^2}}$$  $$time = \frac{1}{{{F_q}}}$$

Length/Frequency Units B

Obverse Units

OLFUB1 OLFUB2

Volume-Time

$$OLFUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{F_q}^3}}$$ $$OLFUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{F_q}^2}}$$   $$vlmt = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{F_q}}}$$
OLFUB4 OLFUB5

Active Area

$$OLFUB4 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{F_q}^3}}$$  $$OLFUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{F_q}^2}}$$ $$acta = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{F_q}}}$$
OLFUB7 OLFUB8

Dynamic Length

$$OLFUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{F_q}^3}}$$ $$OLFUB8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{F_q}^2}}$$  $$dynl = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{F_q}}}$$

Inverse Units

ILFUB1 ILFUB2 ILFUB3
$$ILFUB1 = \frac{{{F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$ $$ILFUB2 = \frac{{{F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$  $$ILFUB3 = \frac{{{F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}$$
ILFUB4 ILFUB5 ILFUB6
$$ILFUB4 = \frac{{{F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$ $$ILFUB5 = \frac{{{F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$  $$ILFUB6 = \frac{{{F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}$$

ILFUB7

ILFUB8 Scalar Wave
$$ILFUB7 = \frac{{{F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$  $$ILFUB8 = \frac{{{F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$  $$sclw = \frac{{{F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}$$

Many of the above units are experimental and being further investigated. All of the units with unidentified acronyms are yet to be named. Any researcher can submit new units for inclusion, and if the unit is verified, a footnote will give credit to their contribution.

Ultimately, a book needs to be written detailing every unit, which can be a reference for students and researchers.

As of Jan 2022, a software developer is preparing to produce a math program that will calculate natively in Quantum Measurements Units.

Eddy Current

Eddy current is a specially constructed unit equal to magnetic flux squared. Details for eddy current are availabe in Chapter 12.

Supportive Magnetic Field Units

Rotating Magnetic Field

Rotating magnetic field is discussed on the Aether page.

Magnetic Field

A moving charge gives rise to a magnetic field, and if the motion is changing (accelerated), then the magnetic field varies and in turn produces an electric field. These interacting electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to one another and also to the direction of propagation of the energy.

In the Aether Physics Model, a magnetic field is literally the flow of magnetism:

$mfld = flow \cdot mchg \tag{10.20}$

where $$mchg$$ is magnetism expressed as the universal mass to charge ratio.

Magnetic charge produces the magnetic field as it drags through the Aether. The unit of $$drag$$ is equal to resistance times length:

$drag = resn \cdot leng \tag{10.21}$

The magnetic field is then equal to charge times drag:

$mfld = chrg \cdot drag \tag{6.22}$

Recognition of the mechanics of magnetic fields, caused by a dragging of electromagnetic charge through the Aether, will yield greater insight into magnetic fields.

Magnetic Volume

Magnetic volume equals volume times magnetism (mass to charge ratio).

$mvlm = volm \cdot mchg \tag{6.22}$

Electric Field Strength

In the Aether Physics Model, the reciprocal of the electric field strength is equal to capacitance times length:

$\frac{{capc \cdot leng}}{{4\pi }} = \frac{1}{{elfs}} \tag{10.26}$

Thus, the electric field strength of a capacitor is reciprocal to the capacity of the plates and the thickness of the dielectric.

The electric field traditionally explains as force per charge:

$elfs = \frac{{forc}}{{chrg}} \tag{10.27}$

Electric field strength relates to the electric field when the electric field has momentum per volume of effectiveness.

$elfs = \frac{{efld \cdot momt}}{{volm}} \tag{10.28}$

In Maxwell’s electrodynamics, the electric field strength is more important than the electric field itself. The electric field strength works orthogonally to the magnetic field to produce transverse electromagnetic waves.

When the electric field strength is applied to other electric fields, we get an insulation unit, which is equal to resistance times temperature:

$efld \cdot elfs = resn \cdot temp \tag{10.29}$

Permeability

See Permeability Constant

Diverging Electric Field

The diverging electric field has a unit of its own and it is equal to electric field strength per length:

$dvef = \frac{{elfs}}{{leng}} \tag{6.60}$

Diverging electric field is also equal to electromagnetism (mass to magnetic charge ratio) times resonance:

$dvef = mchg \cdot rson \tag{6.61}$

Permittivity

See Permittivity Constant

Conductance

See Conductance Constant

Curl

The unit of curl is an important unit of physics that has always been present, but which was not seen for what it is. The reason why some physics equations and formulas can produce the seemingly dimensionless radians is because radians are actually the unit of curl.

$curl =\frac{{{e_{emax}}^{2}}}{{m_{e}\cdot\lambda_{C}}} \tag{6.60}$

The unit of curl is prominent in the Aether Physics Model expression of the circular deflection angle equation of General Relativity theory:

$\frac{G\cdot 2m_{sun}}{c^{2}\cdot r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2} \frac{{A_{u}}}{{c^{2}}} \tag{6.60}$ Curl is a unit with reciprocal length, which is a curved length. The reciprocal mass and charge of the curl unit means that curl is a unit of space (Aether), rather than a unit of matter.

The curved length of Aether curl is the arc length of a circle. The radian is therefore not a dimensionless number, although it is often presented as a dimensionless number. As can be seen in the General Relativity equation for the circular deflection angle of photons passing near the Sun, the radian result of the physical matter is the curl of the Aether.

The curl of the Aether is more important to physics than what mainstream physicists have been aware. Below is a table of some relationships involving Aether curl with other units:

 $$A_{u}\cdot curl=c^{2}$$ $$mfld\cdot curl=swep$$ $$mvlm\cdot curl=area$$ $$potn\cdot curl=accl$$ $$mflx\cdot curl=velc$$ $$indc\cdot curl=leng$$ $$elfs\cdot curl=rson$$ $$emgm\cdot curl=freq$$ $$perm\cdot curl=1$$ $$ints\cdot curl=mfdi$$ $$forc\cdot curl=chrs$$ $$momt\cdot curl=curr$$

From the above equations we can understand and engineer physical phenomena that have occurred in the experiments of home experimenters over the centuries. For example, potential times curl causes acceleration. This effect was manifested by John Hutchison when he was experimenting with a Tesla coil and a microwave generator, and it caused a non-metallic bowling ball to levitate across the room.

The equation of forc times curl equals charge resonance suggests that when the curl of space is resonated at its natural frequency then a force will be manifested. This could be the physics behind the anomalous force field that manifests when a large plastic sheet is rolled through a space during high humidity.

The equation of momentum times curl equals current is of particular interest to free energy researchers. This equation basically states that by imparting momentum to Aether curl and electric current can be generated. This equation would be part of quantifying Tom Bearden's experiments for tapping energy from the vacuum.

The equation that permeability times curl equals one tells us that curl is the reciprocal of permeability. By controlling the permeability of a space, we would be controlling its curl, or by controlling the curl of space we could control its permeability.

Opposing Magnetic Field Units

Friction

Friction is a unit, which is equal to resistance times velocity.

$fric = resn \cdot velc \tag{6.34}$

Friction times charge is equal to rotating magnetic field.

$fric \cdot chrg = rmfd \tag{6.35}$

Understanding the friction unit helps in understanding the nature of resistance. Take two objects, such as your hands, and press them together as though you were going to rub them. As long as the two objects have lateral pressure but do not move, then only resistance is in effect. When the objects are actually moving against each other, then friction is in effect.  Friction is resistance in motion.

In the discussion above concerning eddy current, eddy current is also equal to the friction applied to the ligamen circulatus of the subatomic particle.

Drag

The unit of drag is equal to the resistance times length.

$drag = resn \cdot leng \tag{6.36}$

When visualizing the unit of drag we would think of friction, except that instead of focusing on the moving resistance, we focus on the contact surface itself. When charge drags against the Aether, it produces a magnetic field:

$drag \cdot chrg = mfld \tag{6.37}$

When angular momentum drags, it produces eddy current through a length:

$h \cdot drag = eddy \cdot leng \tag{6.38}$

Electric Units A

Magnetic Moment

Magnetic moment is a unit that measures the influence of the Aether’s electrostatic charge against the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle.

The magnetic moment of the electron as defined by NIST in 2004 is:

${\mu _e} = - 928.476362 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}}\tag{6.3}$

The NIST value for the magnetic moment of the electron in 2022 is:

${\mu _e} = - 9.284764703(28) \times {10^{ - 24}}J{T^{ - 1}}\tag{6.3}$

Despite the standard uncertainty, the 2022 version of the electron magnetic moment of the 2004 version is outside of the range of certainty. This demonstrates that there can be more leeway in the NIST values than what is claimed. The following analysis continues to use the 2004 values, as three significant places in the decimal point is sufficient for this purpose.

The NIST value of electron magnetic moment expresses in terms of quantum measurements as:

${\mu _e} = {g_e}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \tag{6.4}$

where $${g_e}$$ the is the electron g-factor as measured in the Lamb Shift. In the electron unit of magnetic moment, the magnetic charge cancels out, since the electrons are acting on electrons. Nevertheless, the magnetic charge terms belong in the equation in order to show that electrons are acting against other subatomic particles in the following NIST measured magnetic moment values.

The g-factor is an essential value related to the magnetic moment of the subatomic particle, as it corrects for the precession of the subatomic particle.

The NIST value for the proton magnetic moment in 2004 is:

${\mu _e} = 1.410606633 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}} \tag{6.5}$

The NIST value of proton magnetic moment expresses in terms of quantum measurements as:

${\mu _p} = {g_p}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \tag{6.6}$

where the proton g-factor is 5.58569 as listed on NIST. $${{e_{pmax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the proton, $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the electron, and $$e$$ is the elementary charge in single dimension charge.

The NIST value for the neutron magnetic moment in 2004 notates as:

${\mu _n} = - 0.96623640 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}} \tag{6.7}$

and can be expressed as:

${\mu _n} = {g_{n - nist}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \tag{6.8}$

where $${g_{n - nist}}$$, the g-factor of the neutron, is -3.82608545 as defined by NIST, $${{e_{pmax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the proton, $${{e_{emax}}^2}$$ is the magnetic charge of the electron, and $$e$$ is the elementary charge. Notice that the equation balances by use of the magnetic charge of the proton instead of the neutron. This is highly unlikely.

I am confident that the data used by NIST to produce these magnetic moment constants must be correct, as the equations above can be expressed in terms of quantum units (and g-factors). However, it appears that the data for the neutron was misread, or the value for neutron g-factor was simply miscalculated. That the neutron magnetic moment depends on the proton magnetic charge, and hence on the proton mass, seems impossible.

The above analysis also shows rather conclusively that all charge should distribute, including the elementary charge.  Based on Charles Coulomb’s observation that all charge must distribute in order for the force laws to work, and for consistency with the Aether Physics Model, we transpose the magnetic moment electrostatic charge dimensions utilizing the charge conversion factors for each subatomic particle. The electron magnetic moment in the APM system is:

$\mu_{e}\cdot ccf_{e} = {g_{e}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}\alpha\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \tag{6.9}$

The proton magnetic moment in the APM system is:

$\mu_{p}\cdot ccf_{p} = {g_{p}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}p\cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \tag{6.9}$

And based on the NIST values for the neutron magnetic moment in the Standard Model, the neutron magnetic moment would be:

$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = {g_{n-NIST}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}n\cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \tag{6.9}$

However, it is highly unlikely that nature has given a magnetic moment to the neutron, due to the magnetic charge of the proton. So assuming the accuracy of the magnetic moment, correcting the quantum measurements changes the g-factor for the neutron:

$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = {g_{n}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}n\cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}} \tag{6.9}$

The g-factor for the neutron must be -3.831359 if the neutron magnetic moment measurement is accurate.

From the expressions of magnetic moment in the Aether Physics Model, it appears that magnetic moment physically manifests by the interaction of the electrostatic and magnetic charges within each subatomic particle. It is further apparent that the electron plays a key role in causing magnetic moment for each of the subatomic particles, or at least in measuring subatomic particle magnetic moment.

The above analysis has been updated from the Third Edition of this book. It was found that after correcting for distributed electrostatic charge and applying the charge conversion factor to the NIST magnetic moment, the magnetic moment of the electrostatic charge with the magnetic charge involves the geometries of both the measuring electron and also the measured subatomic particle as indicated by the $$64\pi^{2}$$ term just before the measured subatomic particle's fine structure constant.

Comparing Magnetic Moments

Simplifying the above magnetic moment conversion equations in terms of the magnetic moment unit ($$magm$$) of Quantum Measurement Units we get:

$\mu_{e}\cdot ccf_{e} = \frac{g_{e}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \tag{6.13}$

$\mu_{p}\cdot ccf_{p} = \frac{g_{p}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \tag{6.14}$

$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = 1.001\times \frac{g_{n}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \tag{6.15}$

Since the electron and proton magnetic moments can be calculated exactly by applying quantum measurements, and since the APM neutron magnetic moment is calculated using quantum measurements, it is likely that the above neutron magnetic moment error lies with the NIST value.

Again, we see in the neutron magnetic moment equation (6.15) that the neutron magnetic moment is based upon the mass of the proton, and not the mass of the neutron as seen by using the proton charge conversion factor:

$\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{p} = \frac{g_{n}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \tag{6.15}$

Based on the minor adjustments noted above, the actual value of neutron magnetic moment as calculated in the Standard model would be:

${\mu _n} = - 3.831359{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}} \tag{6.16}$

${\mu _n} = - 0.96623640 \times {10^{ - 26}}\frac{{{m^2} \cdot coul}}{{sec}} \tag{6.17}$

But whether this value of magnetic moment is useful or not would depend on how the equations used by NIST evolved. If other adjustments compel compensation for the errors in the NIST constant, then the NIST formula will have to re-adjust as well.

Notice that each quantum measurement expression of magnetic moment includes the weak interaction constant of $$8\pi$$. In addition, each magnetic moment unit resolves to a relationship between electrostatic and magnetic charge. This indicates that the unit of magnetic moment directly relates to the dynamics of the weak nuclear interaction.

Electric Units B

Magnetic Field Intensity

The conductance of the Aether is responsible for creating magnetic charge as angular momentum temporally spins in it. The conductance of the Aether, when exerted as a force, produces magnetic field intensity.

$mfdi = forc \cdot cond \tag{10.23}$

The magnetic field intensity acting on other magnetic fields does work:

$mfld \cdot mfdi = enrg \tag{10.24}$

Electric Field Units

Electric Field

Just as the magnetic field is the flow of magnetism, the electric field is the flow per strong charge:

$efld = \frac{{flow}}{{chrg}} \tag{10.25}$

The electric field, however, is not as important in modern electrodynamics as its strength.

Inertial Units A

Light

Light comprises of quantum photons. In the Standard Model, the photon packet of green light has a different frequency than the photon packet of red light; the different frequency means that each photon packet has a different energy from every other photon packet. Further, if the mass/energy paradigm is used, the relativistic mass of each photon packet is different for each frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, the photon packet of the Standard Model is not truly quantum.  The Standard Model presents an infinite number of various “sized” photon packets, one for each frequency. Unlike in the Standard Model, there is only one quantum photon in the Aether Physics Model.

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon is a true quantum. To get light, photons produce in rapid succession at the frequency of the light.  Therefore, the unit of light is equal to photon times frequency.

$ligt = phtn \cdot freq \tag{6.26}$

An introduction to the mechanics of photons and light is in chapter 10.

Photon

In the Standard Model, the photon quantifies indirectly. Instead of the photon, physicists quantify an energy packet and then treat it as though it were the photon itself. This poor accounting creates many problems for the Standard Model.

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon defines in terms of the electron that produced it. The electron is primary angular momentum and quantifies by Planck’s constant. The photon then defines as the primary angular momentum of the electron times the speed of photons.

$phtn = h \cdot c \tag{6.24}$

Thus, the photon expands outward at the speed of photons and has the angular momentum of an electron. As proposed by Cynthia Whitney, the photon remains connected to its source, even as it expands with cardioid geometry (see image page 158).

In the APM, there are two types, or “sizes,” of photons. There is the electron/positron photon, and then there is a proton/antiproton photon. The proton/antiproton photon hypothesizes to occur in fusion reactions and to generate via the same mechanics as the Casimir effect. The quantification of the proton/antiproton photon is:

$pht{n_p} = {h_p} \cdot c \tag{6.25}$

where $${h_p}$$ is the APM value for proton angular momentum.

Power

To find out how much power emits by light at a given distance from the emitter, divide light by the distance:

$\frac{{ligt}}{{leng}} = powr = 1.012 \times {10^7}watt \tag{10.15}$

The $$powr$$ unit is the quantum unit of power. At a distance of one Compton wavelength, the light of one atom outputting $$4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}ligt$$ radiates $$4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}powr$$, or $$4.094 \times {10^{ - 6}}watt$$.

Angular Momentum

See Planck's Constant

Irradiance is expressed as diverging electric field times current:

$irrd = dvef \cdot curr \tag{6.62}$

$irrd = \frac{{powr}}{{area}} \tag{6.63}$

Length Frequency Units A

Temperature

In the Standard Model, temperature appears as a dimension of its own and unrelated to the dimensions of length, time, mass and charge. However, in the Aether Physics Model temperature is equal to velocity squared. This makes sense since temperature defines as motion among colliding bodies.

$temp = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2 \tag{6.64}$

Defining temperature as “molecules in motion” is not enough, however. Because there are different orders of reality, and molecules are just one order, distributed velocity must manifest in slightly different ways for each order of existence. An electron exists in one fourth of the total available spin positions in the Aether, yet Aether directly encapsulates it. The Aether exists in five-dimensional reality even though the electron only manifests four dimensions due to its half-spin nature. If we define a unit such as temperature as “molecules in motion,” we are missing key aspects of reality relevant to quantum existence.

Molecules, although composed of subatomic particles, exist on a larger scale. There are new dimensions of existence added as complexity increases. For example, the perception of color does not exist at the quantum level, but does exist at the level of animals, plants and minerals. It is in this sense that temperature does not exist at the quantum level. Although electrons and protons experience distributed velocity, they do not change state among gas, liquid, and solid, but produce plasma, instead.

Radiation is a case of distributed velocity moving in only one direction, namely outward from its source. The case of standing waves is a case of distributed velocity moving one direction and then reflecting in the opposite direction. The case of temperature specifically relates to the orders of atoms and molecules, which produce standing waves by bouncing off each other.

We developed our temperature scales of Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit specifically for measuring the distributed velocity within atoms and molecules bouncing off each other, which is why temperature seems to both relate to, and be in conflict with, our concept of radiation.  There is really no single term available having the same meaning as the phrase “distributed velocity,” and which applies to all of its manifestations.

The relationship of temperature to energy is:

$enrg = mass \cdot temp \tag{6.65}$

Knowing that 273.15K times 1.2929 kg/m3 equals one atmosphere, we can calculate the conversion factor for Kelvin to temp units:

$K = \frac{{\frac{{atm}}{{1.2929\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}}}}}}{{273.15}} \tag{6.66}$

$K = 286.91Sv \tag{6.67}$

$K = 3.19 \times {10^{ - 15}}temp \tag{6.68}$

Nevertheless, the unit for measuring molecules in motion does not directly apply to the unit for unidirectional radiation. It is necessary to account for scaling factors.

Resonance

Distributed frequency is equal to resonance. Viewing resonance in just one dimension of frequency is like viewing area in just one dimension of length. The true meaning of resonance is lost when we change its dimensions. The unit of resonance indicates there are two distinct dimensions of frequency involved.

$rson = fre{q^2} \tag{6.39}$

Modern physics does not measure capacitance and inductance as square roots, yet the resonance equation usually expresses as:

$F = \frac{1}{{2\pi \sqrt {LC} }} \tag{6.40}$

where $$F$$ is the “resonant frequency,” $$L$$ is the inductance and $$C$$ is the capacitance. (“Resonant frequency” is redundant and incorrect. It is like saying “surface length.”) Equation (6.40) loses much of its meaning by making it appear the inductance and capacitance measurements are square roots and expressing the resonance in terms of frequency. It is as though modern physics has not yet discovered the unit of resonance.

To make the math of resonance compatible with the rest of physics, the correct expression would keep the natural measurements of inductance and capacitance and notate the result as frequency squared. In the Aether Physics Model, the dimensions of resonance are equal to:

$rson = \frac{1}{{indc \cdot capc}} \tag{6.41}$

The quantum realm exists in a five-dimensional volume-resonance as opposed to a four-dimensional volume-time. If physicists wish to understand quantum existence properly, then we must design measurement equipment to measure directly in the resonance domain. Presently, Fourier analysis attempts to account for this shortcoming by mathematically converting time domain measurements into frequency domain data.

The Aether Physics Model provides other ways to see resonance. Earlier we demonstrated that $$potn$$ has the reciprocal dimensions of capacitance $$\left( {capc} \right)$$. Therefore, resonance is equal to potential per inductance:

$rson = \frac{{potn}}{{indc}} \tag{6.46}$

The above equation manifests when winding a flat spiral secondary coil and then covering it with epoxy or some other dielectric. If we seal the coil from electron leaks, the potential rises and so does the resonance. When the coil is fully sealed, then the added dielectric increases the capacitance and the resonance decreases as in equation (6.47).

$rson = \frac{{curr}}{{capc \cdot h}} \tag{6.47}$

Capacitance times angular momentum is the product of the coil’s capacity to hold electrons times the number of electrons on one of the plates, or charge intensity. Resonance is thus proportional to current and inversely proportional to the charge intensity.

Resonance relates to spherical geometry in the Aether unit. The distributed frequency unit (resonance) applies at the quantum level to produce volume-resonance. In the Aether unit graphic seen on the cover of this book, the two frequency dimensions are a source of space curvature. Indeed, in acoustics, two longitudinal waves bounce through each other to produce a string of spheres.

The physics of resonance as distributed frequency extends to the macro realm of existence.  We can analyze a cylindrical pot of water with a vibration applied to its bottom.

Let us choose a 12” diameter pot and fill it with water. The depth of the water is not important to this analysis, but we will choose six inches for the depth. Applying a variable mechanical vibration to the bottom of the pot, we empirically discover maximum standing waves forming at 14.7Hz. We then discover the distributed velocity of the water waves moving horizontally from the wall of the pot towards its center:

${\left( {14.7Hz} \right)^2} \cdot 2\pi {\left( {6in} \right)^2} = 31.534{\left( {\frac{m}{{sec}}} \right)^2} \tag{6.48}$

The resonance times the surface area is equal to the distributed velocity. The distributed velocity is the average velocity of the water from the pot wall toward the center. The distributed velocity is the product of the velocity in two orthogonal vectors and relates directly to the temperature of the water.

In quantum measurement units, however, the temperature of the water relates directly to the maximum temperature of quantum structures, as explained a little later. Since the temperature of water involves distributed velocity far below the distributed speed of light, the value of the temp unit is very low.

$31.534{\left( {\frac{m}{{sec}}} \right)^2} = 3.509 \times {10^{ - 16}}temp \tag{6.49}$

The temperature scale at the macro level of our human existence depends upon the relative velocities of molecules, which are of a more complex order of existence than subatomic particles. The reason that seemingly unrelated temperature units developed within physics is due to this complexity disparity between macro and quantum existence. Further research must determine the scale factors between the various levels of complexity. For now, we will simply refer to the result of equation (6.48) as “distributed velocity.”

The average distributed velocity of the water directly relates to the specific volume and average pressure of the water.

$vel{c^2} = spcv \cdot pres \tag{6.50}$

Empirically, we know the specific volume of water is equal to $$0.01602\frac{{f{t^3}}}{{lb}}$$, which in quantum measurement units equals $$63.781spcv$$. Since we now have the average distributed velocity and specific volume of the water, we can determine the average pressure:

$\frac{{3.509 \times {{10}^{ - 16}}vel{c^2}}}{{63.781spcv}} = 5.589 \times {10^{ - 18}}pres = 3.204 \times {10^4}Pa \tag{6.51}$

Distributed velocity also relates to resonance in acoustics. According to standard physics, the resonance of a vibrating string is equal to:

$F = \frac{1}{{2L}}\sqrt {\frac{T}{\rho }} \tag{6.52}$

where $$F$$ is the “resonant frequency”, $$L$$ is the length of the string, $$T$$ is the force applied to the string, and $$\rho$$ is the density of the string. Once again, it is obvious that resonance is not dependent upon the square root of force and density. The quantum measurement units expression for the resonance of a string is:

$.25\times rson = \frac{{forc}}{{4leng^{2} \cdot rbnd}} \tag{6.53}$

where $${rbnd}$$ (rebound) is the unit equal to mass per length in the Aether Physics Model. Mass per length is also equal to line density. Rebound is a measure of the strength for which an object with mass will reflect off an inelastic surface. The greater the mass per length, the more intense the rebound will be. The above equation is therefore the equation of quarter wave resonance.

Since we are dealing with resonance, there are two orthogonal frequencies involved; there is a wave of string traveling a velocity in one direction, and a wave of string traveling in the opposite direction. In the fundamental quarter resonance there is one-half cycle between the ends of the string moving one direction and one-half cycle moving the opposite direction, which is inversely proportional to one-quarter of the total distributed wavelength.

$\frac{{rson}}{4} = \frac{{vel{c^2}}}{{4 \cdot len{g^2}}} \tag{6.54}$

The distributed velocity of the string depends upon the physical properties of the string and its environment.

It is clear that where equations show resonance as equal to the square root of measurements, the equations should express instead as distributed frequency. Although such a change may meet initial resistance, it is essential to simplify physics by making it consistent throughout. We will just have to get used to saying, “the resonance of an electrical circuit is equal to x [frequency unit] squared.”

Length Frequency Units B

Q Factor

The so-called “Q factor” of a coil indicates the “sharpness” of a resonance curve. The Q factor is a dimensionless value derived from the following formula:

$Q = \frac{{\omega L}}{R} \tag{6.55}$

where $$\omega$$ is the frequency, $$L$$ is the inductance, and $$R$$ is the resistance. In the APM, the unit represented by $$R$$ is actually magnetic flux. The magnetic flux is a measure of the coil’s reactance, not its resistance. In the APM, equation (6.55) expresses as:

$Q=\frac{freq\cdot indc}{mflx} \tag{6.56}$

Q is the value where magnetic flux is measured as reactance instead of resistance.

The Aether Physics Model shows there is a balance between matter and environment and that minimizing the eddy current in the coil results in sharper resonance.  An identity arises from equations (6.46) and (6.47):

$\frac{{potn}}{{indc}} = \frac{{curr}}{{capc \cdot h}} \tag{6.57}$

We can transpose the identity such that:

$\frac{{potn \cdot h}}{{curr}} = \frac{{indc}}{{capc}} \tag{6.58}$

The value of $$h$$ is Planck’s constant. The potential, current, and Planck’s constant are characteristics of the electron (matter), and inductance, and capacitance are characteristics of the Aether (environment).  Each side of equation (6.58) quantifies eddy current:

$\begin{array}{l} \frac{{potn \cdot h}}{{curr}} = eddy \\ \frac{{indc}}{{capc}} = eddy \\ \end{array} \tag{6.59}$

Minimizing the eddy current by changing the material and environmental characteristics of the coil increases the sharpness of the resonance.

Natural Log

John Neiby observed an interesting curiosity while investigating the Aether Physics Model.  He noted the square of the natural log could approximately express in terms of the magnetic charge, electrostatic charge, electron fine structure, and pi.

$\left( {1 + a} \right)\frac{{{e_{emax}}}}{e}\pi = {\left( {\log e} \right)^2} \tag{9.37}$

 Warren B. Boast Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 173

 Warren B. Boast Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 179

 Whitney, Cynthia Kolb, Essay 1: This is Not Einstein’s Postulate (Galilean Electrodynamics, Space Time Analysis LTD, Winter 2005) pp 43-44

 "Electromagnetic Radiation ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.