## Redefining Units in Terms of Distributed Charge and Quantum Measurements.

The Aether Physics Model uses quantum measurements to construct units rather than relying on arbitrary or macro structure-based measurements like meters or Earth revolutions. The model can provide precise units for a given quantum process or structure by utilizing quantum measurements. For instance, the primary angular momentum of a single electron traveling at the speed of photons determines the unit of one quantum photon, establishing a discrete correlation between electron activity and photon production.

Understanding quantum processes is made easier by constructing units through quantum measurements. As a result, quantum physics, nanoscience, and chemistry can all benefit from this innovative unit system.

## Quantum Units

In our part of the Universe, there are two stable forms of matter - electrons and protons. When a proton binds with an electron, it produces a composite subatomic particle called a neutron. Additionally, when an atom absorbs excess primary angular momentum radiated from other atoms, it becomes a photon. For more information on this, refer to Photon Mechanics page 223).

The interactions between electrons and photons are responsible for many controllable physical processes. As a result, quantum units are typically defined by quantum measurements of electrons. As noted in Quantum Measurements on page 22, the electron quantum measurements are:

- Quantum Length: \({\lambda _C} = 2.426 \times {10^{ - 12}}m\)
- Quantum Frequency: \({F_q} = 1.236 \times {10^{20}}Hz\)
- Quantum Mass: \({m_e} = 9.109 \times {10^{ - 31}}kg\)
- Quantum Magnetic Charge: \({e_{emax}}^2 = 1.400 \times {10^{ - 37}}cou{l^2}\)
- Quantum Electrostatic Charge: \({e^2} = 2.567 \times {10^{ - 38}}cou{l^2}\)

The Compton wavelength is equivalent to the quantum length, while the quantum frequency is obtained by dividing the speed of photons by the Compton wavelength. The quantum mass corresponds to the electron's mass, as determined by NIST. Meanwhile, the quantum magnetic charge is calculated based on the magnetic charge. As for the electrostatic charge, it is the square of the elementary charge, which NIST also measures.

### Converting Charge Dimensions

Significant distinctions exist between quantum measurement and standard units regarding the charge dimensions. One of the major differences is that charge dimensions are always distributed in charge squared, and most of them are expressed in terms of magnetic charge instead of elementary charge.

When it comes to distributed charge, things get tricky because five standard electrical units already have the right dimensions for distributed charge. These units are conductance, capacitance, inductance, permittivity, and permeability.

Inductance can be defined as the permeability of the Aether divided by length. Similarly, capacitance can be defined as the permittivity of the Aether divided by length. In the cgs system of units, length units expressed in centimeters are used to measure inductance and capacitance.

The units of inductance and capacitance are already expressed in terms of distributed charge, as follows:

\begin{equation}capc = 2.148 \times {10^{-23}}\frac{{se{c^2}cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}indc = 3.049 \times {10^{-18}}\frac{kg\cdot m^{2}}{coul^{2}} \end{equation}

Electrically related units in Classical physics are often expressed inaccurately regarding single-dimension charge. Additionally, the Standard Model typically describes electrical units using the elementary charge, even though it has little relevance to the behavior of subatomic particles in most cases (with the exception of magnetic moment). The active charge of a unit is generally determined by the subatomic particle's magnetic charge, as opposed to the elementary charge donated by the Aether.

The magnetic charge acts like a miniature magnet and has a dipolar nature. Depending on the situation, it exhibits various effects, such as permanent magnetism, electromagnetism, the Casimir effect, and Van der Waals forces. Additionally, the strong nuclear force is also attributed to the magnetic charge.

When dealing with resistance in Classical physics, the standard unit seems to have a distributed charge. However, the quantum measurement system has a double-distributed charge because resistance results from two opposing subatomic particles colliding. As a result, the magnetic charge is the combined charge of both subatomic particles experiencing resistance.

Here is a comparison of units used in Classical physics and their equivalent in quantum measurement units, as displayed in the table below.

Aether Physics Model | Classical Physics | |

Resistance | \(resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(R = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}\) |

Potential | \(potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(V = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot coul}}\) |

Current | \(curr = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(I = \frac{{coul}}{{sec}}\) |

Magnetic Flux | \(mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(\lambda = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot coul}}\) |

Conductance | \(cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(G = \frac{{sec \cdot coul}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}\) |

The standard practice to convert MKS units to quantum units is to substitute each dimension with its corresponding quantum measurement. For charge, all dimensions should be replaced with \({{e_{emax}}^2}\). The exponent of the charge dimension remains unchanged for inductance, capacitance, conductance, permeability, and permittivity units. However, magnetic moment involves both \({{e_{emax}}^2}\) and \({e^2}\) for charge.

### Charge Conversion Factor

We use the charge conversion factor to convert single charge dimension units from MKS and SI units to distributed charge QMU units. This factor is determined by calculating the NIST electrostatic charge-to-mass ratio and the Aether Physics Model mass-to-charge ratio. When QMU is based on the mass of the electron, the charge conversion factor is denoted as \(ccf_{e}\).

\begin{equation}ccf_{e}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{e}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}ccf_{e}=8.736\times 10^{-19}coul \end{equation}

For units where the charge dimension is in the denominator, the unit is divided by ccf:

\begin{equation}\frac{volt}{ccf_{e}}=1.957\times 10^{-6}potn \end{equation}

When the charge dimension is in the numerator, the unit gets multiplied by ccf:

\begin{equation}amp\cdot ccf_{e}=0.051curr \end{equation}

For example:

\begin{equation}1.957\times 10^{6}potn\cdot 0.051curr=1.01watt \end{equation}

or:

\begin{equation}1.957\times 10^{6}potn\cdot 0.051curr=9.981\times 10^{-8}powr \end{equation}

The conversion factor for charges reveals that MKS and SI electrical units are founded on electrostatic charge. However, it is important to note that the magnetic charge of subatomic particles plays a primary role in electrical physics rather than electrostatic charge. As a result, many concepts taught in college courses regarding electric field theory may be invalidated. This insight also has significant implications for the Maxwell equations.

The charge conversion factors for the proton and neutron are, respectively:

\begin{equation}ccf_{p}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{p}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}ccf_{p}=1.604\times 10^{-15}coul \end{equation}

\begin{equation}ccf_{n}=\frac{1}{\frac{e}{m_{n}}\cdot \frac{m_{a}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}ccf_{n}=1.606\times 10^{-15}coul \end{equation}

## Changes Caused by Distributed Charge Units

### Capacitance and Potential

It has been observed that certain equations and laws require modification in light of the Aether Physics Model, which employs quantum measurement units relying on distributed charge. One particular instance of this is the definition of capacitance in the Standard Model, which is described as the quotient of charge and potential.

\begin{equation}\label{chrg1}C = \frac{Q}{V} \end{equation}

However, in the Aether Physics Model, all charge is distributed. Capacitance already has distributed units of charge in its dimensions, but charge and potential do not. The effect is that Q disappears when electric potential is expressed as a distributed charge. Therefore, it would be a prediction of the Aether Physics Model that capacitance equals the reciprocal of potential.

According to the Aether Physics Model, the product of capacitance and energy determines the relationship between charge and capacitance.

\begin{equation}\label{chrg2}chrg = capc\cdot enrg \end{equation}

Equation (\ref{chrg1}) denotes an elementary charge according to the MKS and SI systems of units. However, the charge specified in equation (\ref{chrg2}) is not an elementary charge but rather a magnetic charge.

### B and H Fields

There has been a significant alteration in the fundamental electromagnetic theories. According to modern electromagnetic theory, the magnetic flux density is referred to as the B field, while the magnetic field intensity is called the H field. Clerk Maxwell taught us that the absolute permeability is equivalent to the ratio of B/H[1], given as:

\begin{equation}\label{MaxwellBH}{\mu _0} = \frac{B}{H} \end{equation}

It is important to note that magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity should have distributed charge instead of single dimension charge.

\begin{equation}mfxd = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}mfdi = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}} \end{equation}

The quantum measurement expression for \(\mu_{0}\) in equation (\ref{MaxwellBH}) should yield:

\begin{equation}4\pi \cdot {\mu _0} = \frac{{mfxd \cdot chrg}}{{mfdi}} \end{equation}

which suggests that the actual ratio of magnetic flux density to magnetic field intensity does not equal permeability.

In the Aether Physics Model

\begin{equation}mfxd = \frac{A_{u}}{flow} \end{equation}

where flowing magnetic flux density is a description of the Aether, and:

\begin{equation}mfdi = \frac{powr}{A_{u}} \end{equation}

where magnetic field intensity applied to the Aether results in power.

### Magnetic Fields in Terms of Energy

Additionally, according to electromagnetic theory, magnetic fields are viewed as energy.

The total energy in any finite region of a magnetic field where the permeability is constant is the integral of the energy density over the volume or: \(W = \frac{1}{2}\int\limits_V {\mu {H^2}} dv\)[2]

Although the fundamental concept of modern electromagnetic theory does not align with the Aether Physics Model, it does not nullify the extensive research conducted over the past century. However, if the Aether Physics Model proves accurate, a significant revision of electrodynamic theory will be necessary.

The Aether Physics Model has a different perspective on magnetic fields, viewing them as rotating magnetic fields rather than just energy. In this model, the unit of Aether is equivalent to a magnetic field, and the charge radius in question determines the amount of energy.

\begin{equation}enrg = \frac{A_{u}}{chgr} \end{equation}

## New Units

Once the meanings of dimension, measurement, and unit are clarified, it becomes feasible to establish a quantum measurement system. This will enable the advancement of quantum measurement analysis.

If quantum measurement analysis could accurately mirror the physical processes of the observed world, then a quantum measurement representation could be found for every physical phenomenon. Likewise, any combination of quantum measurements could be matched with a corresponding physical process.

In this section, we will explore different units discovered throughout modern physics's history. While some, like the eddy current, were identified early on but were unfortunately overlooked or dismissed, others, like the photon, have been quietly incorporated into modern physics equations.

We have started working on creating new units for the Aether Physics Model. These units can be directly applied to our current understanding of physics in most cases. However, there are some situations where we need to re-evaluate our measuring techniques, particularly when it comes to understanding resonance.

The Opposing Magnetic Units introduced a new concept in electrical dynamics. When two electrons oppose each other, the kinetic mass of the units applies across two opposing charges. The charge is distributed in QMU, and the charge dimension appears in opposing magnetic units as \({e_{emax}}^{4}\). The unit of resistance falls into the opposing magnetic charge unit group.

\begin{equation}resn=\frac{m_{e}\cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{2}\cdot F_{q}}{{e_{emax}}^{2}}\end{equation}

## Units Grid

It is often said that absence can be quite telling. Despite the advancements in modern physics, no one has successfully organized all the existing units systematically. This is largely due to the incorrect dimensions of a charge in modern physics, making it challenging to identify any significant patterns in the structure of these units.

Below are tables showcasing various groups of units, including their obverse and inverse expressions. All known units are accounted for, though many are not recognized in modern physics. Despite the introduction of new units, it is clear that we have yet to comprehend all the different forms of non-material (Aether) existence fully. It is worth noting that the eddy current unit does not fit the table format, and at least two electromagnetic tables are not included due to a lack of entries.

Sometimes, there may be multiple expressions for a unit, but we have only provided one in this presentation. This chapter serves as an introduction to the QMU units system, with further information available in the tables below.

### Magnetic Field Units

## Material Units | ||
---|---|---|

1. Rotating Magnetic Field 2. Aether Unit 3. Electron Flux |
Magnetic Field | Magnetic Volume |

\({A_u} = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) (also rmfd) |
\(mfld = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(mvlm = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

1.Electric Potential 2. Electromotive Force |
Magnetic Flux | Inductance |

\(potn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(indc = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

Electric Field Strength | 1. Magnetic Rigidity 2. Magnetic Velocity |
Permeability |

\(elfs = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(magr = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(perm = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

1. Diverging Electric Field 2. Surface Tension Charge 3. Magnetic Resonance |
Magnetic Flux Density | 1. Magnetism 2. Mass to Charge Ratio |

\(dvef = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) (also stnc or spcd) |
\(mfxd = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(mchg = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

## Aether Units | ||
---|---|---|

Magnetic Field Exposure | Magnetic Flux Intensity Ratio | Permittivity |

\(mfde = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(mfir = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(ptty = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) |

Aether Fluctuation Potential | Conductance | Capacitance |

\(aefp = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) (also Cd) |
\(capc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) |

Curl | Conductance Velocity | IMFU9 |

\(curl = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}\) | \(cvlc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IMFU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) |

Exposure | Conductance Density | IMFU12 |

\(expr = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(cden = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IMFU12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) |

### Opposing Magnetic Units

## Obverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

Friction | Drag | Vorticular Opposition |

\(fric = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(drag = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(vopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) |

Rub | Resistance | Angular Opposition |

\(rub = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(aopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) |

Plow | Skid | Linear Opposition |

\(plow = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(skid = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(lopp = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) |

Hold | Stop | Magnetic Opposition |

\(hold = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(stop = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) | \(mopp = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}\) |

## Inverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

IOMU1 | IOMU2 | IOMU3 |

\(IOMU1 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IOMU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IOMU3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}\) |

IOMU4 | Admittance | Magnetic Reluctance |

\(IOMU4 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(admt = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(mrlc = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}\) |

IOMU7 | IOMU8 | IOMU9 |

\(IOMU7 = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IOMU8 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IOMU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}\) |

IOMU10 | IOMU11 | IOMU12 |

\(IOMU10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IOMU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IOMU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^4}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

### Electric Units A

## Obverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

OEUA1 | OEUA2 | OEUA3 | OEUA4 |

\(OEUA1 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUA2 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUA3 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(OEUA4 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}\) |

OEUA5 | OEUA6 | OEUA7 | OEUA8 |

\(OEUA5 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUA6 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUA7 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(OEUA8 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}\) |

OEUA9 | OEUA10 | OEUA11 | OEUA12 |

\(OEUA9 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUA10 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUA11 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(OEUA12 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}}}\) |

OEUA13 | OEUA14 | OEUA15 | OEUA16 |

\(OEUA13 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUA14 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUA15 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(OEUA16 = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

## Inverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

IEUA1 | IEUA2 | IEUA3 | Charge Volume |

\(IEUA1 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(IEUA2 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(IEUA3 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(chvm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^3\) |

Ball Lightning | Plasma | Magnetic Moment | Surface Charge |

\(ball = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(plsm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(magm = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(sfch = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}^2\) |

IEUA9 | Charge Acceleration | Charge Velocity | Charge Length (Charge Displacement) |

\(IEUA9 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(chac = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(chvl = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}\) | \(chgl = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {\lambda _C}\) |

IEUA13 | Charge Resonance (Electric Coupling) |
Current | Charge |

\(IEUA13 = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(chrs = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2\) (also ecup) |
\(curr = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(chrg = {e_{emax}}^2\) |

### Electric Units B

## Obverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

OEUB1 | OEUB2 | OEUB3 | Specific Charge |

\(OEUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUB2 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUB3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(spch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

OEUB5 | OEUB6 | OEUB7 | 1. Charge Distribution 2. Stroke |

\(OEUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUB6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) |
\(chds = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

OEUB9 | OEUB10 | OEUB11 | Charge Radius |

\(OEUB9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OEUB10 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OEUB11 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(chgr = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

## Inverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

IEUB1 | IEUB2 | IEUB3 | Charge Density |

\(IEUB1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(IEUB2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(IEUB3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(chgd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) |

IEUB5 | IEUB6 | Current Density | Electric Flux Density |

\(IEUB5 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(IEUB6 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(cdns = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(efxd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) |

IEUB9 | IEUB10 | Magnetic Field Intensity | IEUB12 |

\(IEUB9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) | \(IEUB10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) | \(mfdi = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) | \(IEUB12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) |

### Electric Field Units

## Obverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

OEFU1 | Varying Electric Field | Electric Field | Specific Charge |

\(OEFU1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(vefd = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(efld = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(spch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

OEFU5 | Charge Temperature | Charge Sweep |
1. Charge Distribution |

\(OEFU5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(chgt = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(chgs = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(chds = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) (also strk) |

OEFU9 | Charge Acceleration | Charge Velocity | Charge Radius |

\(OEFU9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(chga = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(chgv = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(chgr = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

OEFU13 | Charge Resonance | 1. Magnetic Current 2. Charge Frequency |
Charge |

\(OEFU13 = \frac{{{F_q}^3}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) | \(crsn = \frac{{{F_q}^2}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |
\(mcur = \frac{{{F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) (also chgf) |
\(chrg = \frac{1}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}\) |

## Inverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

IEFU1 | IEFU2 | IEFU3 | Charge Density |

\(IEFU1 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IEFU2 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IEFU3 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(chgd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) |

IEFU5 | IEFU6 | IEFU7 | Electric Flux Density |

\(IEFU5 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IEFU6 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IEFU7 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(efxd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) |

IEFU9 | IEFU10 | IEFU11 | IEFU12 |

\(IEFU9 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IEFU10 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IEFU11 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IEFU12 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) |

IEFU13 | IEFU14 | IEFU15 | Charge |

\(IEFU13 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}^3}}\) | \(IEFU14 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}^2}}\) | \(IEFU15 = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{F_q}}}\) | \(chrg = {e_{emax}}^2\) |

### Inertial Units A

## Obverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

Light | Photon | Rotation | Vortex |

\(ligt = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(phtn = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(rota = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(vrtx = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3\) |

Power | Energy | Angular Momentum | Moment of Inertia |

\(powr = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(enrg = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(angm = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}\) (also h) |
\(minr = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2\) |

1. Shock Frequency 2. Light Intensity |
Force | Momentum | Torque |

\(lint = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(forc = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(momt = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}\) | \(torq = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}\) |

Irradiance | Surface Tension | Intensity | Mass |

\(irrd = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3\) | \(sten = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(ints = {m_e} \cdot {F_q}\) | \(mass = {m_e}\) |

## Inverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

IIUA1 | IIUA2 | IIUA3 | IIUA4 |

\(IIUA1 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUA2 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUA3 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IIUA4 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3}}\) |

IIUA5 | IIUA6 | IIUA7 | IIUA8 |

\(IIUA5 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUA6 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUA7 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IIUA8 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}\) |

IIUA9 | IIUA10 | IIUA11 | IIUA12 |

\(IIUA9 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUA10 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUA11 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IIUA12 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}\) |

IIUA13 | IIUA14 | IIUA15 | IIUA16 |

\(IIUA13 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUA14 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUA15 = \frac{1}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IIUA16 = \frac{1}{{{m_e}}}\) |

### Inertial Units B

## Obverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

OIUB1 | OIUB2 | OIUB3 | Mass Density |

\(OIUB1 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(OIUB2 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(OIUB3 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) | \(masd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}}\) |

OIUB5 | Force Density | Angular Momentum Density | Surface Density |

\(OIUB5 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(fdns = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(amdn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) | \(sfcd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\) |

OIUB9 | Pressure | Viscosity | 1. Rebound 2. Length Density |

\(OIUB9 = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) | \(pres = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) | \(visc = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) | \(ldns = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}}}\) (also rbnd) |

## Inverse Units | |||
---|---|---|---|

IIUB1 | IIUB2 | IIUB3 | Specific Volume |

\(IIUB1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUB2 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUB3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(spcv = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

IIUB5 | IIUB6 | IIUB7 | IIUB8 |

\(IIUB5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUB6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUB7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IIUB8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

IIUB9 | IIUB10 | IIUB11 | IIUB12 |

\(IIUB9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(IIUB10 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(IIUB11 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}}}\) | \(IIUB12 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

### Inertial Units C

## Obverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

OIUC1 | OIUC2 | OIUC3 |

\(OIUC1 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OIUC2 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OIUC3 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}\) |

OIUC4 | OIUC5 | OIUC6 |

\(OIUC4 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OIUC5 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OIUC6 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}\) |

OIUC7 | OIUC8 | OIUC9 |

\(OIUC7 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}\) | \(OIUC8 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}\) | \(OIUC9 = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}\) |

## Inverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

IIUC1 | Gravity | IIUC3 |

\(IIUC1 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(grav = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(IIUC3 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

IIUC4 | IIUC5 | IIUC6 |

\(IIUC4 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(IIUC5 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(IIUC6 = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

IIUC7 | IIUC8 | IIUC9 |

\(IIUC7 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^3}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(IIUC8 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_e}}}\) | \(IIUC9 = \frac{{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}}{{{m_e}}}\) |

### Length/Frequency Units A

## Obverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

1. Double Toroid |
Flow | Volume |

\(dtrd = {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(flow = {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(volm = {\lambda _C}^3\) |

1. Radiation Dose 1. Temperature |
1. Sweep 2. Angular Velocity |
Area |

\(temp = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2\) (also rdtn) |
\(swep = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}\) | \(area = {\lambda _C}^2\) |

Acceleration | Velocity | Length |

\(accl = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2\) | \(velc = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}\) | \(leng = {\lambda _C}\) |

Resonance | Frequency | |

\(rson = {F_q}^{2}\) | \(freq = {F_q}\) |

## Inverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

ILFUA1 | ILFUA2 | Field Intensity |

\(ILFUA1 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{3} \cdot {F_q}^{2}}\) | \(ILFUA2 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{3} \cdot {F_q}}\) | \(fint = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}\) |

ILFUA4 | ILFUA5 | Bending Radius |

\(ILFUA4 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{2} \cdot {F_q}^{2}}\) | \(ILFUA5 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{2} \cdot {F_q}}\) | \(bndr = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}\) |

ILFUA7 | ILFUA8 | Wave Number |

\(ILFUA7 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^{2}}\) | \(ILFUA8 = \frac{1}{{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}}\) | \(wavn = \frac{1}{\lambda _C}\) |

Orbit | Time | |

\(orbt = \frac{1}{{F_q}^{2}}\) | \(time = \frac{1}{F_q}\) |

### Length/Frequency Units B

## Obverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

OLFUB1 | OLFUB2 | Volume-Time |

\(OLFUB1 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{3}}{{F_q}^{3}}\) | \(OLFUB1 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{3}}{{F_q}^{2}}\) | \(vlmt = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{3}}{F_q}\) |

OLFUB4 | OLFUB5 | Active Area |

\(OLFUB4 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{2}}{{F_q}^{3}}\) | \(OLFUB5 = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{2}}{{F_q}^{2}}\) | \(acta = \frac{{\lambda _C}^{2}}{F_q}\) |

OLFUB7 | OLFUB8 | Dynamic Length |

\(OLFUB7 = \frac{{\lambda _C}}{{F_q}{^3}}\) | \(OLFUB8 = \frac{{\lambda _C}}{{F_q}^{2}}\) | \(dynl = \frac{{\lambda _C}}{F_q}\) |

## Inverse Units | ||
---|---|---|

ILFUB1 | Volumetric Resonance | Volumetric Wave Frequency per Volume |

\(ILFUB1 = \frac{{F_q}^{3}}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}\) | \(vlmr = \frac{{F_q}^{2}}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}\) | \(vlmw = \frac{F_q}{{\lambda _C}^{3}}\) |

ILFUB4 | Transverse Resonance | Transverse Wave Frequency per Area |

\(ILFUB4 = \frac{{F_q}^{3}}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}\) | \(tvsr = \frac{{F_q}^{2}}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}\) | \(tvsw = \frac{{F_q}}{{\lambda _C}^{2}}\) |

ILFUB7 | Scalar Resonance | Scalar Wave Vorticity |

\(ILFUB7 = \frac{{F_q}^{3}}{{\lambda _C}}\) | \(sclr = \frac{{F_q}^{2}}{{\lambda _C}}\) | \(sclw = \frac{F_q}{\lambda _C}\) |

Several of the aforementioned units are currently undergoing experimentation and research. Units with acronyms that have not been identified are still awaiting proper names. Researchers have the opportunity to propose new units for consideration. If their unit is confirmed, their contribution will be acknowledged in a footnote.

## Eddy Current Unit

Eddy current is a specially constructed unit equal to magnetic flux squared [6]. Details for eddy current are available in Chapter 12.

## Supportive Magnetic Field Units

### Rotating Magnetic Field

The rotating magnetic field is discussed on the Aether page.

### Magnetic Field

A moving charge gives rise to a magnetic field, and if the motion is changing (accelerated), then the magnetic field varies and in turn produces an electric field. These interacting electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to one another and the direction of energy propagation.[7]

In the Aether Physics Model, a magnetic field is literally the flow of magnetism:

\begin{equation}mfld = flow \cdot mchg \end{equation}

where \(mchg\) is magnetism expressed as the universal mass-to-charge ratio.

Magnetic charge produces the magnetic field as it drags through the Aether. The unit of \(drag\) is equal to resistance times length:

\begin{equation}drag = resn \cdot leng \end{equation}

The magnetic field is then equal to charge times drag:

\begin{equation}mfld = chrg \cdot drag \end{equation}

The Maxwellian "magnetic fields" (magnetic flux density, magnetic field intensity, magnetic flux, etc.) are not truly the magnetic field but are rather various aspects of the magnetic field. The magnetic field is the whole volumetric flow of magnetism in Aether, where the "flow" manifests in different modes (area times velocity, volume times frequency, length times angular momentum).

### Magnetic Volume

Magnetic volume equals volume times magnetism (mass-to-charge ratio).

\begin{equation}mvlm = volm \cdot mchg \end{equation}

### Potential

Physicists have, until the Aether Physics Model, not quantified electricity properly.The dimension of magnetic charge has gone unnoticed for three hundred years.The unit of "potential" is the result of the action of the magnetic charge of the electron and not of its electrostatic charge. In Ohm's law, what everyone had thought was electric potential caused by electrostatic charge is actually electric potential caused by magnetic charge. In the Aether Physics Model, it is so stated that its meaning is made clear.

Potential can be thought of as energy per magnetic charge:

\begin{equation}potn=\frac{enrg}{chrg}\end{equation}

Temperature times magnetism:

\begin{equation}potn = temp \cdot mchg \end{equation}

Current times resistance:

\begin{equation}potn = curr \cdot resn \end{equation}

Inductance times resonance:

\begin{equation}potn = indc \cdot rson \end{equation}

Magnetic flux times frequency:

\begin{equation}potn = mflx \cdot freq \end{equation}

Permeability times acceleration:

\begin{equation}potn = perm \cdot accl \end{equation}

And in the Aether Physics Model, the magnetic potential is reciprocal to capacitance:

\begin{equation}potn = \frac{1}{capc} \end{equation}

To know the capacitance of something, measure its potential and take the reciprocal measurement. If you use a standard voltmeter designed around electrostatic charge (as all voltmeters today are), then multiply the volt reading by ccf before using the reciprocal reading as farads:

\begin{equation}capc = \frac{1}{volt \cdot ccf} \end{equation}

### Magnetic Flux

Magnetic flux is equal to sweep times magnetism.

\begin{equation}mflx = swe[ \cdot mchg \end{equation}

### Inductance

Inductance is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems that are already expressed in dimensions of distributed charge. Measurements in inductance from the MKS and SI systems of units stay the same in the Quantum Measurements Units.

\begin{equation}indc = 3.831\times 10^{-17}henry \end{equation}

Inductance is equal to area times magnetism:

\begin{equation}indc = area \cdot mchg \end{equation}

To calculate the curl of a solenoid coil knowing the coil's inductance and winding length, we would use the equation:

\begin{equation}\frac{leng}{indc} = \frac{curl}{2} \end{equation}

Where the result is given in radians. The reciprocal of the curl gives the number of turns of the coil in units of permeability (\(perm\)):

\begin{equation}\frac{indc}{leng} = 2 \cdot perm \end{equation}

Or we could write:

\begin{equation}indc = 2 perm \cdot leng \end{equation}

For example, for the coil where:

- Inductance equals \(15.80 mH\), which equals \(4.124\times 10^{14}indc\)
- Length equals \(34.20 cm\), which equals \(1.410\times 10^{11}leng\)

\begin{equation}\frac{4.124\times 10^{14} indc}{1.410\times 10^{11} leng} = 1463 \cdot 2 perm \end{equation}

Or 1463 turns. The wire length required for the coil computes as the length of the coil times the circumference of the coil form divided by the wire gauge:

\begin{equation}\frac{length\cdot diameter\cdot \pi}{gauge}=wirelength\end{equation}

The inductance depends on the number of turns and the length of the coil windings. The choice of coil form diameter is arbitrary except that the larger the diameter and the smaller the wire gauge, the more wire length will be required; hence, the more resistance there will be in the conductor.

The cause of the \(2 perm\) and \(\frac{curl}{2}\) terms is due to the effect of the Aether interacting with physical matter of which neutrons compose half. Neutrons are electrons folded over on top of protons, which pinch two Aether units into the space of one neutron. This principle underlies the diffraction of light around massive bodies and the precession of the perigee of orbits around massive bodies (General Relativity theory).

### Electric Field Strength

In the Aether Physics Model, the reciprocal of the electric field strength is equal to capacitance times length:

\begin{equation}\frac{{capc \cdot leng}}{{4\pi }} = \frac{1}{{elfs}} \end{equation}

Thus, the electric field strength of a capacitor is reciprocal to the capacity of the plates and the thickness of the dielectric.

The electric field is traditionally explained as force per charge:

\begin{equation}elfs = \frac{{forc}}{{chrg}} \end{equation}

Electric field strength relates to the electric field when the electric field has momentum per volume of effectiveness.

\begin{equation}elfs = \frac{{efld \cdot momt}}{{volm}} \end{equation}

In Maxwell’s electrodynamics, the electric field strength is more important than the electric field. The electric field strength works orthogonally to the magnetic field to produce transverse electromagnetic waves.

When the electric field strength is applied to other electric fields, we get an insulation unit, which is equal to resistance times temperature:

\begin{equation}efld \cdot elfs = resn \cdot temp \end{equation}

Electric field strength is also known as electromotive force in the Standard Model.

### Magnetic Rigidity

Magnetic rigidity can also be thought of as magnetic velocity:

\begin{equation}magr = velc \cdot mchg \end{equation}

### Permeability

See Permeability Constant

Permeability is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems that already express in dimensions of distributed charge.

### Diverging Electric Field

The diverging electric field has a unit of its own, and it is equal to the electric field strength per length:

\begin{equation}dvef = \frac{{elfs}}{{leng}} \end{equation}

Diverging electric field is also equal to electromagnetism (mass to magnetic charge ratio) times resonance:

\begin{equation}dvef = mchg \cdot rson \end{equation}

### Magnetic Flux Density

Magnetic flux density is the amount of magnetic flux through a unit area taken perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic flux.

### Magnetism

### Magnetic Field Exposure

Magnetic field exposure is represented as a volumetric wave per magnetic flux density and may relate to the concentration of exposure effects.

\begin{equation}mfde=\frac{vlmw}{mfxd}\end{equation}

Claude directly contributed to the discovery of this unit.

### Magnetic Flux Intensity Ratio

The Magnetic Flux Intensity Ratio represents the ratio of magnetic field intensity to energy density.

\begin{equation}mfir=\frac{mfdi}{enrg}\end{equation}

The magnetic flux intensity ratio can also be seen as field intensity per magnetic flux density.

\begin{equation}mfir=\frac{fint}{mfxd}\end{equation}

Claude directly contributed to the discovery of this unit.

### Permittivity

See Permittivity Constant

Permittivity is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already expresses the charge dimensions as distributed charge.

### Aether Fluctuation Potential

The aefp unit represents the inherent capacity of the quantum aether to produce virtual excitations and quantum fluctuations intrinsically, independent of matter, energy, or information.

Dimensionally, aefp is equal to:

\begin{equation}aefp = \frac{{e_{emax}}^{2}}{m_e \cdot {\lambda_C}^{2}}\end{equation}

This unit relates the electron's intrinsic charge and mass to the quantum geometry of the Aether, represented by the Compton wavelength.

Significantly, aefp is the inverse of inductance (indc). While inductance involves the manipulation of the Aether by physical matter, aefp reflects the latent fluctuation potential of the Aether itself, unprompted by matter.

The aefp unit encapsulates the inherent ability of the quantum aether to induce resonant frequencies, accelerations, and other phenomena without external stimulation. It represents the underlying quantum jitter, fluctuations, and stochastic incitation arising intrinsically from the Aether.

Through relationships like \(aefp = \frac{rson}{potn}\), the unit reveals the Aether's capacity to produce excitations probabilistically based on its permeability and permittivity - analogous to the way virtual particles spontaneously arise from the quantum vacuum.

Specific contexts where aefp may manifest include particle decays, symmetry breaking, mass acquisition, and the Lamb shift. The unit likely relates to the cosmologic constant and issues of vacuum energy density.

By quantifying the Aether's latent potential for excitation without cause, the Aether Fluctuation Potential unit provides deeper insight into the quantum virtual processes that the Aether can spontaneously produce independent of matter, energy, or information. [Claude wrote this explanation for Aether Fluctuation Potential.]

Conductance

See Conductance Constant

Conductance is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already expresses the charge dimensions as distributed charge.

### Capacitance

Capacitance is one of the five units from the MKS and SI systems of units that already expresses the charge dimensions as distributed charge.

### Curl

The curl unit is an important unit of physics that has always been present but was not seen for what it is. Some physics equations and formulas can produce seemingly dimensionless radians because radians are the curl unit.

\begin{equation}curl =\frac{{{e_{emax}}^{2}}}{{m_{e}\cdot\lambda_{C}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}curl =6.333\times 10^{4}\frac{coul^{2}}{kg\cdot m} \end{equation}

The unit of curl is prominent in the Aether Physics Model expression of the circular deflection angle equation of General Relativity theory:

\begin{equation}\frac{G\cdot 2m_{sun}}{c^{2}\cdot r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2} \frac{{A_{u}}}{{c^{2}}} \end{equation}

Curl is a unit with reciprocal length, a cyclical length known as wave number. The reciprocal mass and charge of the curl unit means that curl is a unit of space (Aether) rather than a unit of matter.

The curved length of Aether curl is the arc length of a circle. The radian is, therefore, not a dimensionless number, although it is often presented as a dimensionless number. As can be seen in the General Relativity equation for the circular deflection angle of photons passing near the Sun, the radian result of the physical matter is the curl of the Aether.

The curl of the Aether is more important to physics than mainstream physicists have been aware of. Below is a table of some relationships involving Aether curl with other units:

\(A_{u}\cdot curl=c^{2}\) | \(mfld\cdot curl=swep\) | \(mvlm\cdot curl=area\) |

\(potn\cdot curl=accl\) | \(mflx\cdot curl=velc\) | \(indc\cdot curl=leng\) |

\(elfs\cdot curl=rson\) | \(emgm\cdot curl=freq\) | \(perm\cdot curl=1\) |

\(ints\cdot curl=mfdi\) | \(forc\cdot curl=chrs\) | \(momt\cdot curl=curr\) |

From the above equations, we can understand and engineer physical phenomena that have occurred in the experiments of home experimenters over the centuries. For example, potential times curl causes acceleration. This effect was manifested by John Hutchison when he was experimenting with a Tesla coil and a microwave generator, and it caused a non-metallic bowling ball to levitate across the room.

The equation of forc times curl equals charge resonance suggests that a force will manifest when the curl of space is resonated at its natural frequency. This could be the physics behind the anomalous force field that manifests when a large plastic sheet is rolled through a location during high humidity.

The "momentum times curl equals current" equation interests free energy researchers. This equation basically states that by imparting momentum to Aether curl an electric current can be generated. This equation would be part of quantifying Tom Bearden's experiments for tapping energy from the vacuum.

The equation that permeability times curl equals one tells us that curl is the reciprocal of permeability. By controlling the permeability of space, we would be controlling its curl, or by controlling the curl of space, we could control its permeability.

When calculating the inductance of a coil, the inductance is equal to the length of the wire times its curl:

\begin{equation}\label{indc_wire}indc=\frac{leng}{curl}\end{equation}

where again, the numerical portion of the curl unit expresses in radians.

### Conductance Velocity

Claude suggests that conceptualizing sweep as a scanning motion per a broom analogy that cvlc may represent something like:

- The "scanning" effect of a varying electromagnetic field through the quantum Aether.
- Or the rate of change in Aether excitation as an EM field sweeps through it.
- A modulation of the Aether units' properties by the sweeping EM field.

\begin{equation}cvlc=\frac{swep}{A_{u}}\end{equation}

### IMFU9

### Exposure

In QMU, expr is the amount of magnetic charge interacting with mass. Whereas mchg represents the mass-to-magnetic charge ratio of magnetism, the reciprocal of magnetic charge-to-mass ratio quantifies the effect of magnetism on physical matter.

### Conductance Density

### IMFU12

## Opposing Magnetic Field Units

### Friction

Friction is a unit, which is equal to resistance times velocity.

\begin{equation}fric = resn \cdot velc \end{equation}

Friction times charge is equal to a rotating magnetic field.

\begin{equation}fric \cdot chrg = rmfd \end{equation}

Understanding the friction unit helps in understanding the nature of resistance. Take two objects, such as your hands, and press them together as though you were going to rub them. Resistance occurs if the two objects have lateral pressure but do not move. When the objects actually move against each other, friction is in effect. Friction is resistance in motion.

In the discussion above concerning eddy current, eddy current is also equal to the friction applied to the ligamen circulatus of the subatomic particle.

### Drag

The unit of drag is equal to the resistance times length.

\begin{equation}drag = resn \cdot leng \end{equation}

When visualizing the unit of drag we would think of friction, except that instead of focusing on the moving resistance, we focus on the contact surface itself. When charge drags against the Aether, it produces a magnetic field:

\begin{equation}drag \cdot chrg = mfld \end{equation}

When angular momentum drags, it produces eddy current through a length:

\begin{equation}h \cdot drag = eddy \cdot leng \end{equation}

### Vorticular Opposition

Vorticular opposition is not a unit discussed in Standard Model physics, but it is important in electrodynamics. Vorticular opposition describes a static condition of electrons in a conductor that transfers current to the magnetic field. The more current applied to a conductor, the greater the magnetic field it produces.

\begin{equation}mfld=curr\cdot vopp\end{equation}

Eddy current is similarly related to vorticular opposition and produces a force:

\begin{equation}eddy=forc\cdot vopp\end{equation}

### Rub

### Resistance

Electric resistance is equal to potential per current, as described by Ohm's law:

\begin{equation}resn=\frac{potn}{curr}\end{equation}.

However, magnetic resistance is also equal to magnetic current times inductance:

\begin{equation}resn=mcur\cdot indc\end{equation}

The impedance of a circuit should be equal to the total electric resistance of the electric current plus the total magnetic resistance of the magnetic current:

\begin{equation}Z=(\frac{potn}{curr})+(mcur\cdot indc)\end{equation}.

This theory of impedance is yet to be tested.

### Angular Opposition

### Plow

### Skid

### Linear Opposition

### Hold

### Stop

### Magnetic Opposition

### IOMU1

### IOMU2

### IOMU3

### IOMU4

### Admittance

### Magnetic Reluctance

Magnetic reluctance is the opposition offered by the magnetic circuit to the magnetic flux. In the MKS and SI systems of units, reluctance is equal to:

\begin{equation}S = \frac{amp\times turns}{weber} \end{equation}

The same relation is true in QMU:

\begin{equation}mrlc = \frac{curr}{mflx} \end{equation}

### IOMU7

### IOMU8

### IOMU9

### IOMU10

### IOMU11

### IOMU12

## Electric Units A

### OEUA1

### OEUA2

### OEUA3

### OEUA4

### OEUA5

### OEUA6

### OEUA7

### OEUA8

### OEUA9

### OEUA10

### OEUA11

### OEUA12

### OEUA13

### OEUA14

### OEUA15

### OEUA16

### IEUA1

### IEUA2

### IEUA3

### Charge Volume

### Ball Lightning

Ball lightning is a unit of physics and not just a physical phenomenon. It is equal to:

\begin{equation}ball=ligt\cdot curl\end{equation}

To produce ball lightning with potential and resonance requires an understanding of the physics principle of the "stop" unit:

\begin{equation}\frac{potn\cdot rson}{stop}=ball\end{equation}

### Plasma

Plasma is a unit equal to photon times curl:

\begin{equation}plsm=phtn\cdot curl\end{equation}

### Magnetic Moment

A magnetic moment measures the influence of the Aether’s electrostatic charge against the magnetic charge of the subatomic particle.

The magnetic moment of the electron, as defined by NIST in 2004, is:

\begin{equation}{\mu _e} = - 928.476362 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}}\end{equation}

The NIST value for the magnetic moment of the electron in 2022 is:

\begin{equation}{\mu _e} = - 9.284764703(28) \times {10^{ - 24}}J{T^{ - 1}}\end{equation}

Despite the standard uncertainty, the 2022 version of the electron magnetic moment of the 2004 version is outside of the range of certainty. This demonstrates that there can be more leeway in the NIST values than what is claimed. The following analysis continues to use the 2004 values, as three significant places in the decimal point are sufficient for this purpose.

The NIST value of electron magnetic moment expresses in terms of quantum measurements as:

\begin{equation}{\mu _e} = {g_e}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \end{equation}

Where \({g_e}\) the is the electron g-factor as measured in the Lamb Shift. In the electron unit of magnetic moment, the magnetic charge cancels out since the electrons are acting on electrons. Nevertheless, the magnetic charge terms are in the equation to show that electrons act against other subatomic particles in the following NIST-measured magnetic moment values.

The g-factor is an essential value related to the magnetic moment of the subatomic particle, as it corrects for the precession of the subatomic particle.

The NIST value for the proton magnetic moment in 2004 is:

\begin{equation}{\mu _e} = 1.410606633 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}} \end{equation}

The NIST value of proton magnetic moment expresses in terms of quantum measurements as:

\begin{equation}{\mu _p} = {g_p}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

Where the proton g-factor is 5.58569, as listed on NIST. \({{e_{pmax}}^2}\) is the magnetic charge of the proton, \({{e_{emax}}^2}\) is the magnetic charge of the electron, and \(e\) is the elementary charge in single dimension charge.

The NIST value for the neutron magnetic moment in 2004 notates as follows:

\begin{equation}{\mu _n} = - 0.96623640 \times {10^{ - 26}}J{T^{ - 1}} \end{equation}

And can be expressed as:

\begin{equation}{\mu _n} = {g_{n - nist}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

Where \({g_{n - nist}}\), the g-factor of the neutron, is -3.82608545 as defined by NIST, \({{e_{pmax}}^2}\) is the magnetic charge of the proton, \({{e_{emax}}^2}\) is the magnetic charge of the electron, and \(e\) is the elementary charge. Notice that the equation balances by use of the magnetic charge of the proton instead of the neutron. This is highly unlikely.

I am confident that the data used by NIST to produce these magnetic moment constants must be correct, as the equations above can be expressed in terms of quantum units (and g-factors). However, it appears that the data for the neutron was misread, or the value for the neutron g-factor was miscalculated. That the neutron magnetic moment depends on the proton magnetic charge, and hence on the proton mass, seems impossible.

The above analysis also shows that all charges should be distributed, including the elementary charge. Based on the observation that all charges must distribute for the force laws to work, and for consistency with the Aether Physics Model, we transpose the magnetic moment electrostatic charge dimensions utilizing the charge conversion factors for each subatomic particle. The electron magnetic moment in the APM system is:

\begin{equation}\mu_{e}\cdot ccf_{e} = {g_{e}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}\alpha\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \end{equation}

The proton magnetic moment in the APM system is:

\begin{equation}\mu_{p}\cdot ccf_{p} = {g_{p}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}p\cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

>And based on the NIST values for the neutron magnetic moment in the Standard Model, the neutron magnetic moment would be:

\begin{equation}\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = {g_{n-NIST}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}n\cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

However, it is highly unlikely that nature has given the neutron a magnetic moment due to the proton's magnetic charge. So assuming the accuracy of the magnetic moment, correcting the quantum measurements changes the g-factor for the neutron:

\begin{equation}\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = {g_{n}}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e^{2}\cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{64\pi^{2}n\cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

The g-factor for the neutron must be -3.831359 if the neutron magnetic moment measurement is accurate.

From the expressions of magnetic moment in the Aether Physics Model, it appears that magnetic moment physically manifests by the interaction of the electrostatic and magnetic charges within each subatomic particle. It is further apparent that the electron plays a key role in causing magnetic moment for each subatomic particle, or at least in measuring subatomic particle magnetic moment.

The above analysis has been updated from the Third Edition of this book. It was found that after correcting for distributed electrostatic charge and applying the charge conversion factor to the NIST magnetic moment, the magnetic moment of the electrostatic charge with the magnetic charge involves the geometries of both the measuring electron and also the measured subatomic particle as indicated by the \(64\pi^{2}\) term just before the measured subatomic particle's fine structure constant.

#### Comparing Magnetic Moments

Simplifying the above magnetic moment conversion equations in terms of the magnetic moment unit (\(magm\)) of Quantum Measurement Units, we get:

\begin{equation}\mu_{e}\cdot ccf_{e} = \frac{g_{e}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\mu_{p}\cdot ccf_{p} = \frac{g_{p}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}\label{NeutronMM}\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{n} = 1.001\times \frac{g_{n}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \end{equation}

Since the electron and proton magnetic moments can be calculated exactly by applying quantum measurements, and since the APM neutron magnetic moment is calculated using quantum measurements, it is likely that the above neutron magnetic moment error lies with the NIST value.

Again, we see in the neutron magnetic moment equation (\ref{NeutronMM}) that the neutron magnetic moment is based upon the mass of the proton and not the mass of the neutron as seen by using the proton charge conversion factor:

\begin{equation}\mu_{n}\cdot ccf_{p} = \frac{g_{n}\cdot magm}{8\pi} \end{equation}

Based on the minor adjustments noted above, the actual value of neutron magnetic moment as calculated in the Standard model would be:

\begin{equation}{\mu _n} = - 3.831359{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}{\mu _n} = - 0.96623640 \times {10^{ - 26}}\frac{{{m^2} \cdot coul}}{{sec}} \end{equation}

But whether this value of the magnetic moment is useful or not would depend on how the equations used by NIST evolved. If other adjustments compel compensation for the errors in the NIST constant, then the NIST formula must also re-adjust.

Notice that each quantum measurement expression of the magnetic moment includes the weak interaction constant of \(8\pi \). In addition, each magnetic moment unit resolves to a relationship between electrostatic and magnetic charges. This indicates that the unit of magnetic moment directly relates to the dynamics of the weak nuclear interaction.

### Surface Charge

### IEUA9

### Charge Acceleration

### Charge Velocity

### Charge Displacement

### IEUA13

### Charge Resonance

### Current

### Charge

## Electric Units B

### OEUB1

### OEUB2

### OEUB3

### Specific Charge

### OEUB5

### OEUB6

### OEUB7

### Charge Distribution

Charge distribution is the Euclidean perspective of this unit, while stroke is the Riemann perspective of this unit.

### OEUB9

### OEUB10

### OEUB11

### Charge Radius

### IEUB1

### IEUB2

### IEUB3

### Charge Density

### IEUB5

### IEUB6

### Current Density

### Electric Flux Density

Electric flux density and curl are the two key units of the Aether regarding General Relativity. Electric flux density is the distributed charge packed into a given area.

\begin{equation}\label{efxd_def}efxd=\frac{chrg}{area}\end{equation}

Mainstream physicists work with single-dimension charge, thus imagining charge as lines of flux. In mainstream physics, it is imagined that more lines of flux are cutting through a given area in an increase in electric flux density.

As the length density of physical matter increases, so also the curl of space increases, which also increases the electric flux density:

\begin{equation}\label{ldns_efxd}\frac{mass}{leng}=\frac{efxd}{curl}\end{equation}

The curl of space increases with an increase in length density, as seen in Albert Einstein's circular deflection angle equation for straight-path trajectories near massive objects. In the case of the Sun:

\begin{equation}G\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}A_{u}\end{equation}

Plugging in the curl of space into equation (\ref{ldns_efxd}):

\begin{equation}\frac{2m_{sun}\cdot 8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}}{r_{sun}}=6.469\times 10^{34}efxd\end{equation}

### IEUB9

### IEUB10

### Magnetic Field Intensity

The conductance of the Aether is responsible for creating a magnetic charge as angular momentum temporally spins in it. The Aether's conductance produces magnetic field intensity when exerted as a force.

\begin{equation}mfdi = forc \cdot cond \end{equation}

The magnetic field intensity acting on other magnetic fields does work:

\begin{equation}mfld \cdot mfdi = enrg \end{equation}

### IEUB12

## Electric Field Units

### >OEFU1

### Varying Electric Field

### Electric Field

Just as the magnetic field is the flow of magnetism, the electric field is the flow per strong charge:

\begin{equation}efld = \frac{{flow}}{{chrg}} \end{equation}

The electric field, however, is not as important in modern electrodynamics as its strength.

### OEFU5

### Charge Temperature

### Charge Sweep

### OEFU8

### OEFU9

### Charge Acceleration

### Charge Velocity

### OEFU13

### Charge Resonance

### Magnetic Current or Charge Frequency

Magnetic current is the partner to electric current. Just as there are two different types of charges, there are two different currents. The electric current is due to the spherical electrostatic charge moving along in one direction, and the magnetic current is due to the toroidal magnetic charge moving in the opposite direction. The two currents manifest as electrical resonance:

\begin{equation}mcur\cdot curr=rson\end{equation}.

### IEFU1

### IEFU2

### IEFU3

### IEFU5

### IEFU6

### IEFU7

### IEFU9

### IEFU10

### IEFU11

### IEFU12

### IEFU13

### IEFU14

### IEFU15

## Inertial Units A

### Light

Quantum photons comprise light. In the Standard Model, the photon packet of green light has a different frequency than the photon packet of red light; assigning different frequencies to photons means that each photon packet has a different energy from every other photon packet. Further, if the mass/energy paradigm is used, the relativistic mass of each photon packet is different for each frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, the photon packet of the Standard Model is not truly quantum. The Standard Model presents an infinite number of various “sized” photon packets, one for each frequency. Unlike in the Standard Model, only one quantum photon exists in the Aether Physics Model.

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon is a true quantum. To get light, photons produce in rapid succession at the frequency of the light. Therefore, the unit of light is equal to the photon times frequency.

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}

An introduction to the mechanics of photons and light is in chapter 10.

### Photon

In the Standard Model, the photon quantifies indirectly. Instead of the photon, physicists quantify an energy packet and treat it as though it were the photon itself. This poor accounting creates many problems for the Standard Model.

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon defines in terms of the electron that produced it. The electron is "primary angular momentum" and quantifies by Planck’s constant. The photon then defines as the primary angular momentum of the electron times the speed of photons.

\begin{equation}phtn = h \cdot c \end{equation}

Thus, the photon expands outward at the speed of photons and has the angular momentum of an electron. As proposed by Cynthia Whitney[3], the photon remains connected to its source, even as it expands with cardioid geometry (see image page 158).

The APM has two types, or “sizes,” of photons. There is the electron/positron photon, and then there is a proton/antiproton photon. The proton/antiproton photon hypothesizes to occur in fusion reactions and to generate via the same mechanics as the Casimir effect. The quantification of the proton/antiproton photon is:

\begin{equation}pht{n_p} = {h_p} \cdot c \end{equation}

where \({h_p}\) is the APM value for proton angular momentum.

### Rotation

### Vortex

### Power

To find out how much power emits by light at a given distance from the emitter, divide light by the distance:

\begin{equation}\frac{{ligt}}{{leng}} = powr = 1.012 \times {10^7}watt \end{equation}

The \(powr\) unit is the quantum unit of power. At a distance of one Compton wavelength, the light of one atom outputting \(4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}ligt\) radiates \(4.047 \times {10^{ - 13}}powr\), or \(4.094 \times {10^{ - 6}}watt\).

### Energy

### Angular Momentum

See Planck's Constant

### Moment of Inertia

### Light Intensity

### Force

### Momentum

### Torque

### Irradiance

Irradiance is expressed as diverging electric field times current:

\begin{equation}irrd = dvef \cdot curr \end{equation}

Traditionally, irradiance is equal to power per area:

\begin{equation}irrd = \frac{{powr}}{{area}} \end{equation}

### Surface Tension

### Intensity

### Mass

### IIUA1

### IIUA2

### IIUA3

### IIUA4

### IIUA5

### IIUA6

### IIUA7

### IIUA8

### IIUA9

### IIUA10

### IIUA11

### IIUA12

### IIUA13

### IIUA14

### IIUA15

### IIUA16

## Inertial Units B

### OIUB1

### OIUB1

### OIUB1

### Mass Density

### OIUB1

### Force Density

### Angular Momentum Density

### Surface Density

### OIUB1

### Pressure

### Viscosity

### Length Density

### IIUB1

### IIUB2

### IIUB3

### Specific Volume

### IIUB5

### IIUB6

### IIUB7

### IIUB8

### IIUB9

### IIUB10

### IIUB11

### IIUB12

## Inertial Units C

### OIUC1

### OIUC2

### OIUC3

### OIUC4

### OIUC5

### OIUC6

### OIUC7

### OIUC8

### OIUC9

### IIUC1

### Gravity

### IIUC3

### IIUC4

### IIUC5

### IIUC6

### IIUC7

### IIUC8

### IIUC9

## Length Frequency Units A

### Volume Resonance

### Flow

### Volume

### Temperature

In the Standard Model, temperature appears as a dimension of its own and is unrelated to the dimensions of length, time, mass, and charge. However, in the Aether Physics Model, the temperature is equal to velocity squared. This makes sense since temperature defines as motion among colliding bodies.

\begin{equation}temp = {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2 \end{equation}

Defining temperature as “molecules in motion” is not enough, however. Because there are different orders of reality, and molecules are just one order, distributed velocity must manifest differently for each order of existence. An electron exists in one-fourth of the total available spin positions in the Aether, yet Aether directly encapsulates it. The Aether exists in five-dimensional reality even though the electron only manifests four dimensions due to its half-spin nature. If we define a unit such as a temperature as “molecules in motion,” we are missing key aspects of reality relevant to quantum existence.

Molecules, although composed of subatomic particles, exist on a larger scale. There are new dimensions of existence added as complexity increases. For example, the perception of color does not exist at the quantum level but does exist at the level of animals, plants, and minerals. In this sense, temperature does not exist at the quantum level. Although electrons and protons experience distributed velocity, they do not change state among gas, liquid, and solid but produce plasma instead.

Radiation is a case of distributed velocity moving in only one direction, outward from its source. Standing waves are a case of distributed velocity moving in one direction and then reflecting in the opposite direction. The case of temperature specifically relates to the orders of atoms and molecules, which produce standing waves by bouncing off each other.

Mainstream physicists developed temperature scales of Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit specifically for measuring the distributed velocity within atoms and molecules bouncing off each other, which is why temperature seems to relate to and be in conflict with our concept of radiation. No single term available has the same meaning as the phrase “distributed velocity,” which applies to all of its manifestations.

The relationship of temperature to energy is:

\begin{equation}enrg = mass \cdot temp \end{equation}6.65}\]

Knowing that 273.15K times 1.2929 kg/m3 equals one atmosphere, we can calculate the conversion factor for Kelvin to temp units:

\begin{equation}K = \frac{{\frac{{atm}}{{1.2929\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}}}}}}{{273.15}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}K = 286.91Sv \end{equation}

\begin{equation}K = 3.19 \times {10^{ - 15}}temp \end{equation}

Nevertheless, the unit for measuring molecules in motion does not directly apply to the unit for unidirectional radiation. It is necessary to account for scaling factors.

### Sweep

### Area

### Acceleration

### Velocity

### Length

### Resonance

Distributed frequency is equal to resonance. Viewing resonance in just one frequency dimension is like viewing area in just one dimension of length. The true meaning of resonance is lost when we change its dimensions. The unit of resonance indicates there are two distinct dimensions of frequency involved.

\begin{equation}rson = fre{q^2} \end{equation}

Modern physics does not measure capacitance and inductance as square roots, yet the resonance equation usually expresses as:

\begin{equation}\label{LCResonance}F = \frac{1}{{2\pi \sqrt {LC} }} \end{equation}

where \(F\) is the “resonant frequency,” \(L\) is the inductance and \(C\) is the capacitance. (“Resonant frequency” is redundant and incorrect. It is like saying “surface length.”) Equation (\ref{LCResonance}) loses much of its meaning by making it appear the inductance and capacitance measurements are square roots and express the resonance in terms of frequency. It is as though modern physics has not yet discovered the unit of resonance.

The correct expression would keep the natural inductance and capacitance measurements and notate the result as frequency squared to make the math of resonance compatible with the rest of physics. In the Aether Physics Model, the dimensions of resonance are equal to:

\begin{equation}rson = \frac{1}{{indc \cdot capc}} \end{equation}

The quantum realm exists in a five-dimensional volume-resonance instead of a four-dimensional volume-time. If physicists wish to understand quantum existence properly, we must design measurement equipment to measure directly in the resonance domain. Presently, Fourier analysis attempts to account for this shortcoming by mathematically converting time-domain measurements into frequency-domain data.

The Aether Physics Model provides other ways to see resonance. Earlier, we demonstrated that \(potn\) has the reciprocal dimensions of capacitance \(\left( {capc} \right)\). Therefore, resonance is equal to potential per inductance:

\begin{equation}\label{potnindc}rson = \frac{{potn}}{{indc}} \end{equation}

The above equation manifests when winding a flat spiral secondary coil and covering it with epoxy or another dielectric. If we seal the coil from electron leaks, the potential rises, and so does the resonance. When the coil is fully sealed, the added outside dielectric decreases the capacitance, and the resonance decreases, as in the equation below.

\begin{equation}\label{currcapc}rson = \frac{{curr}}{{capc \cdot h}} \end{equation}

Capacitance times angular momentum is the product of the coil’s capacity to hold electrons times the number of electrons on one of the plates or charge intensity. Resonance is thus proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the charge intensity.

Resonance relates to spherical geometry in the Aether unit. The distributed frequency unit (resonance) applies at the quantum level to produce volume resonance. In the Aether unit graphic on this book's cover, the two frequency dimensions are a source of space curvature. Indeed, in acoustics, two longitudinal waves bounce through each other to produce a string of spheres.

The physics of resonance as distributed frequency extends to the macro realm of existence. We can analyze a cylindrical pot of water with a vibration applied to its bottom.

Let us choose a 12” diameter pot and fill it with water. The depth of the water is not important to this analysis, but we will choose six inches for the depth. Applying a variable mechanical vibration to the bottom of the pot, we empirically discover maximum standing waves forming at 14.7Hz. We then discover the distributed velocity of the water waves moving horizontally from the wall of the pot toward its center:

\begin{equation}{\left( {14.7Hz} \right)^2} \cdot 2\pi {\left( {6in} \right)^2} = 31.534{\left( {\frac{m}{{sec}}} \right)^2} \end{equation}

The resonance times the surface area is equal to the distributed velocity. The distributed velocity is the average velocity of the water from the pot wall toward the center. The distributed velocity is the product of the velocity in two orthogonal vectors and relates directly to the temperature of the water.

In quantum measurement units, however, the water temperature relates directly to the maximum temperature of quantum structures, as explained a little later. Since the temperature of water involves distributed velocity far below the distributed speed of light, the value of the temp unit is very low.

\begin{equation}\label{distvel}31.534{\left( {\frac{m}{{sec}}} \right)^2} = 3.509 \times {10^{ - 16}}temp \end{equation}

The temperature scale at the macro level of our human existence depends upon the relative velocities of molecules, which are of a more complex order of existence than subatomic particles. The reason that seemingly unrelated temperature units developed within physics are due to this complexity disparity between macro and quantum existence. Further research must determine the scale factors between the various levels of complexity. For now, we will refer to the result of equation (\ref{distvel}) as “distributed velocity.”

The average distributed velocity of the water directly relates to the specific volume and average pressure of the water.

\begin{equation}vel{c^2} = spcv \cdot pres \end{equation}

Empirically, we know the specific volume of water is equal to \(0.01602\frac{{f{t^3}}}{{lb}}\), which in quantum measurement units equals \(63.781spcv\). Since we now have the average distributed velocity and specific volume of the water, we can determine the average pressure:

\begin{equation}\frac{{3.509 \times {{10}^{ - 16}}vel{c^2}}}{{63.781spcv}} = 5.589 \times {10^{ - 18}}pres = 3.204 \times {10^4}Pa \end{equation}

Distributed velocity also relates to resonance in acoustics. According to standard physics, the resonance of a vibrating string is equal to:

\begin{equation}F = \frac{1}{{2L}}\sqrt {\frac{T}{\rho }} \end{equation}

where \(F\) is the “resonant frequency”, \(L\) is the length of the string, \(T\) is the force applied to the string, and \(\rho\) is the density of the string.[7] Once again, it is obvious that resonance is not dependent upon the square root of force and density. The quantum measurement units expression for the resonance of a string is:

\begin{equation}.25\times rson = \frac{{forc}}{{4leng^{2} \cdot rbnd}} \end{equation}

Where \({rbnd}\) (rebound) is the unit equal to mass per length in the Aether Physics Model. Mass per length is also equal to line density. Rebound measures the strength for which an object with mass will reflect off an inelastic surface. The greater the mass per length, the more intense the rebound. The above equation is, therefore, the equation of quarter-wave resonance.

Since we are dealing with resonance, two orthogonal frequencies are involved: a wave of string traveling a velocity in one direction and a wave traveling in the opposite direction. In the fundamental quarter resonance, there is a one-half cycle between the ends of the string moving in one direction and a one-half cycle moving in the opposite direction, which is inversely proportional to one-quarter of the total distributed wavelength.

\begin{equation}\frac{{rson}}{4} = \frac{{vel{c^2}}}{{4 \cdot len{g^2}}} \end{equation}

The distributed velocity of the string depends upon the physical properties of the string and its environment.

It is clear that where equations show resonance as equal to the square root of measurements, they should express instead as distributed frequency. Although such a change may meet initial resistance, it is essential to simplify physics by making it consistent throughout. We must get used to saying, “The resonance of an electrical circuit is equal to x [frequency unit] squared.”

### Frequency

### ILFUA1

### ILFUA2

### Field Intensity

Field intensity (fint) is the general intensity of a field.

### ILFUA4

### ILFUA5

### Bending Radius

\begin{equation}magr=mfld\cdot bndr \end{equation}

See Magnetic Rigidity at the following link: https://uspas.fnal.gov/materials/12MSU/xverse_dynamics.pdf

### ILFUA7

### ILFUA8

### Wave Number

### Orbit

### Time

## Length Frequency Units B

### OLFUB1

### OLFUB2

### Volume-Time

### OLFUB4

### OLFUB5

### Active Area

### OLFUB7

### OLFUB8

### Dynamic Length

### ILFUB1

### Volumetric Resonance

A Helmholtz resonator can be considered an example of resonance per volume. In the context of acoustics, a Helmholtz resonator consists of a cavity or volume of air connected to the surrounding environment through a small neck or opening. The resonant frequency of a Helmholtz resonator is determined by its volume and the dimensions of the neck.

A Helmholtz resonator's resonance (frequency squared) is inversely proportional to its volume. This means that changing the volume of the resonator will result in a change in its resonance. By altering the volume of the cavity, the resonance can be adjusted to achieve desired acoustic properties.

### Volumetric Wave

Volumetric wave, or frequency per volume, measures how often an event or occurrence happens within a specific volume or space. It is a ratio representing the number of times an event happens per unit volume. The specific meaning of "frequency per volume" can vary depending on the context in which it is used. For example, in the field of physics, it can refer to the collisional frequency of particles within a given volume. In the context of exercise or training, it can refer to the frequency of weekly muscle training sessions, given a specific training volume.

### ILFUB4

### Transverse Resonance

A resonating metal sheet can be considered an example of resonance per area. When a metal sheet is subjected to vibrations or oscillations at its resonance (frequency squared), it can create standing waves on its surface. These standing waves can cause loose surface particles, such as sand or powder, to move and align in specific geometric patterns known as Chladni patterns.

The resonance of the metal sheet is determined by its dimensions, material properties, and boundary conditions. By adjusting these factors, the resonance can be tuned to achieve desired effects.

In this context, "resonance per area" refers to the resonance occurring over the surface area of the metal sheet. The specific patterns formed by the loose particles are influenced by the distribution of the vibrational energy across the sheet's surface.

### Transverse Wave

Transverse wave, or frequency per area, refers to measuring the occurrence or density of a particular event or phenomenon within a given area. It quantifies how often a specific event or phenomenon happens in a specific spatial region. In this context, " frequency " typically refers to the number of occurrences or events, while "area" refers to the spatial extent or size of the region being considered. Calculating the frequency per unit area makes it possible to compare and analyze the spatial distribution or concentration of events or phenomena across different regions.

### ILFUB7

### Scalar Resonance

Scalar resonance is resonance (frequency squared) per linear path. The resonance of a guitar string is an example of scalar resonance.

### Scalar Wave

Contrary to mainstream views, a scalar wave is a longitudinal wave displacing a medium in its travel direction. Sound and ocean tsunamis are examples of scalar waves.

### Q Factor

A coil's so-called “Q factor” indicates the “sharpness” of a resonance curve. The Q factor is a dimensionless value derived from the following formula:

\begin{equation}\label{Qfactor}Q = \frac{{\omega L}}{R} \end{equation}

where \(\omega \) is the frequency, \(L\) is the inductance, and \(R\) is the resistance. In the APM, the unit represented by \(R\) is actually magnetic flux. The magnetic flux measures the coil’s reactance, not its resistance. In the APM, equation (\ref{Qfactor}) expresses as:

\begin{equation}Q=\frac{freq\cdot indc}{mflx} \end{equation}

Q is the value where magnetic flux is measured as reactance instead of resistance.

The Aether Physics Model shows there is a balance between matter and environment and that minimizing the eddy current in the coil results in sharper resonance. An identity arises from equations (\ref{potnindc}) and (\ref{currcapc}):

\begin{equation}\frac{{potn}}{{indc}} = \frac{{curr}}{{capc \cdot h}} \end{equation}

We can transpose the identity such that:

\begin{equation}\label{eddy}\frac{{potn \cdot h}}{{curr}} = \frac{{indc}}{{capc}} \end{equation}

The value of \(h\) is Planck’s constant. The potential, current, and Planck’s constant are characteristics of the electron (matter), and inductance, and capacitance are characteristics of the Aether (environment). Each side of equation (\ref{eddy}) quantifies eddy current:

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}\frac{{potn \cdot h}}{{curr}} = eddy \\ \frac{{indc}}{{capc}} = eddy \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

Minimizing the eddy current by changing the coil's material and environmental characteristics increases the resonance's sharpness.

## Natural Log

John Neiby observed an interesting curiosity while investigating the Aether Physics Model. He noted that the square of the natural log could approximately express the magnetic charge, electrostatic charge, electron fine structure, and \(\pi\).

\begin{equation}\left( {1 + a} \right)\frac{{{e_{emax}}}}{e}\pi = {\left( {\log e} \right)^2} \end{equation}

[1] Warren B. Boast Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 173

[2] Warren B. Boast Principles of Electric and Magnetic Fields (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1948) 179

[3] Whitney, Cynthia Kolb, Essay 1: This is Not Einstein’s Postulate (Galilean Electrodynamics, Space Time Analysis LTD, Winter 2005) pp 43-44

[6] A Course in Electrical Engineering Volume II - Alternating Currents, McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947 pg 259

[7] "Electromagnetic Radiation ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.