# 7. Constants

## The Whole of the Quantum Realm is Constant

All quantum units are also quantum constants. This is possible because the Universe arose from very precise first measurements. The quantum measurements apply equally to force, matter, and the environment, as they all arise from the same source. A physics system where quantum units are also quantum constants has many advantages, particularly when we examine the qualities of subatomic particles and their interactions.

Why should the measurements be quantum at all? If the quantum measurements of subatomic particles did not exist, there would be no conservation laws, and the Universe would lack a reliable framework. It is because there is a single Aether unit, a single value for electron mass, a single value for proton mass, a single quantum length, a single quantum frequency, a single quantum electrostatic charge, a single quantum magnetic charge for the electron, and a single quantum magnetic charge for the proton, that we can make predictions about the Universe at all.

At the level of quantum existence, each interaction will be the same on Earth as in some distant Quasar, star, open space, or galaxy. This means not only will the electron angular momentum be the same in all places and at all times, but also that the velocity of light in a vacuum, the permeability, the conductance, and the permittivity of Aether will be the same.

We can apply quantum measurements to understand other quantum units. For example, suppose potential defines as the amount of work performed per electron magnetic charge, and we know that electron magnetic charge has specific geometry. In that case, we have a basis for understanding the geometrical requirements of potential at a quantum level. To maximize the potential for a given system of electrons (such as in a Tesla coil), aligning the electrons in the appropriate direction magnetically is necessary. Therefore, we focus on coil geometry rather than increasing the power to produce the correct electron alignment. Without the proper mechanical (geometrical) structures, there are unavoidable losses as electrons move into a geometry not made for them. The losses manifest as impedance and, ultimately, as heat.

In a properly designed Tesla coil1, the electrons all work in unison; thus, efficiency is improved. Investigation of the work of Nikola Tesla and his Wardencliffe Worldwide Power System (1905) has shown this author that Tesla succeeded in discovering the ideal coil geometries. The ideal geometries would have either a coil designed with a combination of flat spiral and tall solenoid secondary coil or a secondary coil in the shape of an upside-down tornado (image at right) or cone. With any of these configurations, the electrons align for maximum current in the flat spiral geometry and maximum potential in the tall solenoid geometry, thus increasing the efficiency of the oscillator.

## Analyzing the Constants

We have discussed quantum measurements in terms of their existence and dimensional structure. Now we will analyze specific well-known constants by their quantum measurements.

Quantum measurements show that all true quantum constants have a definite structure imparted by the Aether. The precision and symmetry of the quantum measurements are stunning, leaving no doubt about the Aether Physics Model’s relevance to reality.

### Magnetic Constant

As noted before, the Aether unit, which is also the magnetic constant, is equal to:

\begin{equation}rmfd = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \end{equation}

The difference between the magnetic constant and the Coulomb electrostatic constant is geometry. $16{\pi ^2}$ is equal to two orthogonal spheres $\left( {4\pi \times 4\pi } \right)$. $16{\pi ^2}$ is also equal to 4 toroids $\left( {4 \times 4{\pi ^2}} \right)$, which is the same as 4 circles scanning circles $\left( {4 \times 2\pi \times 2\pi } \right)$. There are other ways to break down the Aether geometrical constant, which demonstrate elsewhere in this book.

### Coulomb’s Constant

From Coulomb’s constant, four other essential constants arise. Coulomb’s constant expresses in terms of the motion constant (speed of photons), conductance constant, permeability constant, and permittivity constant as:

\begin{equation}\label{kC}{k_C} = \frac{{c \cdot Cd \cdot {\mu _0}}}{{{\varepsilon _0}}} \end{equation}

In terms of quantum measurements, Coulomb’s constant is equal to:

\begin{equation}{k_C} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{16{\pi ^2}{e_{a}}^2}} \end{equation}

Where $\frac{{{m_a}}}{{{e_a}^2}}$ is a mass-to-charge ratio that is constant throughout the Universe and ${{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}$ is the double cardioid geometry of volume-resonance (the double loxodrome of the Aether unit) that is also constant. The fact that the double cardioid geometry divides by the ${16{\pi ^2}}$ double loxodrome constant indicates that ${k_C}$ geometry is spherical in both surface area and solid angle. Coulomb’s constant works out to spherical geometry, which explains why it mediates spherical electrostatic charge in Coulomb’s law:

\begin{equation}\label{forc}{k_C} = \frac{{e \cdot e}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = \frac{{forc \cdot \alpha }}{{2\pi }} \end{equation}

In Coulomb’s law, only one dimension of each distributed charge multiplies to determine the force since two charges will always be orthogonal. This indicates the mechanics of the way charges interact.

Also, we see a new quantum constant in equation (\ref{forc}). The quantum constant of ${forc}$ measures force and equals $.034newton$. The correct way to write Coulomb’s force law in quantum measurements is as follows:

\begin{equation}\label{forc2}{k_C}\frac{{2\pi\cdot e\cdot e}}{{\alpha\cdot {\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

When Coulomb’s force law (electrostatic force law) notates as in equation (7.5), we can better relate it to the magnetic force law as follows:

\begin{equation}\label{forc3}rmfd\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}

Both equations (\ref{forc2}) and (\ref{forc3}) thus express in terms of the quantum unit of $forc$. From the simplicity of (\ref{forc3}), it appears that equation (\ref{forc2}) is a modification of equation (\ref{forc3}), accounting for the sphericity of electrostatic charge. It is important to see this special modification of the Aether equations in terms of accommodating sphericity, because a similar occurrence happens at the atomic level when the structure of the nucleus produces sphericity.

Coulomb’s constant further analyzes in terms of its geometry to show how it functions in the Universe. Gforce is a quantum measurement unit equivalent to $1.21 \times {10^{44}}newton$.

Coulomb’s constant in terms of Gforce is equal to:

\begin{equation}{k_C} = \frac{{Gforce}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \cdot \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}} \end{equation}

Gforce itself can be thought of as a pressure times area. Push your finger onto a table and feel the pressure times the area of force. Now imagine that same force applied to an area between two charges. Pay particular attention to the two different types of forces. In the case of the finger, the force originates from the body to which the finger belongs and is a physical force. In the case of the two charges, the force originates between them and directly manifests Gforce. This is an important distinction regarding the nature of forces.

The Gforce manifests as a surface between two charges or masses. This surface exerts a force that either pushes apart or pulls together. At the quantum level, this surface is a curved surface matching the geometry of the subatomic particle. At the macro level, this surface can envision as a flat plane between two objects.

The plane for Coulomb’s constant is equal to the area per Aether magnetic charge. In other words, the plane has a specific proportion of length dimensions (area) per strong charge dimensions. This proportion is named stroke(page 50).

\begin{equation}str{k_a} = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}} \end{equation}

Coulomb’s constant then expresses in terms of Gforce as:

\begin{equation}{k_C} = \frac{{Gforce}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \cdot str{k_a} \end{equation}

With Coulomb’s constant, the double loxodrome geometrical constant ${\left( {16{\pi ^2}} \right)}$ divides Gforce, thus producing spherical geometry. This suggests that Gforce, as does the Aether unit, has double loxodrome geometry.

The $rmfd$ constant expresses in terms of Gforce as:

\begin{equation}rmfd = Gforce \cdot str{k_a} \end{equation}

### Constant Speed of Photons

We ask the question, “What is it that makes the speed of photons constant?” The answer in the Aether Physics Model is “the quantum measurements.” The speed of photons is equal to the quantum length times the quantum frequency.

\begin{equation}c = {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q} \end{equation}

The smallest natural length times the highest natural frequency gives the fastest velocity for a subatomic particle. However, smaller lengths and higher frequencies do exist via interference waves[2]

Herein lays the key to understanding the speed of light. Primary angular momentum is equal to a circle of mass times motion. The speed of photons is essentially the motion constant. It is not the speed it takes to get from one Aether unit to the next; rather, it is the speed it takes for a subatomic particle to “spin through” one Aether unit. All subatomic particles always spin at the speed of photons because Aether spins at the speed of photons.

In the Aether Physics Model, matter never moves out of its Aether unit; it always remains in the same region of volume-resonance. However, the volume resonance is a rotating magnetic field, which allows what we perceive as space to move relative to adjoining space units. This is very close to the scenario of Aether presented by René Descartes.

A given Aether unit cannot slip past another Aether unit faster than its spin will allow; thus, motion is limited to the speed of photons.

Then there is the folding of a large portion of Aether fabric employing an intense magnetic force attraction. For example, let us imagine a device that stretches a field of Aether (Aether fabric) from the Moon to the Earth. Physical matter in one region of space then crosses over the folded fabric of space, and the folded space returns to its normal position. The matter has still traveled less than the speed of photons, and yet by skipping over a region of space, it has traveled from the Earth to Moon at a speed that is overall faster-than-photons.

Another scenario could demonstrate faster than photon speed. Since photon speed is determined by a subatomic particle spinning through an Aether unit, what if we bypassed the subatomic particle altogether and modulated the Aether unit instead?

It may be possible to send a mechanical wave through the Aether by vibrating Aether units using a magnetic force. Scientists refer to such a disturbance as a gravitational wave. The wave would be akin to a sound wave, except that instead of displacing molecules of air, we are displacing space itself. In addition, since the displacement does not involve subatomic particles spinning through Aether, the photon speed limitation does not apply.

The mechanism for modulating Aether units will likely involve pulsed magnetic waves. Pulsed magnetic wave technology already exists, so it becomes merely a matter of testing. Pulsed magnetic waves could open the door to many other tests concerning the Aether.

### ${c^2}$ Constant

What exactly does it mean to square the speed of photons? It means nothing as far as velocity is concerned. The speed of photons is what it is, a velocity. When the dimensions are changed, it is no longer a velocity. For example, when we multiply velocity by frequency, we get the acceleration unit.

\begin{equation}velc \cdot freq = accl \end{equation}

Equation (7.12) could also notate in terms of quantum measurements:

\begin{equation}{\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q}^2 = accl \end{equation}

One way to see acceleration is as a point gaining length on a line. For example, if an object (representing a point) moves 1 ft in one second and then two feet in the next second (for a total of three feet in two seconds) then the object is accelerating at the rate of one foot per second squared.

Similarly, the unit of sweep is equal to velocity times length:

\begin{equation}velc \cdot leng = swep \end{equation}

\begin{equation}{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} = swep \end{equation}

Sweep is the scanning of an area by a line. For example, assume a broom edge is a thin line. Then sweep across the floor. The sweep is the area per time swept by the broom line. The sweep could apply to a circle expanding on a surface, like the expanding ring of a water wave when a stone tosses into a still pond. The sweep could apply to a ray having angular velocity around the origin of the ray or to a line in the form of a circle scanning out a cylinder.

With angular momentum, the line also has mass. A circular mass line sweeps a tubular spin position area of the Aether.

${c^2}$ is equal to velocity times velocity, which can be written in quantum measurements as:

\begin{equation}{\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2 = temp \end{equation}

Temp (also “rdtn” for radiation) is the quantum unit of radiation or temperature. In equation (7.16) an accelerating area is swept. In other words, instead of a point gaining length on a line, as in acceleration, there is now a line sweeping an area at an accelerating rate. In the case of energy, the line also has a mass dimension. So energy appears as a line of mass sweeping an area at an accelerating rate.

\begin{equation}\left( {{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}} \right) \cdot accl = enrg \end{equation}

For photons traveling at the speed of photons, the frame number determines the area scanned at any given time. A frame is a sequence of areas designated by its time value.

\begin{equation}\label{frames}\begin{array}{l} {f_{rame}} = 1 \\{d_f} = {\lambda _C} \cdot {f_{rame}} \\{t_f} = {T_q} \cdot {f_{rame}} \\ \frac{{{d_f}^2}}{{{t_f}^2}} = {c^2} \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

where ${d_f}$ is the distance of the frame from the origin and ${t_f}$ is the time of the frame from the origin. At frame equals $1$, the total area scanned equals ${\lambda _C}^2$. At frame equals $2$, the total area scanned is $4{\lambda _C}^2$, and so on. Therefore, ${c^2}$ demonstrates an accelerating area, the same as saying it radiates. With temperature, radiation can accelerate outward and inward as a continual expansion and contraction.

A steradian is a solid angle of a sphere. The case of frame equals $1$ shows that the area scanned by ${c^2}$ is one steradian of the sphere of the same radius. One manifestation of a steradian would be a cone. The cone's volume compared to the sphere's volume is one steradian. In addition, the sphere surface area enclosed by the cone compared to the total surface of the sphere is one steradian.

The manifestation of the steradian most often encountered at the subatomic level is that of two opposing cones, as in the image below.

The dark green area in the above graphic represents the steradian of the entire light green sphere. The sphere surface has a solid angle of $1$, and the steradian surface has a solid angle of $\frac{1}{{4\pi }}$. The solid angle of $1$ is also equal in area to $4\pi {r^2}$, where $r$ is the sphere's radius. Therefore, one steradian of the sphere's surface area also equals the sphere's radius squared.

\begin{equation}\frac{{4\pi {r^2}}}{{4\pi }} = {r^2} \end{equation}

Therefore, ${c^2}$ is the radiation frame constant. The same analysis applies to the constant speed of sound in a given material and to other constant velocities.

When the frame constant of radiation applies to the electron mass, it gives the amount of work performed under the electron’s existence. The electron quantifies by its angular momentum, equal to Planck’s constant $h$.

\begin{equation}{m_e} \cdot swep = h \end{equation}

The electron's angular momentum appears as the electron's mass sweeping through an Aether spin position. At each quantum moment, the electron repeats this sweeping action. The frequency at which the repetitive sweeping occurs is the quantum frequency:

\begin{equation}h \cdot {F_q} = {m_e} \cdot {c^2} = enrg \end{equation}

Where $enrg$ is the work the electron performs in each frame. In other words, under its existence, the mass of the electron is forever scanning an increasing area, thus manifesting energy.

The outward expanding radiation collides with similar substances within a molecular or atomic substance and reflects toward its source. We can call this process of collisions “temperature,” as discussed earlier in the chapter called Units. Following the equations of (\ref{frames}), the temperature expands in the angle of the steradian, as shown above. However, when other atoms or molecules interact with each other by exchanging photons, resonance occurs. Each particle then oscillates photons among them, producing a damped wave, as shown below:

The above graphic is a damped wave caused by the electron-positron pair emitting from an atom. The image uses unequal scales for easier comprehension. If the energy level is high enough, the electron and positron will electromagnetically shoot away as two complete subatomic particles in opposite directions. If the energy level is low enough, half the electron and positron angular momentum expand outward by continuing to share Aether units. These combine to produce a 1-spin photon radiating from the source atom in a cardioid pattern as concentric “cylinders.” The remaining angular momentum returns with its Aether unit to the atom to produce another photon.

The electromagnetic force exerted by the emitted photons of the atoms and molecules then transfers momentum to each other, causing expansion. We experience this expansion as temperature.

When the intensity of the pair production increases substantially, we experience the emission as gamma rays.

The electron is doing work, as are all subatomic particles, all the time. In this sense, the Universe is a sea of energy waiting for utilization. The trick to tapping this sea of energy lies in finding a way to put a load directly on the subatomic particles. It is possible that some isotopes, and perhaps even some molecules, have a structure that could allow for the tapping of energy. It would be possible if the subatomic particles are magnetically aligned (through a crystal structure) in such a way that they produce a natural rotating magnetic field, or perhaps it could occur via the exchange of electrons in one direction around a spherical or cylindrical crystal. Two conductors could tap the energy by placing this natural rotating magnetic field between them.

### Orders of Motion

We could say that the first order of motion is the speed of photons or the quantum unit of velocity. In terms of mass, the first order of motion is momentum:

\begin{equation}momt = {m_e} \cdot c \end{equation}

The second order of motion would be energy:

\begin{equation}enrg = {m_e} \cdot {c^2} \end{equation}

The third order of motion is then light:

\begin{equation}ligt = {m_e} \cdot {c^3} \end{equation}

If we pause to contemplate these various orders of motion, we can see a progression from momentum, to energy, to light. These orders of motion present an increasing intensity in the levels of action.

The Aether involves the fourth order of motion as seen in the Aether magnetic constant and the Newton gravitational constant:

\begin{equation}rmfd = \frac{{mchg \cdot {c^4}}}{{accl}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}G = \frac{{{c^4}}}{{{m_a} \cdot accl}} \end{equation}

The fourth order of motion per acceleration is a constant in the Aether magnetic and Newton gravitational constant. The difference between the two is that in the Aether magnetic constant, the magnetism (mass to charge ratio – $mchg$) has mass, but in Newton's gravitational constant, the mass associated with the Aether is reciprocal mass. Reciprocal Aether mass has a different manifestation than normal mass and refers to the maximum amount of mass a quantum Aether unit can contain.

It is fascinating to contemplate the fourth order of motion in the Aether. If energy is a higher order of motion than momentum, and light is a higher order of motion than energy, then the Aether must have a higher order of motion than light.

It is tempting to explain that the Aether does not really have a fourth order of motion because the fourth order per acceleration is equal to the double cardioid unit:

\begin{equation}\frac{{{c^4}}}{{accl}} = dcrd \end{equation}

However, as can be seen in equation (7.26), the mass of the Aether times acceleration is equal to the Gforce, which is primary to acceleration. Therefore, the Newton gravitational constant equals the fourth order of motion per Gforce.

\begin{equation}G = \frac{{{c^4}}}{{Gforce}} \end{equation}

### Conductance Constant

The conductance constant offers an opportunity to test the validity of the Aether Physics Model concerning Classical physics. In Classical physics, all electrically related units other than permeability, permittivity, inductance, capacitance, and conductance express in units with single dimension charge. In the Aether Physics Model, all electrically related units express in distributed charge dimensions.

Therefore, the reciprocal nature of resistance and conductance in Classical physics appears as the reciprocal of magnetic flux and conductance in the Aether Physics Model.

Aether Physics Model | Classical Physics | |

Resistance | $resn = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^4}}$ | $R = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}$ |

Conductance | $cond = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}$ | $G = \frac{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}$ |

Magnetic Flux | $mflx = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$ | $\lambda = \frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot coul}}$ |

Although Classical physics shows resistance to be the reciprocal of conductance, experiments do not verify this.

But for reasons related to the different measurement principles and the electrical properties of the skin, the hypothesis of linear relationship between changes in the skin [conductance] and the resulting resistance from the measurement cannot be maintained (Lykken & Venables, 1971). Therefore, it is recommended that researchers use skin conductance only[3]

However, there is evidence to suggest a linear relationship between conductance and magnetic flux:

It is shown, for normal wall thicknesses, that flux leakage is determined essentially by the wall conductance, defined as the product of wall thickness and wall conductivity.[4]

There are other instances, especially in nanotechnology, where conductance has a linear, reciprocal relationship to magnetic flux.

At first glance, classical physics can express resistance regarding the distributed charge. However, it readily appears from Ohm’s law that this is not the case. Resistance is the result of potential divided by current. Both potential and current in classical physics express in terms of single-dimension charge. Equation (\ref{ohmlaw}) shows that the classical dimensions of potential divided by the classical dimensions of current equal the classical dimensions of resistance.

\begin{equation}\label{ohmlaw}\frac{{\left( {\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{se{c^2} \cdot coul}}} \right)potential}}{{\left( {\frac{{coul}}{{sec}}} \right)current}} = \left( {\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}} \right)resistance \end{equation}

The fact that $resn$ appears in the Aether Physics Model with the charge to the fourth power shows that resistance is a unit determined by two subatomic particles working against each other.

In equation (\ref{kC}), the conductance constant shows to be a factor of Coulomb’s constant. In quantum measurements, the conductance constant notates as:

\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{{{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}}} \end{equation}

Conductance of the Aether is also equal to:

\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{{{e_{emax}}^2}}{h} \end{equation}

The variable $h$ is Planck’s constant and represents the electron's angular momentum. Aether conductance is also equal to other expressions of strong charge to primary angular momentum.

\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}{{{h_p}}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{{{e_a}^2}}{{{h_a}}} \end{equation}

where ${{h_p}}$ and ${{h_a}}$ are the angular momentum of the proton and Aether, and ${{e_{emax}}^2}$ and ${{e_a}^2}$ are the magnetic charge of the proton and Aether. This is just one of many demonstrations of the exact mass-to-magnetic charge ratio consistent throughout the Universe. Wherever magnetic charge appears, it is always exactly proportional to the mass within the angular momentum that produces it, and therefore it is quantum[5]

The Standard Model of particle physics does not recognize conductance as an essential constant. This might prompt one to ask, why bother? As shown in the Aether Physics Model, the conductance constant is essential for understanding the magnetic charge of the subatomic particles. The understanding of magnetic charge reveals the relationships of the strong nuclear force, Van der Waals force, Casimir force, plasmas, and other phenomena.

An essential use of the conductance constant appears in the magnetic charge equation:

\begin{equation}{e_{emax}}^2 = h \cdot Cd \end{equation}

The same form of equation holds for any subatomic particle with angular momentum. The angular momentum of the proton in the Aether Physics Model is similar to the angular momentum of the electron, except that it calculates with the proton's mass.

\begin{equation}{h_p} = {m_p} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}{e_{pmax}}^2 = {h_p} \cdot Cd \end{equation}

Due to the incorrect assumption in Classical physics that resistance is the reciprocal of conductance, the science of psychophysiology has suffered a crucial setback. Scientists assume reciprocal measured skin resistance equals skin conductance, even though the experiment shows this is false. Thus, an incorrect understanding of the relationship between conductance and resistance has hindered scientists from advancing their understanding of the nature of consciousness. (On page 272, consciousness introduces concerning the dynamic, living Aether.)

### Permeability Constant

The permeability constant is also a part of Coulomb’s constant and the $\textit{rmfd}$ constant. In quantum measurements, permeability expresses as:

\begin{equation}{\mu _0} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}} \end{equation}

Notice the mass to magnetic charge ratio of Aether $\left( {\frac{{{m_a}}}{{{e_a}^2}}} \right)$. However, any mass to magnetic charge ratio such as $\frac{{{m_e}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}}$, $\frac{{{m_p}}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}$, or $\frac{{{m_n}}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}$ would do. This is because the mass-to-magnetic charge ratio is always constant.

Permeability is a quality of Aether unit that refers to the degree it can be penetrated or permeated. Permeability is the quality of Aether that “grabs” onto magnetic charge as it passes through. Think of water permeating a piece of cloth. The water can pass through the cloth, but a certain amount of drag is imposed on its movement. Aether permeability has this type of effect on the magnetic charge.

### Permittivity Constant

The permittivity constant is another component of Coulomb’s constant and the $\textit{rmfd}$ constant.

\begin{equation}\label{ptty}{\varepsilon _0} = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}} \end{equation}

Aether permittivity (absolute) is “the ratio of the electric displacement of a medium to the electric force producing it.[6]” As seen from the dimensions, the permittivity constant of the Aether includes the full dimensions of volume-resonance (double cardioid), which can be thought of as a cavity in which subatomic particles reside. The cavity times the magnetic constant (mass to magnetic charge ratio) also relates to the capacity for a magnetic charge. The degree to which magnetic charge can fill this capacity is the permittivity.

One might notice, however, that the dimensions are reciprocal in equation (\ref{ptty}); that is, the double cardioid constant is in the denominator, as is the mass-to-magnetic charge ratio. However, since permittivity has a reciprocal relationship in the Aether unit, it works out that permittivity is its magnetic capacity.

\begin{equation}{A_u} = \frac{{c \cdot Cd \cdot {\mu _0} \cdot \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \end{equation}

### Planck’s Constant

Like Coulomb’s constant, the Newton gravitational constant, the speed of photons constant, the speed of photons squared constant, the permeability constant, and the permittivity constant, the Standard Model of particle physics essentially claims that Planck’s constant is a constant of convenience that happens to show up in many places.

The following quote from H.A. Lorentz in a book by James Murphy and Max Planck[7] illustrates many areas where Planck’s constant applies.

"We have now advanced so far that this constant (Planck’s universal $h$) not only furnishes the basis for explaining the intensity of radiation and the wavelength for which it represents a maximum, but also for interpreting the quantitative relations existing in several other cases among the many physical quantities it determines. I shall mention only a few; namely, the specific heat of solids, the photo-chemical effects of light, the orbits of electrons in the atom, the wavelengths of the lines of the spectrum, the frequency of the Roentgen rays which are produced by the impact of electrons of given velocity, the velocity with which gas molecules can rotate, and also the distances between the particles which make up a crystal. It is no exaggeration to say that in our picture of nature nowadays it is the quantum conditions that hold matter together and prevent it from completely losing its energy by radiation. It is convincingly clear that we are here dealing with real relations because the values of $h$ as derived from the different phenomena always agree, and these values differ only by slight shades from the number which Planck computed twenty-five years ago on the experimental data that were then available."

According to Max Planck…

…the laws of thermodynamics are only of a summary and statistical nature and can give only summary results when applied to electronic processes in the atom. Now if the quantum of action has the significance which has come to be ascribed to it today in thermodynamics it must make itself felt also in every single process within the atom, in every case of emission and absorption of radiation and in the free dispersion of light radiation8.

Action is the attribute of a real thing, not of convenience constants. If there is a quantum of action, then there is something doing the action. Only three stable forms of subatomic particles in the atom could be candidates for the quantum of action. These are the electron, proton, and neutron. Since all the phenomena associated with Planck’s constant are electronic, the only logical candidate among these three is the electron. It is a reasonable assumption that Planck’s constant directly quantifies the electron. Moreover, since Planck’s constant is in the unit of angular momentum, it is reasonable to state further that it refers directly to the electron's angular momentum.

Planck's constant was not designed to help Max Planck, Louis de Broglie, and Albert Einstein convert energy to the frequency in the equation:

\begin{equation}E = h \cdot f \end{equation}

Further still, Einstein may have applied Max Planck’s constant directly to the energy of photon radiation, but he did not discover nor quantify a quantum photon. Albert Einstein claimed to have quantified the photon, but what he called the photon was not quantum at all. Einstein merely stated what others had stated, that Planck’s constant (angular momentum of the electron) times frequency yields the amount of work performed by the electron:

Within a few years after its promulgation Einstein applied the quantum theory to explain the constitution of light and showed that light follows the same process as heat radiation and is emitted in parcels or quanta, called photons[8].

Einstein also made the empirical observation that everyone else did, that photons travel at the speed of photons. Still, he never made the connection that the photon actually quantifies as Planck’s constant times the speed of photons. Nor did he realize that light was equal to the photon times frequency.

A look at the Planck constant in terms of quantum measurement reveals clearly that Planck’s constant refers specifically to the electron. The electron's angular momentum is equal to the mass of the electron times its sweep.

\begin{equation}h = {m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q} = {m_e} \cdot swep \end{equation}

\begin{equation}h = 6.626 \times {10^{ - 34}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec}} \end{equation}

In the Aether Physics Model, the photon and the electron closely relate to each other, just as empirical evidence show. The photon unit is equal to:

\begin{equation}phtn = h \cdot c \end{equation}

What could be simpler and easier to understand? A photon is the electron angular momentum of the electron jumping an orbital, which is exploding outward at the speed of photons. Light defines as photons produced at a given frequency by the atoms that produce photons:

\begin{equation}ligt = phtn \cdot freq \end{equation}

In the Aether Physics Model, we are dealing with cause and effect. Electrons define exactly as the data shows, as primary angular momentum. Photons mathematically define from the electrons that produce them. Energy appears as a unit of work, not as an object equal to a dimension. Mass is seen as a dimension, and not as matter. All the functions within the APM are clean, mathematically and geometrically correct, and modeled precisely.

With an accurate electron structure, we may reasonably posit that the other form of stable matter, the proton, is similarly structured.

### Newton Gravitational Constant

\begin{equation}G = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_a}}} = \frac{{dcrd}}{{{m_a}}} \end{equation}

The Newton gravitational constant is equal to double cardioid per Aether mass. The Aether mass is the maximum value of mass capable of being contained within an Aether unit.

The gravitational constant is equal to:

\begin{equation}G = 6.672 \times {10^{ - 11}}\frac{{{m^3}}}{{kg \cdot se{c^2}}} \end{equation}

And can be represented as:

\begin{equation}G = 6.672 \times {10^{ - 11}}\frac{{{m^2}}}{{k{g^2}}}newton \end{equation}

Just as the electrostatic and magnetic constants represent a surface of distributed charge through which the Gforce acts, the gravitational constant represents as a surface of distributed mass through which the Gforce acts. It is likely that this “surface” actually curves at the quantum level, although it models as a flat surface at the macro level.

In the Coulomb and magnetic constant, the Gforce acts from a surface per charge named “stroke.” The stroke is so named because it has a forward and backward component or a dipole of magnetism. Linear mass is only one dimension. The gravitational force only extends in one vector relative to the type of mass acted upon. As a result, the gravitational force is attractive for like types of matter and repulsive for matter/anti-matter interactions.

The surface from which the gravitational constant acts describes in terms of “reach” $\left( {Rch} \right)$. ${Rch}$ is equal to:

\begin{equation}Rch = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^2}}{{{m_a}^2}} = 5.513 \times {10^{ - 55}}\frac{{{m^2}}}{{k{g^2}}} \end{equation}

With similarity to the Coulomb and $\textit{rmfd}$ constants, the Newton gravitational constant expresses in terms of Gforce:

\begin{equation}G = Gforce \cdot Rch \end{equation}

A Gforce common to both magnetism and gravity also links the two forces. Magnetism cannot convert to gravity because magnetism and gravity are already two aspects of the same thing. Think about a rectangular sign. If you look at the broad side of the sign, you see an area, but if you turn the sign 90 degrees, you see only the edge of the sign, which appears as a line. The Coulomb and $\textit{rmfd}$ constants have surface geometry, and the Newton gravitational constant has linear geometry.

Ultimately, there is only one force in the Universe, the Gforce. As shown in this model, the Gforce acts upon the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass differently, appearing to human perception as three different kinds of force. If we were to see the Sun through three different colors of glass, we would be clever enough to realize that the Sun is not really three different colors.

### Fine Structure Constants

In the early days, while developing the Aether Physics Model, I read a web page by Dr. James G. Gilson[9] that inspired me to look into the fine structure constant. The theories and equations presented by various authors are all based upon numerological treatments, which left me wondering about the physical cause of the fine structure constant.

After a few hours of manipulating the new value for a magnetic charge, which I had calculated from the conductance constant, I found an incredibly simple and highly instructive equation for the physical origin of the electron fine structure. Within a few minutes, I also calculated the fine structures of the proton and neutron. It was not until a few weeks later that I realized the fine structure equation was really the Unified Charge Equation, which is the foundation of the Unified Force Theory. I reasoned that the fine structure constant is the proportion between a subatomic particle's elementary charge and its equivalent spherical magnetic charge, shown below.

The Fine Structure Constant designates by alpha $\left( \alpha \right)$ and defines by NIST as:

\begin{equation}\label{alpha}\alpha = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{4\pi {\varepsilon _0}\hbar c}} \end{equation}

The value works out to:

\begin{equation}\alpha = 7.297352568 \times {10^{ - 3}} \end{equation}

But the Fine Structure constant is not directly related to permittivity as equation (\ref{alpha}) seems to suggest. It is a function of the conductance of the Aether, and more specifically, it represents the proportion of the spherical electrostatic charge to the equivalent spherical magnetic charge.

\begin{equation}\label{alpha2}\alpha = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot h \cdot Cd}} \end{equation}

or,

\begin{equation}\alpha = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \end{equation}

The magnetic charge has a steradian angle of the $1$ solid angle of electrostatic charge. The magnetic charge results from half-spin angular momentum spinning through the Aether unit, and therefore the magnetic charge has half-spin. To bring the magnetic charge to the same geometry as the electrostatic charge, $2$ times $4\pi $ multiplies the magnetic charge. Thus, the half-spin magnetic charge converts to one-spin, and the steradian angle of magnetic charge converts to a spherical angle of $1$, making both expressions geometrically balanced. That leaves the fine structure as the proportion between the electrostatic and equivalent spherical magnetic charges.

So the Aether Physics Model precisely and fundamentally describes the fine structure constant of the electron. However, the same structure further applies to the other forms of stable matter. Equation (\ref{alpha2}) is equal to the Unified Charge Equation:

\begin{equation}{e^2} = 8\pi \alpha \cdot {e_{emax}}^2 \end{equation}

Applying the same method to the proton and neutron produced fine structures for both subatomic particles.

\begin{equation}p = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}p = 3.974 \times {10^{ - 6}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}n = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}n = 3.969 \times {10^{ - 6}} \end{equation}

$p$ is the proton fine structure and $n$ is the neutron fine structure. As shown earlier, the angular momentum times the conductance constant gives the electromagnetic charge. Multiplying the electromagnetic charge by ${8\pi }$ yields the equivalent geometry of a sphere. Each subatomic particle would necessarily then have its own fine structure constant.

### g-factor Constants

#### Free Electron g-factor

Because the electron has an electric charge and an intrinsic rotational motion, or spin, it behaves in some respects like a small bar magnet; that is, it is said to have a magnetic moment. Because the electron also has mass, it behaves in some respects like a spinning top; that is, it is said to have spin angular momentum. The g factor of the electron is defined as the ratio of its magnetic moment to its spin angular momentum. This factor is nominally 2 and was first measured with high accuracy during the period from 1961 to 1963. Using electric and magnetic fields, electrons were trapped with spins prealigned in a particular direction for a known length of time. The g factor was then obtained from the change in spin direction during the trapping period and the magnitude of the trapping magnetic field. Recent improvements in this basic method of measuring the g factor reduced the original 0.027 parts per million uncertainty obtained earlier to 0.003 parts per million.[10]

According to NIST, the g-factor of the electron notates as:

\begin{equation}\label{magm1}{g_e} = \frac{{2{\mu_e}}}{{\frac{{e\hbar }}{{2{m_e}}}}} \end{equation}

And has the value of:

\begin{equation}{g_e} = - 2.0023193043718 \end{equation}

And NIST gives the magnetic moment of the electron as:

\begin{equation}{\mu_e} = - 928.476412 \times {10^{-26}}{\rm{J}}{{\rm{T}}^{-1}} \end{equation}

The quantum measurements equation for electron magnetic moment in single charge dimensions is:

\begin{equation}{\mu_e} = {g_e}{\lambda _C}^2{F_q}\frac{{e \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}}{{8\pi \cdot {e_{emax}}^2}} \end{equation}

This can be arranged as follows:

\begin{equation}\label{magm2}\frac{\mu_e\cdot ccf}{magm} = \frac{g_e}{8\pi} \end{equation}

Note that magnetic moment defines by the g-factor in equation (\ref{magm2}). Now look again at the NIST equation (\ref{magm1}) above for the g-factor of the electron. The g-factor defines by the magnetic moment. This is a serious error in physics, wherein the g-factor and the magnetic moment presume to define each other. This is the same as saying that the g-factor is an empirical observation without mathematical explanation. Later you will see the Aether Physics Model suggestions for the electron and proton g-factors.

### Gyromagnetic Ratio

The electron gyromagnetic ratio, as defined by NIST, is:

\begin{equation}{\gamma _e} = \frac{{2\left| {{\mu _e}} \right|}}{\hbar } \end{equation}

\begin{equation}{\gamma _e} = 1.76085974 \times {10^{11}}{{\rm{s}}^{{\rm{ - 1}}}}{\rm{ }}{{\rm{T}}^{{\rm{ - 1}}}} \end{equation}

According to NIST, the electron gyromagnetic ratio is a positive number because it takes the absolute value of electron magnetic moment, which was negative due to the assumed negative g-factor for the electron.

The negative value for the g-factor is supposedly derived from the electron's negative charge. However, what logic would then formulate the neutron g-factor as negative? The neutron is neutral. Can the electron and neutron g-factors be negative from different causes? That does not seem likely. As seen in the discussion on the magnetic moment, there is no mathematical reason for the electron g-factor to be negative. Still, there is a possible reason for the neutron g-factor to be negative. Because there is no logic in making the electron g-factor negative, the electron g-factor in the Aether Physics Model is positive.

While researching the cardioid geometry of the Aether in the z-axis of time, we observed the $Phi$ and $phi$ proportions within it. $Phi$ is the Golden Ratio and $phi$ is its reciprocal. It could turn out that the electron g-factor is due to an offset of the loxodrome at the poles of the Aether unit. Nevertheless, it is unclear that this is what the g-factor refers to. It is interesting that the electron g-factor expresses as:

\begin{equation}\label{phi1}\frac{{{g_e}}}{2} = \frac{1}{{\sin \left( {Phi} \right)}} \end{equation}

and the proton g-factor as:

\begin{equation}\label{phi2}\frac{{{g_p}}}{2} = \frac{{Phi}}{{\sin \left( {phi} \right)}} \end{equation}

Using the symbol $\Phi $ for $Phi$ and $\phi $ for $phi$, we could possibly solve for the neutron g-factor thus:

\begin{equation}\frac{{{g_n}}}{2} = \sin \left( 1 \right)\frac{{\sin \left( \phi \right)}}{{\left[ {\Phi \left( { - \sin \left( \Phi \right) + \sin \left( \Phi \right) - \cos {{\left( \Phi \right)}^2} + \sin \left( 1 \right) - \sin \left( 1 \right) \cdot \cos {{\left( \Phi \right)}^2}} \right)} \right]}} = - 3.837 \end{equation}

In NIST equations (\ref{magm1}) and (\ref{magm2}) the electron g-factor and electron magnetic moment define each other. Modern science has not yet found the physical cause of the g-factor. In the Aether Physics Model, the g-factor quantifies by an expression that may discover its physical cause in Aether geometry.

As described in the section on the magnetic moment, NIST appears to have erred on the value of the neutron magnetic moment and neutron g-factor, as well, due to an apparently incorrect view of the subatomic structure. Essential equations for understanding the true origin of the g-factor appear in this section. A more exhaustive analysis will demonstrate the principles in detail. The claim by NIST to have determined the g-factor to within .003 parts per million would seem to discredit equations (\ref{phi1}) and (\ref{phi2}), as these equations calculate to a value accurate only to the thousandths of the NIST values. However, if NIST is wrong about the neutron g-factor and neutron magnetic moment, it may also be wrong about the g-factor's accuracy.

The Aether Physics Model g-factor in subatomic particles is proportional to other subatomic particles' mass and magnetic moment. For example:

\begin{equation}\frac{{{g_p} \cdot {m_e} \cdot emag}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_p} \cdot pmag}} = 1 \end{equation}

This is true when using the Aether Physics Model value for the neutron g-factor:

\begin{equation}\frac{{ - 3.831359 \cdot {m_e} \cdot emag}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_n} \cdot nmag}} = 1 \end{equation}

Now let’s see what happens when we substitute the magnetic moment values from the Standard Model. When comparing the electron to proton values, we get unity:

\begin{equation}\frac{{{g_p} \cdot {m_e} \cdot {\mu _e}}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_p} \cdot {\mu _p}}} = 1 \end{equation}

But when we compare the Standard Model values for the g-factors and magnetic moments between the neutron and electron, we get:

\begin{equation}\frac{{ - 3.82609 \cdot {m_e} \cdot {\mu _e}}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_n} \cdot {\mu _n}}} = 0.998627 \end{equation}

Even using the Aether Physics Model g-factor does not get unity, but it does get closer than the Standard Model g-factor:

\begin{equation}\frac{{ - 3.831359 \cdot {m_e} \cdot emag}}{{{g_e} \cdot {m_n} \cdot nmag}} = 1.000002 \end{equation}

This may be evidence favoring the Aether Physics Model’s proportionally derived neutron g-factor.

To see how the g-factor relates to the subatomic particle geometry, we can look at a graph of the Compton function, which shows the geometry of the Aether paths taken by photons as viewed from the z-axis of time.

According to equation (\ref{phi1}), the electron g-factor is equal to:

\begin{equation}{g_e} = \frac{2}{{\sin \left( {Phi} \right)}} \end{equation}

In the graph above, triangle side $b$ is a unit length equal to the sphere's radius on which the cardioid path rests. As seen, side $a$ is half the unit length, and side $c$ is the hypotenuse of the right triangle $\Delta abc$. $\Delta abc$ is a special form of right triangle where side $b$ is twice side $a$, which we can call a ${Phi}$ triangle (it is not a Golden triangle).

The ${Phi}$ triangle is so named because in a unit triangle where $b = 1$, then

\begin{equation}c + a = Phi \end{equation}

and

\begin{equation}c - a = phi \end{equation}

where ${Phi}$ is the golden ratio and ${phi}$ is its reciprocal. This is easily proved by substituting the Pythagorean expression for $c$ and $a$ in terms of unit length $b$:

\begin{equation}\sqrt {{b^2} + {{\left( {\frac{b}{2}} \right)}^2}} + \frac{b}{2} = Phi \end{equation}

Since $b = 1$, we get:

\begin{equation}\sqrt {1 + \frac{1}{4}} + \frac{1}{2} = Phi \end{equation}

\begin{equation}1.118 + .5 = 1.618 = Phi \end{equation}

The value for ${phi}$ similarly reduces to:

\begin{equation}1.118 - .5 = 0.618 = phi \end{equation}

Therefore, the electron g-factor is equal to:

\begin{equation}\frac{2}{{\sin \left( {c + a} \right)}} = {g_e} \end{equation}

And the proton g-factor is equal to:

\begin{equation}\frac{{2\left( {c + a} \right)}}{{\sin \left( {c - a} \right)}} = {g_p} \end{equation}

Does the sine of ${c + a}$ or ${c - a}$ have a real meaning? While it presents interesting possibilities regarding similarities in the g-factor equation structure and the Compton function structure, which pertains particularly to photons, we do not conclude at this time concerning the $ Phi$-based g-factor equations and Aether. It may be possible to link the two, but the work remains unfinished. Linking the g-factor equation with Aether would greatly assist the understanding of magnetic moment and gyromagnetic ratio.

### Gyromagnetic Ratio

The gyromagnetic ratio of the electron expresses in quantum measurements with single-dimension charge as:

\begin{equation}{\gamma _e} = \frac{e}{{{m_e}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_e}}}{2} \end{equation}

Converted to distributed dimensions of charge, the electron gyromagnetic ratio expresses as:

\begin{equation}egmr = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{{m_e}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_e}}}{2} \end{equation}

The analysis of gyromagnetic ratio is that the interaction of electrostatic charge of the Aether per mass of the subatomic particle times the offset of spin for a half-spin subatomic particle (as quantified by the g-factor), causes the subatomic particle to precess.

Similarly, quantum measurements apply to the proton and neutron gyromagnetic ratios.

\begin{equation}pgmr = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{{m_p}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_p}}}{2} \end{equation}

\begin{equation}ngmr = \frac{{{e^2}}}{{{m_n}}} \cdot \frac{{{g_n}}}{2} \end{equation}

The neutron g-factor is the Aether Physics Model neutron g-factor and not the NIST neutron g-factor.

Any subatomic particle's gyromagnetic ratio is a function of its electrostatic charge-to-mass ratio and spin position offset or its precession.

### Aether Pressure and Density

The velocity of a wave in any medium is equal to the square root of the pressure divided by the mass density of the medium. Since we already know the velocity of photons through the Aether, we can derive the pressure and mass density of the Aether.

\begin{equation}{c^2} = \frac{{pres}}{{masd}} \end{equation}

Using quantum measurements, the pressure is equal to:

\begin{equation}pres = \frac{{{m_e} \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} = 5.732 \times {10^{21}}\frac{{kg}}{{m \cdot se{c^2}}} \end{equation}

While the mass density is:

\begin{equation}masd = \frac{{{m_e}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}} = 6.377 \times {10^4}\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}} \end{equation}

However, the mass density in equation (7.88) is for the electron. The mass density and pressure for the Aether is:

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l} masd = \frac{{{m_a}}}{{{\lambda _C}^3}} = 2.288 \times {10^{50}}\frac{{kg}}{{{m^3}}} \\ pres = \frac{{{m_a}\cdot{F_q}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}}} = 2.056 \times {10^{67}}\frac{{kg}}{{m\cdot se{c^2}}} \\ \end{array} \end{equation}

At first, it seems improbable that such a mass density could exist. However, the mass associated with the Aether that acts gravitationally is reciprocal to physical mass and refers to the maximum mass the Aether can contain; therefore, it is the ability of the Aether to produce mass density. Frequency is the reciprocal of time and relates to time but is not the same thing, and the same holds for the reciprocal of mass. Reciprocal mass defines poorly in the Standard Model, if at all.

[1] Tesla Coil - An air-core transformer that is used as a source of high-frequency power, as for x-ray tubes. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company. The Tesla coil is named after Nikola Tesla, a Serbian born US citizen who also invented the polyphase electric motor.

[2] "INTERFERENCE. The variation of wave amplitude with distance or time, caused by the superposition of two or more waves." Van Nostrond Company, Inc., Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1968) 887.

[3] Stefan Schmidt and Harald Walach, "Electrodermal Activity (Eda) -- State-of-the-Art Measurement and Techniques for Parapsychological Purposes," The Journal of Parapsychology 64.2 (2000): 139

[4] Fowler, C.M. Losses in magnetic flux compression generators: Part 2, Radiation losses (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA), Report number LA-9956-MS-Pt.2, 1988 Jun 01)

[5] Experiments have shown that a quantum conductance does exist in multiwalled carbon nanotubes. In one experiment the quantum conductance was shown to be, “The conductance of arc-produced MWNTs is one unit of the conductance quantum G0 = 2e2/h = (12.9 kilohms)-1.” This value differs from the theoretical value by a factor of 2.725. Frank, Stefan, Poncharal, Philippe, Wang, Z. L., Heer, Walt A. de Carbon Nanotube Quantum Resistors Science 1998 280: 1744-1746

[6] C. F. Tweney and L. E. C. Hughes, eds., Chambers's Technical Dictionary (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: W.& R. Chambers, 1958) 629.

[7] Max Planck, Where Is Science Going?, trans. James Murphy, 1st ed. (New York: Norton, 1932) 26-7.

[8] Max Planck, Where Is Science Going?, trans. James Murphy, 1st ed. (New York: Norton, 1932) 59.

[9] James G. Gilson, Fine Structure Constant, The fine structure constant, a 20th century mystery, http://www.maths.qmul.ac.uk/~jgg/page5.html

[10] NIST – Introduction to the constants for non-experts 1940-1960 http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/historical3.html