9. Unified Force Theory
Simple and Symmetrical Unified Force Theory
For over 100 years, physicists have searched for a Unified Force Theory to unify what the Standard Model calls the electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear, and gravitational forces. Because the Standard Model prefers to view the interaction of the forces in terms of “fields,” this soughtafter theory is often called the “unified field theory.” The Aether Physics Model reinterprets the nature of the three electrical forces and labels them the electrostatic force, the proportion of electric force (or weak interaction), and magnetic (strong) force, respectively, and unifies the electric forces with the gravitational force.
To understand the nature of the fundamental forces, it is necessary to understand the structures that manifest them. The Aether Physics Model sees all stable quantum matter (subatomic particles) as primary angular momentum encapsulated by Aether.
There are two types of charges: the electrostatic charge and the magnetic charge. The electrostatic charge has a spherical solid angle, which it inherits from the spherically distributed frequency dimensions of Aether. The magnetic charge has a steradian solid angle, which derives from the interaction of primary angular momentum with the conductance of the Aether.
Understanding how distributed charge angles are independent of distributed length geometry is essential to understanding the two types of charges. While the distributed charge relationship between charge solid angle of 1 and charge steradian solid angle $\left( {\frac{1}{{4\pi }}} \right)$ is ${4\pi }$, the surface area relationship between the sphere surface constant and toroid surface constant $\left( {4\pi } \right)$ is $\frac{1}{\pi }$. The two geometries do not have a direct relationship, as one applies to solid angle charges and the other to distributed length (surface area).
Further, a toroid can become spherical when its minor radius becomes very large and its major radius becomes very small. In such cases, even though the surface geometry is still that of a toroid, the steradian magnetic charge will behave as though it has a spherical solid angle.
The spherical electrostatic charge and the toroidal strong charge have a precise proportion, which is the “weak interaction,” or “charge ratio,” of the subatomic particle. Technically, the weak interaction is not an actual force, so only three fundamental forces exist.
The electrostatic charge is the “carrier” of the electrostatic force, and the strong charge is the “carrier” of the magnetic (strong) force. The magnetic charge is also directly proportional to the subatomic particle's mass (via its angular momentum) and links the gravitational and magnetic forces. In the end, all three forces are manifestations of the one Gforce. The charges and mass could be depicted as three colored glass panes through which we view a light. The same light illuminates each pane of glass, even though each color is different.
Elementary Charge
The physical elementary charge activates directly from the Aether electrostatic charge as the subatomic particle spins. The elementary charge squared has spherical geometry and arises from distributed frequency (resonance of time and spin parity direction) caused by the reciprocal (maximum) mass of the Gforce.
In the image at right, the Aether depicts two spheres, which arise as the oscillation of forward/backward time and right/left spin torque direction. Only one subatomic particle can exist in any given Aether unit at a given moment. In addition, each subatomic must take a particular spin position, depending on its mass and direction of spin torque.
In the Standard Model of physics, the charge is expressed with a single dimension. However, since all charge always appears as distributed^{[85]}, the Aether Physics Model expresses all charge in distributed dimensions. The elementary charge has been measured and is $1.602 \times {10^{  19}}coul$. The symbol for the elementary charge is $e$.
The elementary charge in the Aether Physics Model is expressed as ${e^2}$, which we call “electrostatic charge.” Thus, the value for electrostatic charge in the Aether Physics Model is:
\begin{equation}{e^2} = 2.567 \times {10^{  38}}cou{l^2} \end{equation}
In cgs units, ${e^2}$ is equal to: ${e^2} = 2.307 \times {10^{  19}}\frac{{gm \cdot c{m^3}}}{{se{c^2}}}$ The $cm^{3}/sec^{2}$ dimensions are similar to the Aether double cardioid unit. 
Expressing all electrostatic charges as ${e^2}$ does not change its relative value. All units involving charge adjust accordingly.
Changing elementary charges to distributed units is not an arbitrary decision. First, it reflects reality as electrostatic charge distributes evenly over a surface. Second, distributed charge implies from Aether geometry (as explained by angular momentum spinning in Aether conductance). Third, expressing all charges as distributed is the key to the Unified Force Theory. It is interesting to note that Charles Coulomb correctly observed that all charge distributes, even though charge units did not express in distributed dimensions during his time. If he and his peers had expressed charge in distributed dimensions, they would have discovered the Unified Force Theory over 100 years ago.
Magnetic Charge
Charles Coulomb came very close to discovering the magnetic charge:
I wished to use the same method to determine the attractive force between two balls charged with a different nature of electricity. Still, by using this same balance to measure the attractive force, I found an experimental difficulty that did not occur when calculating the repulsive force. The experimental difficulty arises when the two balls are drawn near to each other. The attractive force, which increases, as we have seen, according to the inverse square law of distances, frequently increases at a greater rate than the torsional force, which increases only directly as the angle of twist…[1]
Had Coulomb considered that there are two different types of charge, he would have noticed that the second charge is magnetic (as opposed to the electrostatic charge). In addition, he could have expressed the force law for this other type of charge in terms of a modified inverse square law of distances (as done in the Aether Physics Model).
Another near discovery of magnetic charge occurred when Arnold Sommerfeld and Peter Debye quantified magnetic charge as a magnetic quantum number. They asserted the magnetic quantum number was a component of angular momentum in the magnetic field's direction and could only take values in multiples of Planck's constant.[1.5]
In a paper by Arnold Sommerfeld published in Science Vol. 113 in 1951, Sommerfeld commented:
It is to be hoped that once the connection between $e$ and $h$, established through the value $\alpha$, is theoretically clarified, it will lead to a more thorough understanding of the relations that seem to exist between the quantum charge ($e$) and the quantum of action ($h$).[1.75}]
As it is, modern physics recognizes only one type of charge, and consequently, the magnetic force (strong force) poorly describes in terms of particles called gluons[2].
Before quantifying magnetic charge, we note that the conductance of the Aether derives from Coulomb’s constant and its relationship to the other known constants of the “vacuum”:
\begin{equation}Cd = \frac{{{k_C} \cdot {\varepsilon _0}}}{{c \cdot {\mu _0}}} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}Cd = 2.112 \times {10^{  4}}\frac{{sec \cdot cou{l^2}}}{{kg \cdot {m^2}}} \end{equation}
Scant literature describes Aether's conductance (vacuum, free space, quantum foam) in modern physics. Conductance "measures a material's ability to conduct electric charge.”[3] Electrons do “conduct” through the Aether, as observed when electrons travel in the space between the Sun and Earth. Electrons also pass through Aether in a vacuum tube. The conductance constant is a specific measure of the Aether’s ability to conduct magnetic charge.
Planck’s constant is equal to[4]:
\begin{equation}h = 6.626 \times {10^{  34}}\frac{{kg \cdot {m^2}}}{{sec}} \end{equation}
Planck’s constant generally defines in modern physics as “The constant of proportionality relating the energy of a photon to the frequency of that photon.”[5] The Standard Model has missed the fact that Planck’s constant is the mechanical quantification of the electron. Also, as described in the photon section of the Angular Momentum chapter, speaking of the photon's energy in terms of Planck's constant negates the quantum nature of the photon.
The magnetic charge is then calculated as:
\begin{equation}h \cdot Cd = {e_{emax}}^2 \end{equation}
\begin{equation}{e_{emax}}^2 = 1.400 \times {10^{  37}}cou{l^2} \end{equation}
where ${e_{emax}}^2$ is the magnetic charge. The magnetic charge, like the electrostatic charge, is distributed.
Unlike electrostatic charge, each subatomic particle has a magnetic charge value proportional to its mass. This is because the magnetic charge depends on the angular momentum of the subatomic particle, and the Aether length and frequency dimensions are quantum measurements. Magnetic charge notates as ${e_{emax}}^2$ for the electron, ${e_{pmax}}^2$ for the proton, and ${e_{nmax}}^2$ for the neutron.
“Weak Interaction”
The proportion of the electrostatic charge to magnetic charge equals $8\pi $ times the fine structure of the subatomic particle.
\begin{equation}\label{WIelec}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2}} = 8\pi \alpha \end{equation}
The significance of this proportion is that it represents the "weak interaction" of the subatomic particle. Because each subatomic particle has its magnetic charge, it will also have its own "weak interaction" constant.
\begin{equation}\label{WIprot}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{pmax}}^2}} = 8\pi p \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\label{WIneut}\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{nmax}}^2}} = 8\pi n \end{equation}
Equations (\ref{WIelec}) through (\ref{WIneut}) represent the unified charge equations for each subatomic particle. These equations are the basis for a mathematically correct Unified Force Theory.
The Aether Physics Model shows that the weak interaction is merely the proportion of the electrostatic force to the magnetic force. When the relative strengths of distributed charge carriers are analyzed, we find an electrostatic charge to be 10,000 times weaker than the magnetic charge. However, since the Standard Model views charge in a single dimension, it appears as only 100 times weaker.
The unified charge equations dictate a general geometry for the subatomic particle.
Charge Proportions
The graphic above illustrates the two charges of the electron as their solid angles proportionally relate to each other. It is important to remember that the graphic is only for conceptualizing the solid angles; it does not represent the actual shape of an electron.
The electrostatic charge has a solid angle of 1 (tiny yellow sphere in the center of the light green sphere), while the strong charge has the solid angle of a steradian (projected as the dark green band).
The magnetic charge has a solid angle equal to $\frac{1}{{4\pi }}$ of the spherical electrostatic charge. What this means is that the distribution of the electrostatic charge is spherical, whereas the distribution of the magnetic charge is $\frac{1}{{4\pi }}$ of an equivalent magnetic charge, 1spin sphere.
Again, the electrostatic charge has 1spin due to its relation to the Aether spherical distributed frequency. The magnetic charge has ½ spin due to the ½ spin of the angular momentum, so multiplying ½ spin by two converts ½ spin to 1spin. Now, multiplying the steradian solid angle of magnetic charge by ${4\pi }$ converts the steradian solid angle of the magnetic charge to a solid angle sphere.
To keep track of the geometry of the charge, we could introduce a geometrical symbolism.
${\rm O} = $Spherical geometry $\Omega = $½ spin steradian geometry $\Theta = $1spin steradian geometry 
\[\begin{array}{l} {e^2} = {\rm O} \\ {e_{emax}}^2 = \Omega \\ {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 2 = \Theta \\ {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 2 \cdot 4\pi = {\rm O} \\ \end{array}\]
The proportion of the electron electrostatic charge sphere to the electron magnetic charge sphere is $\alpha$, the fine structure constant of the electron.
\begin{equation}\label{sphere1}\frac{{{e^2}{\rm O}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2{\rm O}}} = \alpha\end{equation}
Equation (\ref{sphere1}) is the same as equation (\ref{sphere2}).
\begin{equation}\label{sphere2}\frac{{{e^2}{\rm O}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2\Omega \cdot 2 \cdot 4\pi }} = \alpha \end{equation}
Unified Force Theory Laws
There are three actual fundamental forces: the gravitational, electrostatic, and magnetic forces. The weak interaction is not a force at all. The gravitational force is proportional to the magnetic force by the masstomagnetic charge ratio. The electrostatic force, weak interaction, and magnetic force all work together. The electrostatic force law works for the electrostatic charge at a relatively long distance but not at a very close distance. Also, the magnetic force law works for the magnetic charge at a very close distance but not at a relatively long distance. The two forces tradeoff, depending on the distance between the charged bodies.
After completing the nuclear binding energy equation, we can predict that it will include elements of both the electrostatic and magnetic force laws. It will also likely include the weak interaction as a term.
Electrostatic Force Law
The Coulomb law is the law governing the force between electrostatic charges. Coulomb’s experiments with the torsion balance involved spherical surfaces and aimed to maximize electrostatic potential. The force between the spheres increases as the electrostatic charge is applied to the spheres. The charged spheres would then attract (if opposite charged) or repel (if like charged) and thus would move a specific distance. The experiment showed that the distance squared was inversely proportional to the amount of the electrostatic charges:
\begin{equation}\label{kClaw}{k_C}\frac{{e \cdot e}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}
In equation (\ref{kClaw}), where ${k_C}$ is Coulomb’s electrostatic constant, $e$ represents the electrostatic charge, $L$ is the distance between the charges, and $F$ is the resultant force.
Coulomb noticed that the above law does not hold when the charges draw closer. The Aether Physics Model indicates that the magnetic charge begins to take over. The boundary between the electrostatic charge dominance and the magnetic charge dominance is gradual. The balance between these two forces results in the weak interaction.
Gravitational Law
Since the gravitational force is experienced by all matter in the universe, from the largest galaxies down to the smallest particles, it is often called universal gravitation. Sir Isaac Newton was the first to fully recognize that the force holding any object to the earth is the same as the force holding the moon, the planets, and other heavenly bodies in their orbits. According to Newton's law of universal gravitation, the force between any two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The constant of proportionality in this law is known as the gravitational constant; the symbol G usually represents it and has the value $6.672 \times {10^{  11}}\frac{{{m^3}}}{{kg \cdot se{c^2}}}$ in the meterkilogramsecond (mks) system of units. Very accurate early measurements of the value of G were made by Henry Cavendish.[7]
\begin{equation}\label{gravlaw}G\frac{{{M_1} \cdot {M_2}}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}
In equation (\ref{gravlaw}), $G$ is the Newton gravitational constant, ${{M_1}}$ and ${{M_2}}$ are two masses, $L$ is the distance between the masses, and $F$ is the force between the masses.
Analyzing the constant G in terms of QMU, we learn that gravity is the tendency of the space quantum to fill with the maximum mass.
\begin{equation}G=\frac{{\lambda_C}^3\cdot {F_q}^2}{m_a}\end{equation}
When the maximum length density (mass per length) $\frac{m_a}{\lambda_C}$ has been reached, the Schwarzschild radius for a black hole has been reached, and the Aether and all the matter contained within it collapses into the Singularity.
Magnetic Force Law
The magnetic force law is unknown to modern physics. According to the Standard Model, the strong force (magnetic force) is “In physics, the force that holds particles together in the atomic nucleus and the force that holds quarks together in elementary particles.”[8] There is no practical equation for calculating the magnetic force in the Standard Model because there is no practical magnetic force carrier.
However, the magnetic force carrier in the Aether Physics Model is the magnetic charge. The magnetic charge quantifies as the angular momentum of the subatomic particle times the conductance of the Aether. Thus, the magnetic charge of the proton is equal to:
\begin{equation}{e_{pmax}}^2 = {h_p} \cdot Cd \end{equation}
The magnetic force of the proton is calculated using the magnetic force law, which is similar to that of the electrostatic force law and the gravitational law. As in the case of the electrostatic law, the product of two magnetic charges is calculated from a single dimension of each charge. Since the binding force causes the protons and neutrons to have large “minor radii” and small “major radii,” the subatomic particles may appear spherical. Thus, the force mediator is the Coulomb constant instead of the Aether unit constant.
\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{pmax}} \cdot {e_{pmax}}}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}
The magnetic force of the neutron is similarly calculated:
\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{nmax}} \cdot {e_{nmax}}}}{{{L^2}}} = F \end{equation}
The magnetic force law for free protons and free neutrons would probably integrate the Aether unit constant with the Coulomb constant. This is because free protons and free neutrons are more toroidal in shape. However, once they bind, their shape becomes more spherical.
Since the Aether always acts upon the magnetic charge, whether or not another subatomic particle is present, the magnetic force per subatomic particle is the magnetic force of a single subatomic particle (magnetic potential). In other words, the Aether acts on subatomic particles to produce force even when no other subatomic particle interacts with the force. This must be so since the subatomic particles have no proximity system that can sense when another subatomic particle is nearby and then react to it.
The total nuclear binding force is the sum of all forces acting upon subatomic particles in an atomic nucleus. The total force acting upon a single neutron at one quantum length, even though there are no other neutrons or protons nearby, is:
\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 1.839 \times {10^3}forc \end{equation}
The total magnetic force for an atomic nucleus of deuterium, however, is:
\begin{equation}\label{SFdeut}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{pmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} + {k_C}\frac{{{e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = 3675forc = 124newton \end{equation}
Coulomb’s constant appears in equation (\ref{SFdeut}) due to the spherical structure of the resulting nucleus. The nuclear magnetic force equation is then expressed as:
\begin{equation}\label{nukeforc}{k_C}\frac{{Z \cdot {e_{pmax}}^2 + N \cdot {e_{nmax}}^2}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = F \end{equation}
$Z$ is the number of protons, and $N$ is the number of neutrons in the nucleus. The nuclear magnetic force equation quantifies nuclear binding force. We can modify (\ref{nukeforc}) to produce a nuclear binding energy equation, which predicts the nuclear binding energy for all isotopes. (page 236)
As shown in the section on particle radii, the free proton has a very small “minor radius” and a very large “major radius.” Thus, a single hydrogen atom is both very thin and very wide. However, the magnetic charge causes the subatomic particle's major radius to contract when protons and neutrons bind. The major radius becomes much smaller, and the small one becomes larger. This causes the geometry of the magnetic charge to change from toroidal to spherical in geometry.

The two subatomic particles adjoining each other tend to squash into a single sphere, as in the graphic of the deuterium atom below.
As long as the total surface area of the subatomic particle remains exactly one quantum length squared, the subatomic particle can assume any shape without violating the conservation of angular momentum, mass, energy, or any other known conservation law.
When subatomic particles are relatively far apart, the Coulomb electrostatic constant mediates the spherical geometry charge. When protons and neutrons contact, Coulomb’s constant mediates spherical geometry charge. The shape change from toroidal to spherical does not occur to bound electrons within atoms, which have a mass of about 1836 times less than a proton or neutron.
Unified Force Theory Relative Force Strengths
A comparison of the Unified Force Theory calculated force carrier strengths to the empirically derived force carrier strengths of the Standard Model follows. The Standard Model attempts to describe force carriers in terms of particles.
Each force is carried by an elementary particle. The electromagnetic force, for instance, is mediated by the photon, the basic quantum of electromagnetic radiation. The strong force is mediated by the gluon, the weak force by the W and Z particles, and gravity is thought to be mediated by the graviton.[10]
To begin with, the Standard Model photon is not truly quantum. There is a different “sized” photon for each frequency of electromagnetic radiation. In addition, all force carriers in the Standard Model incorrectly express in terms of particles. If force carriers were truly particles, binding energy would equal the force carrier's force times the distance it travels. This is not the case. The concept of a force being a particle is meaningless.
The force carriers in the Aether Physics Model are the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass. The socalled “weak force” is just a proportion of the electrostatic charge to the magnetic charge. The true source of force in the Universe is the Gforce, which acts through Coulomb’s electrostatic constant, the magnetic charge constant (quantum Aether unit), and the Newton gravitational constant.
Here, we will determine the relative strengths of Gforce as it acts on the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and mass. But since the Standard Model experiments that determine the relative strengths of the forces are expressed in single dimension charge, we will have to compare the square root of APM charges to the Standard Model charges to observe the relative strengths.
We will begin with the electrostatic charge equation (\ref{esquared}), which equals one elementary charge in the Standard Model. The magnetic charges will now be compared in terms of electrostatic charge. The proton and neutron magnetic charges are each nearly 100 times greater in magnitude than the elementary charge, as determined by the Standard Model. The electron magnetic charge is only 2.335 times stronger than the elementary charge when we view the strength of singledimension charge. The Standard Model does not recognize the magnetic charge of the electron, but if it did, we would likely observe it in electron plasmas and superconduction.
\begin{equation}\label{esquared}\sqrt {{e^2}} = 1e \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\sqrt {{e_{pmax}}^2} = 100.058e \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\sqrt {{e_{nmax}}^2} = 100.127e \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\sqrt {{e_{emax}}^2} = 2.335e \end{equation}
Unified Force Theory Relative Charge Strengths  Standard Model Relative Force Carrier Strengths[11]  
Elementary Charge  $1$  $1$ 
Magnetic Charge  
Proton  $100.058$  $100$ 
Neutron  $100.127$  $100$ 
Electron  $2.335$  (Magnetic nuclear force of electron not recognized) 
Weak Interaction  
Proton  $9.988 \times {10^{  5}}$  $10 \times {10^{  5}}$ 
Neutron  $9.975 \times {10^{  5}}$  $10 \times {10^{  5}}$ 
Electron  $0.183$  (Weak interaction of electron not recognized) 
The weak nuclear interaction calculates for the proton and neutron as:
\begin{equation}8\pi p = 9.988 \times {10^{  5}} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}8\pi n = 9.975 \times {10^{  5}} \end{equation}
Since both results are ratios comparing the electrostatic charge to the strong charge, they remain just as they are. So, in comparing the electrostatic charge, magnetic charge, and weak interaction, the Aether Physics Model makes a direct hit when it predicts the relative strengths of the force carriers as seen by the Standard Model. For a more detailed comparison of the relative strengths of the forces, see our paper, Calculations of the Unified Force Theory:
https://www.aetherwizard.com/files/Calculations_UFT.pdf
More on the Magnetic Force
Compared to the electrostatic force between the protons, the magnetic force is 1,581,000 times stronger. The magnetic force is $10^{42}$ times greater compared to the gravitational force between the protons.
\begin{equation}\frac{{A_u\frac{{{e_{pmax}} \cdot {e_{pmax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}}{{{k_C}\frac{{e \cdot e}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}} = 1.581 \times {10^6} \end{equation}
\begin{equation}\frac{{A_u\frac{{{e_{pmax}} \cdot {e_{pmax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}}{{G\frac{{{m_p} \cdot {m_p}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}}} = 1.954 \times {10^{42}} \end{equation}
As in the case of the electron, the ratio of magnetic force between protons at one quantum distance to the gravitational force between protons is equal to the ratio of the mass associated with the Aether (maximum mass) to the mass of the proton:
\begin{equation}\frac{{{m_a}}}{{{m_p}}} = 1.954 \times {10^{42}} \end{equation}
At one quantum distance, the magnetic force clearly rules. From the above equations, it is possible to find the distances where the forces are relatively equal. In the case of the proton magnetic force compared to the proton gravitational force, to equal the gravitational force between two protons at one quantum distance, two protons would have to be $3.391 \times {10^9}m$ apart to experience the same magnitude in the magnetic force. However, for the magnetic force to be in effect, the two protons would also have to be magnetically aligned with each other. One proton's south pole must face the other proton's north pole to effect a complete magnetic force attraction.
There is a popular myth that the magnetic force does not reach beyond a very short distance; however, this short reach is in appearance only. The magnetic force is so strong that after a certain distance, a subatomic particle must contend with the magnetic force carried by all other subatomic particles within force range. The effect is a type of magnetic suspension in space. Gravity would have a similar problem if it were both repulsive and attractive. However, since gravity is linear and always attractive (except to antimatter), it penetrates uniformly through all magnetic and electrostatic charges.
However, when a group of subatomic particles has all or most of its magnetic charge magnetically aligned (such as in a crystal), the magnetic force emerges more noticeably than the gravitational force and manifests as permanent magnetism. Most magnetic effects are due to electron magnetic alignment. Still, there are likely special cases (such as neutron stars) where the magnetism is due to the magnetic alignment of protons and/or neutrons.
Casimir Effect in the Unified Force Theory
"The Casimir effect is a small attractive force which acts between two close parallel uncharged conducting plates. It is due to quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field…," from "What is the Casimir Effect?" by Philip Gibbs[12]
Here is the equation for calculating the attractive Casimir force between two plates. The quantum length and area are used for measurement analysis, and the calculation is based on the distance separating the plates.
\begin{equation} \begin{aligned} L &= \lambda_C \\ A &= {\lambda_C}^2 \\ \frac{\pi \cdot h \cdot c}{480 \cdot L^4} \cdot A &= 2.208 \times 10^{4} \, \text{newton} \end{aligned} \end{equation}
The above equation was developed by Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir back in 1948. In 1996, an experiment conducted by Steven Lamoreaux confirmed the accuracy of the Casimir effect equation, with a margin of error of only 5%[13].
The above equation shows the ${h \cdot c}$ in the numerator. In the Aether Physics Model, ${h \cdot c}$ is equal to the unit of the photon.
"Casimir realised that between two plates, only those virtual photons whose wavelengths fit a whole number of times into the gap should be counted when calculating the vacuum energy," Gibbs said.
Including the APM unit for photons in the equation for the Casimir Effect is not a mistake. However, it will be demonstrated shortly that the "virtual photons" are a mathematical manifestation of the magnetic force acting on the magnetic charge of the electron.
Using the Aether Physics Model, let us modify Casimir’s equation by replacing ${h \cdot c}$ with the $phtn$ unit and express the force in units of $forc$.
\begin{equation}\frac{{\pi \cdot phtn \cdot A}}{{480 \cdot {L^4}}} = 6.545 \times {10^{  3}}forc \end{equation}
The numerical terms produce an identity because we have chosen the quantum distance for $L$ and the quantum distance squared for $A$.
\begin{equation}\frac{\pi }{{480}} = 6.545 \times {10^{  3}} \end{equation}
The numerical $\pi $ divided by ${480}$ is too close to $\frac{1}{{16{\pi ^2}}} = 6.333 \times {10^{  3}}$ to ignore. Could it be that the Casimir equation was calculated or inferred incorrectly? Perhaps it should be:
\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn \cdot A}}{{16{\pi ^2} \cdot {L^4}}} = 6.33 \times {10^{  3}}forc \end{equation}
A comparison of the numerical term in the original Casimir equation to the assumed ${16{\pi ^2}}$ numerical term gives:
\begin{equation}\frac{{6.545}}{{6.333}} = 1.033 \end{equation}
The Casimir value is just 3.3% greater than the ${16{\pi ^2}}$ value. In 1996, Steven Lamoreaux empirically measured the Casimir Effect to be within 5% of the Casimir equation. Therefore, the assumed ${16{\pi ^2}}$ value could be correct.
What's the point of this exercise? ${16{\pi ^2}}$ is the geometrical constant of the Aether in the Aether Physics Model. According to an article about the Casimir effect research of U. Mohideen and Anushree Roy, published in the Physical Review[14],
“...the most puzzling aspect of the theory is that the [Casimir] force depends on geometry: If hemispherical shells replace the plates, the force is repulsive. Spherical surfaces somehow "enhance" the number of virtual photons."
The shape of ${16{\pi ^2}}$ is a double loxodrome equal to the spherical constant squared. As shown in the neutron equation for the neutrino (page 186), Aether folds according to its spherical geometry to trap the angular momentum known in the Standard Model as the antineutrino.
Of further interest is that $\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}}$ is equal to the magnetic charge of the electron times Coulomb's constant.
\begin{equation}\frac{{phtn}}{{16{\pi ^2}}} = {k_C} \cdot {e_{emax}}^2 \end{equation}
So the Casimir equation can transpose as:
\begin{equation}{k_C}\frac{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot A}}{{{L^4}}} = 6.333 \times {10^{  3}}forc \end{equation}
And so, it appears that the Casimir effect results from the electron magnetic charge of the electrons in the metal plates affecting each other through a form of Coulomb's law. But Lamoreaux clearly states in his paper, “There was no evidence for a $\frac{1}{{{a^2}}}$ force in any of the data….”137 But even though the force is not an inverse square force, it does increase rapidly with the closer distances, as he writes, “The Casimir force is nonlinear and increases rapidly at distances less than $0.5\mu m$.” This is consistent with the magnetic force law as it increases according to the inverse square law, but at a rate ${16{\pi ^2}}$ times sharper than the electrostatic force.
Taking the area and lengths to be the quantum length, the adjusted Casimir equation transposes and simplifies as the Aether Physics Model magnetic force equation for the electron:
\begin{equation}{A_u}\frac{{{e_{emax}} \cdot {e_{emax}}}}{{{\lambda _C}^2}} = forc \end{equation}
So the success of the Casimir effect experiments is evidence of the existence of the magnetic charge of the electron, as well as the electron magnetic force law. The experiments also provide evidence to support the Aether Physics Model’s assertion that the photon is equal to the angular momentum of the electron times the speed of photons.
To calculate the force between two Casimir plates, measure the magnetic charge of each plate, divide by the distance between them squared, and multiply by the Aether constant. The magnetic charge is easy to calculate because it is always proportional to the mass. In the Casimir effect experiment, the mass is that of the free electrons placed on each plate.
Another observation about Lamoreaux’s experiment:
With the Casimir plates separated but externally shorted together, there was an apparent shockingly large potential of 430 mV; there are roughly 40 separate electrical connections in this loop and a potential this large is consistent with what is expected for the various metallic contacts. This potential was easily canceled by setting an applied voltage between the plates to give a minimum dV; this applied voltage was taken as “zero” in regard to the calibration.
The “apparently shockingly large potential of 430 mV” seemed anomalous because only 300 mV had been applied to the plates. Instead of interpreting the increased potential as an artifact of the Casimir effect, Lamoreaux sought to dismiss it as the result of various metallic contacts. Lamoreaux did not explain exactly what physical principle he thought produced the increased potential. He would have been careful enough to avoid thermoelectric effects, so what process he thought caused the extra 130mV of potential across shorted plates is unclear.
An alternative to the “40 separate electrical connections” explanation is that photons emerged from the Aether between the plates. The angular momentum for the photons would have come from between the Aether units (dark matter), as described in the neutrino section (page 186). Thus, there is a conservation of angular momentum.
It may have been that the short between the plates provided a resistance load. That may have converted the photons into electrons via the photoelectric effect, in which case the electrons flowed to balance the opposite potentials of the plates.
[1] Coulomb, Charles Augustin Institut de France, Mémoires de l’ Académie des Sciences (1785) 569ff, 578ff [as published in Shamos, Morris H. Great Experiments in Physics; Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein (New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1987) 65]
[1.5] Sir Edmund Whittaker: A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity; The Classical Theories (London; New York, American Institute of Physics, 1987) Vol. 2, 129
[1.75] Journal Article, A. Sommerfeld, F. Bopp; Fifty Years of Quantum Theory; Science (1951), Vol. 113. 8592; 2926, doi:10.1126/science.113.2926.85, https://www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/science.113.2926.85
[2] Gluon, an elementary particle that mediates, or carries, the strong, or nuclear, force. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory of strong interactions, the interaction of quarks (to form protons, neutrons, and other elementary particles) is described in terms of gluons—so called because they “glue” the quarks together. Gluons are massless, travel at the speed of light, and possess a property called color. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003
[3] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
[4] The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty http://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?hsearch_for=planck+constant
[5] The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
[6] Photo from http://www.wpcmath.com/arts/coulomb.gif
[7] "Gravitation ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.
[8] The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
[9] Intrinsic Shape of the Deuteron, Jefferson Labs (Nuclear Highlights) http://www.jlab.org/highlights/nuclear/Nuclear.html
[10] "Elementary Particles ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.
[11] The relative strengths of the forces differ widely from source to source. The values shown here are from tables the author grew up with, but no longer has reference to. Most sources today quantify the relative strength between the strong force and electrostatic force as being equal to the fine structure constant, which is totally baseless. Some sources also show the relative strength between all the forces in terms of the electron fine structure constant.
[12] The Physics and Relativity FAQ, as a collection, is © 19922002 by Scott Chase, Michael Weiss, Philip Gibbs, Chris Hillman, and Nathan Urban. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Quantum/casimir.html
[13] Lamoreaux, Steven K., Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6 mm Range (Physical Review Letters, VOLUME 78, NUMBER 1, 1996)
[14] The Force of Empty Space (Focus, Physical Review, 1998) http://focus.aps.org/story/v2/st28
[15] Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler Gravitation (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1973) 407